Pathways & interactions
Groucho/transducin-like enhancer (IPR009146)
Short name: Groucho_enhance
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- WD40/YVTN repeat-like-containing domain superfamily (IPR015943)
- WD40-repeat-containing domain superfamily (IPR036322)
The Groucho (Gro)/transducin-like enhancers (TLE) are a family of evolutionarily conserved corepressor proteins that play a critical role in diverse developmental and cellular pathways, including lateral inhibition, segmentation, sex determination, dorsal/ventral pattern formation, terminal pattern formation, and eye development [PMID: 10831834].
The Gro/TLE family contain two highly conserved domains, a C-terminal WD-repeat domain and an N-terminal glutamine rich (Q) domain, in addition to a variable central region. The highly conserved Q domains are unique to the Gro/TLE family and are not found in other WD-repeat proteins. The variable region contains a loosely conserved CcN motif, consisting of putative cdc2 kinase (cdc2) and casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylation sites, as well as a nuclear localisation signal [PMID: 1303292]. The CcN motif is flanked by two poorly conserved regions, which are characteristically rich in either glycine and proline or serine and proline residues, GP and SP domains respectively.
Gro/TLE family proteins do not bind to DNA directly as they lack any DNA-binding domain. However, they are recruited to the template by DNA-bound repressor proteins. Gro/TLE Co-repressors assemble into high order oligomeric structures [PMID: 9334241] through their conserved Q domain - the Q domains are able to mediate both homo- and hetero-oligomerisation. The GP domain is able to recruit histone deacetylase to the template; this, together with other findings, shows that Gro/TLE proteins specifically associate with histones, and suggests that Gro/TLE Co-repressors negatively regulate transcription by inducing a silenced chromatin structure.
- PR01850 (GROUCHOFAMLY)