Somatostatin (IPR004250)

Short name: Somatostatin

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships



Somatostatin (SST) also known as somatotropin release-inhibiting factor (SRIF), is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Somatostatin, acting through the 5 somatostatin receptors, it has been found to regulate the secretion of various hormones such as pituitary growth hormone (GH) [PMID: 4879544], thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) [PMID: 15533778], prolactin [PMID: 210185], pituitary, insulin [PMID: 12511609] and glucagon [PMID: 10614629]. It also inhibits secretion in the intestine (including gastric acid in the stomach) [PMID: 12354575], pancreatic acinar cells and pancreatic beta-cells [PMID: 10614629, PMID: 12511609], cell proliferation [PMID: 15056499], stimulates absorption in the intestine and modulates smooth muscle contractility [PMID: 11897621]. Somatostatin has a wide distribution throughout the central nervous system as well as in peripheral tissues, for example in the pituitary, pancreas and stomach and is released from the hypothalamus. In the CNS, it is a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator activating a hyperpolarising K+ current and inhibiting Ca2+ influx, and is believed to play important roles in regulating locomotor activity and cognitive function. These various actions are mediated by a family of seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptors that comprise of five distinct subtypes: Somatostatin receptor 1 (SSTR1), Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), Somatostatin receptor 3 (SSTR3), Somatostatin receptor 4 (SSTR4) and Somatostatin receptor 5 (SSTR5) [PMID: 14507421, PMID: 7792934, PMID: 14507421].

This entry represents the somatostatin family, including somatostatin and cortistatin from humans.

GO terms

Biological Process

No terms assigned in this category.

Molecular Function

GO:0005179 hormone activity

Cellular Component

GO:0005576 extracellular region

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.