Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein (IPR003939)

Short name: TGFb1

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships


The transforming growth factors-beta constitute a family of multi-functional cytokines that regulate cell growth and differentiation [PMID: 8424942]. Many cells synthesise TGF-beta, and essentially all have specific receptors for this peptide [PMID: 2879635]. TGF-beta regulates the actions of many other peptide growth factors and determines a positive or negative direction of their effects.

The protein functions as a disulphide-linked homodimer. Its sequence is characterised by the presence of several C-terminal cysteine residues, which form interlocking disulphide links arranged in a knot-like topology. A similar "cystine-knot" arrangement has been noted in the structures of some enzyme inhibitors and neurotoxins that bind to voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, although the precise topology differs.

The three-dimensional structures of several members of the TGF-beta super-family have been deduced [PMID: 8819159, PMID: 8679613, PMID: 1631557]. TGF-beta genes are expressed differentially, suggesting that the various TGF- beta species may have distinct physiological roles in vivo.

The solution structure of human TGF-beta 1 was determined using multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with hybrid distance geometry/simulated annealing [PMID: 8679613]. The structure shows a high degree of similarity to that of TGF-beta 2, but with notable differences in structure and flexibility. Examination of TGF-beta 1 mRNA levels in adult murine tissues indicates that expression is predominant in spleen, lung and placenta [PMID: 2628730]. TGF-beta 1 is believed to play important roles in pathologic processes.

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0016049 cell growth

Molecular Function

GO:0005160 transforming growth factor beta receptor binding

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.