Family

DNA topoisomerase I, bacterial-type (IPR005733)

Short name: TopoI_bac-type

Family relationships

Description

DNA topoisomerases regulate the number of topological links between two DNA strands (i.e. change the number of superhelical turns) by catalysing transient single- or double-strand breaks, crossing the strands through one another, then resealing the breaks [PMID: 7770916]. These enzymes have several functions: to remove DNA supercoils during transcription and DNA replication; for strand breakage during recombination; for chromosome condensation; and to disentangle intertwined DNA during mitosis [PMID: 12042765, PMID: 11395412]. DNA topoisomerases are divided into two classes: type I enzymes (EC:5.99.1.2; topoisomerases I, III and V) break single-strand DNA, and type II enzymes (EC:5.99.1.3; topoisomerases II, IV and VI) break double-strand DNA [PMID: 12596227].

Type I topoisomerases are ATP-independent enzymes (except for reverse gyrase), and can be subdivided according to their structure and reaction mechanisms: type IA (Topo IA; bacterial and archaeal topoisomerase I, topoisomerase III and reverse gyrase) and type IB (Topo IB; eukaryotic topoisomerase I and topoisomerase V). These enzymes are primarily responsible for relaxing positively and/or negatively supercoiled DNA, except for reverse gyrase, which can introduce positive supercoils into DNA. This function is vital for the processes of replication, transcription, and recombination. Unlike Topo IA enzymes, Topo IB enzymes do not require a single-stranded region of DNA or metal ions for their function. The type IB family of DNA topoisomerases includes eukaryotic nuclear topoisomerase I, topoisomerases of poxviruses, and bacterial versions of Topo IB [PMID: 17293019]. They belong to the superfamily of DNA breaking-rejoining enzymes, which share the same fold in their C-terminal catalytic domain and the overall reaction mechanism with tyrosine recombinases [PMID: 21087076,PMID: 9488644]. The C-terminal catalytic domain in topoisomerases is linked to a divergent N-terminal domain that shows no sequence or structure similarity to the N-terminal domains of tyrosine recombinases [PMID: 20644584,PMID: 17722649].

This entry describes topoisomerase I from bacteria, which is more closely related to archaeal than to eukaryotic topoisomerase I [PMID: 9748482]. Topoisomerase I is the major enzyme for relaxing negatively supercoiled DNA, and its presence is balanced by reverse gyrase, which can introduce negative supercoils. Prokaryotic topoisomerase I folds in an unusual way to give 4 distinct domains, enclosing a hole large enough to accommodate a double-stranded DNA segment. A tyrosine at the active site, which lies at the interface of 2 domains, is involved in transient breakage of a DNA strand, and the formation of a covalent protein-DNA intermediate through a 5'-phosphotyrosine linkage. The structure reveals a plausible mechanism by which this and related enzymes could catalyse the passage of one DNA strand through a transient break in another strand [PMID: 14604525]. Topoisomerase I require Mg2+ as a cofactor for catalysis to take place.

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0006265 DNA topological change

Molecular Function

GO:0003677 DNA binding
GO:0003917 DNA topoisomerase type I activity

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
TIGRFAMs