Galanin (IPR008174)

Short name: Galanin

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Domain relationships



Galanin is a peptide hormone that controls various biological activities [PMID: 1710578]. Galanin-like immuno-reactivity has been found in the central and peripheral nervous systems of mammals, with high concentrations demonstrated in discrete regions of the central nervous system, including the median eminence, hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, septum, neuro-intermediate lobe of the pituitary, and the spinal cord. Its localisation within neurosecretory granules suggests that galanin may function as a neurotransmitter, and it has been shown to coexist with a variety of other peptide and amine neurotransmitters within individual neurons [PMID: 2448788].

Although the precise physiological role of galanin is uncertain, it has a number of pharmacological properties: it stimulates food intake, when injected into the third ventricle of rats; it increases levels of plasma growth hormone and prolactin, and decreases dopamine levels in the median eminence [PMID: 2448788]; and infusion into humans results in hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, and inhibits pancreatic release of insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic peptide. Galanin also modulates smooth muscle contractility within the gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary tracts, all such activities suggesting that the hormone may play an important role in the nervous modulation of endocrine and smooth muscle function [PMID: 2448788].

Galanin is a 29 amino acid peptide processed from a larger precursor protein. Except in human, galanin is C-terminally amidated. Its sequence is highly conserved and the first 14 residues are identical in all currently known sequences.

GO terms

Biological Process

No terms assigned in this category.

Molecular Function

GO:0005179 hormone activity

Cellular Component

GO:0005576 extracellular region

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
PROSITE patterns