Mediator complex, subunit Med6 (IPR007018)
Short name: Mediator_Med6
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- Med6 core domain superfamily (IPR038566)
The Mediator complex is a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator functions as a bridge to convey information from gene-specific regulatory proteins to the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. The Mediator complex, having a compact conformation in its free form, is recruited to promoters by direct interactions with regulatory proteins and serves for the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factors. On recruitment the Mediator complex unfolds to an extended conformation and partially surrounds RNA polymerase II, specifically interacting with the unphosphorylated form of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II. The Mediator complex dissociates from the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme and stays at the promoter when transcriptional elongation begins.
The Mediator complex is composed of at least 31 subunits: MED1, MED4, MED6, MED7, MED8, MED9, MED10, MED11, MED12, MED13, MED13L, MED14, MED15, MED16, MED17, MED18, MED19, MED20, MED21, MED22, MED23, MED24, MED25, MED26, MED27, MED29, MED30, MED31, CCNC, CDK8 and CDC2L6/CDK11.
The subunits form at least three structurally distinct submodules. The head and the middle modules interact directly with RNA polymerase II, whereas the elongated tail module interacts with gene-specific regulatory proteins. Mediator containing the CDK8 module is less active than Mediator lacking this module in supporting transcriptional activation.
- The head module contains: MED6, MED8, MED11, SRB4/MED17, SRB5/MED18, ROX3/MED19, SRB2/MED20 and SRB6/MED22.
- The middle module contains: MED1, MED4, NUT1/MED5, MED7, CSE2/MED9, NUT2/MED10, SRB7/MED21 and SOH1/MED31. CSE2/MED9 interacts directly with MED4.
- The tail module contains: MED2, PGD1/MED3, RGR1/MED14, GAL11/MED15 and SIN4/MED16.
- The CDK8 module contains: MED12, MED13, CCNC and CDK8.
Individual preparations of the Mediator complex lacking one or more distinct subunits have been variously termed ARC, CRSP, DRIP, PC2, SMCC and TRAP.
Regulation of mRNA synthesis requires intermediary proteins that transduce regulatory signals from upstream transcriptional activator proteins to basal transcription machinery at the core promoter. Three types of intermediary factors that enable the basal transcription machinery to respond to transcriptional activator proteins bound to regulatory DNA sequences have been identified: (i) TAFIIs, which associate with TATA-binding protein (TBP) to form TFIID; (ii) mediator, which associates with RNA polymerase II to form a holo-polymerase; and (iii) coactivators such as human upstream stimulatory activity (USA), mammalian CBP/P300, yeast ADA complex, and HMG proteins. The interaction of these multiprotein complexes with activators and general transcription factors is essential for transcriptional regulation.
This family of proteins represent the transcriptional mediator protein subunit 6 that is required for activation of many RNA polymerase II promoters and which are conserved from yeast to humans [PMID: 9234719].