Transcription factor AP-2 gamma (IPR008123)
Short name: TF_AP2_gamma
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- Transcription factor AP-2 (IPR004979)
- Transcription factor AP-2 gamma (IPR008123)
Activator protein-2 (AP-2) transcription factors constitute a family of closely related and evolutionarily conserved proteins that bind to the DNA consensus sequence GCCNNNGGC and stimulate target gene transcription [PMID: 2010091, PMID: 1998122]. Four different isoforms of AP-2 have been identified in mammals, termed AP-2 alpha, beta, gamma and delta. Each family member shares a common structure, possessing a proline/glutamine-rich domain in the N-terminal region, which is responsible for transcriptional activation [PMID: 2010091], and a helix-span-helix domain in the C-terminal region, which mediates dimerisation and site-specific DNA binding [PMID: 1998122].
The AP-2 family have been shown to be critical regulators of gene expression during embryogenesis. They regulate the development of facial prominence and limb buds, and are essential for cranial closure and development of the lens [PMID: 11137286]; they have also been implicated in tumourigenesis. AP-2 protein expression levels have been found to affect cell transformation, tumour growth and metastasis, and may predict survival in some types of cancer [PMID: 9632718, PMID: 10864206]
AP-2 gamma was originally isolated from murine carcinoma cells [PMID: 8808408]. The gene was found to be expressed in several embryonic areas whose development can be affected by retinoids, such as the forebrain, face and limb buds [PMID: 8808408]. A human homologue has also been identified. The protein was initially termed AP-2.2, but has since been reclassified as AP-2 gamma.
- PR01751 (AP2CTNSCPFCT)