Transcription factor AP-2 (IPR004979)

Short name: TF_AP2

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships


Activator protein-2 (AP-2) transcription factors constitute a family of closely related and evolutionarily conserved proteins that bind to the DNA consensus sequence GCCNNNGGC and stimulate target gene transcription [PMID: 2010091, PMID: 1998122]. Four different isoforms of AP-2 have been identified in mammals, termed AP-2 alpha, beta, gamma and delta. Each family member shares a common structure, possessing a proline/glutamine-rich domain in the N-terminal region, which is responsible for transcriptional activation [PMID: 2010091], and a helix-span-helix domain in the C-terminal region, which mediates dimerisation and site-specific DNA binding [PMID: 1998122].

The AP-2 family have been shown to be critical regulators of gene expression during embryogenesis. They regulate the development of facial prominence and limb buds, and are essential for cranial closure and development of the lens [PMID: 11137286]; they have also been implicated in tumourigenesis. AP-2 protein expression levels have been found to affect cell transformation, tumour growth and metastasis, and may predict survival in some types of cancer [PMID: 9632718, PMID: 10864206]

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated

Molecular Function

GO:0003700 DNA-binding transcription factor activity

Cellular Component

GO:0005634 nucleus

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.