Actin family (IPR004000)
Short name: Actin
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- Actin family (IPR004000)
- Actin-like protein 6A (IPR029912)
- Actin-like protein 7A (IPR027679)
- Actin-like protein 7B (IPR027680)
- Actin-like protein 9 (IPR030074)
- Actin-related protein 1 family (IPR029909)
- Actin-related protein 10 (IPR027127)
- Actin-related protein 2 (IPR027306)
- Actin-related protein 3 (IPR015623)
- Actin-related protein 6 (IPR030054)
- Actin-related protein 7, plant (IPR027678)
- Actin-related protein 8/Plant actin-related protein 9 (IPR027668)
- Actin-related protein 9, fungi (IPR027665)
- Actin-related protein T1 (IPR030139)
- Actin-related protein T2 (IPR027666)
- Actin-related protein T3 (IPR030068)
- Plant actin-related protein 8 (IPR030071)
Actin [PMID: 1388079, PMID: 8448030] is a ubiquitous protein involved in the formation of filaments that are major components of the cytoskeleton. These filaments interact with myosin to produce a sliding effect, which is the basis of muscular contraction and many aspects of cell motility, including cytokinesis. Each actin protomer binds one molecule of ATP and has one high affinity site for either calcium or magnesium ions, as well as several low affinity sites. Actin exists as a monomer in low salt concentrations, but filaments form rapidly as salt concentration rises, with the consequent hydrolysis of ATP. Actin from many sources forms a tight complex with deoxyribonuclease (DNase I) although the significance of this is still unknown. The formation of this complex results in the inhibition of DNase I activity, and actin loses its ability to polymerise. It has been shown that an ATPase domain of actin shares similarity with ATPase domains of hexokinase and hsp70 proteins [PMID: 1828889, PMID: 1323828].
In vertebrates there are three groups of actin isoforms: alpha, beta and gamma. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins co-exists in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton and as mediators of internal cell motility. In plants there are many isoforms which are probably involved in a variety of functions such as cytoplasmic streaming, cell shape determination, tip growth, graviperception, cell wall deposition, etc.
Recently some divergent actin-like proteins have been identified in several species. These proteins include centractin (actin-RPV) from mammals, fungi yeast ACT5, Neurospora crassa ro-4) and Pneumocystis carinii, which seems to be a component of a multi-subunit centrosomal complex involved in microtubule based vesicle motility (this subfamily is known as ARP1); ARP2 subfamily, which includes chicken ACTL, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACT2, Drosophila melanogaster 14D and Caenorhabditis elegans actC; ARP3 subfamily, which includes actin 2 from mammals, Drosophila 66B, yeast ACT4 and Schizosaccharomyces pombe act2; and ARP4 subfamily, which includes yeast ACT3 and Drosophila 13E.