Family

DNA topoisomerase IV, subunit A, Gram-negative (IPR005742)

Short name: TopoIV_A_Gneg

Family relationships

None.

Description

DNA topoisomerases regulate the number of topological links between two DNA strands (i.e. change the number of superhelical turns) by catalysing transient single- or double-strand breaks, crossing the strands through one another, then resealing the breaks [PMID: 7770916]. These enzymes have several functions: to remove DNA supercoils during transcription and DNA replication; for strand breakage during recombination; for chromosome condensation; and to disentangle intertwined DNA during mitosis [PMID: 12042765, PMID: 11395412]. DNA topoisomerases are divided into two classes: type I enzymes (EC:5.99.1.2; topoisomerases I, III and V) break single-strand DNA, and type II enzymes (EC:5.99.1.3; topoisomerases II, IV and VI) break double-strand DNA [PMID: 12596227].

Type II topoisomerases are ATP-dependent enzymes, and can be subdivided according to their structure and reaction mechanisms: type IIA (topoisomerase II or gyrase, and topoisomerase IV) and type IIB (topoisomerase VI). These enzymes are responsible for relaxing supercoiled DNA as well as for introducing both negative and positive supercoils [PMID: 7980433].

This entry represents subunit A (parC) of topoisomerase IV from Gram negative bacteria. Topoisomerase IV primarily decatenates DNA and relaxes positive supercoils, which is important in bacteria, where the circular chromosome becomes catenated, or linked, during replication [PMID: 16023670]. Topoisomerase IV consists of two polypeptide subunits, parC (subunit A), which is homologous to gyrA of topoisomerase II, and parE (subunit B), which is homologous to gyrB of topoisomerase II.

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0006265 DNA topological change

Molecular Function

GO:0005524 ATP binding
GO:0003677 DNA binding
GO:0003918 DNA topoisomerase type II (ATP-hydrolyzing) activity

Cellular Component

GO:0005694 chromosome

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
HAMAP