Galanin receptor 3 (IPR003908)

Short name: Galnin_3_rcpt

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships


Galanin is involved in a variety of physiological mechanisms and disease states, from appetite and neuroregeneration to seizures and pain [PMID: 17604107, PMID: 16052044]. The actions of galanin are mediated through interaction with specific membrane receptors. Three receptor subtypes have been identified; Galanin receptor 1 (GALR1), Galanin receptor 2 (GALR2) and Galanin receptor 3 (GAL3), all of which are rhodopsin-like GPCRs. They differ from one another in terms of their expression patterns, affinity for various peptide analogues and G protein-coupling specificity [PMID: 9578554, PMID: 8750821, PMID: 10689365]. In signaling, all can act via the Gi/o class [PMID: 9126874], whilst GAL2 also has Gq/11 as a major signaling route [PMID: 7682064].

Galanin receptors are widely distributed in a wide range of central nervous system (CNS), peripheral tissues and in the endocrine, mirroring the distribution of galanin [PMID: 2417156, PMID: 10619483]. Galanin receptors mediate a variety of physiological functions including inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion [PMID: 15670772], stimulation of growth hormone release [PMID: 1281259] and modulation of gastrointestinal motility [PMID: 8734340]. These receptors also modulate neuronal functions including memory, nociception, spinal reflexes and feeding [PMID: 10619483, PMID: 12769595]. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions, suggesting a role in the development and/or pathology of certain diseases. These include Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, diabetes, alcoholism, neuropathic pain and cancer [PMID: 23233848, PMID: 2463283, PMID: 2471574].

This entry represents galanin receptor 3 subtype, which is expressed abundantly in the periphery and at lower levels in the CNS. In the brain, the highest levels have been found in the hypothalamus and pituitary [PMID: 9405385]. Expression has also been detected in peripheral tissues, including the pancreas, liver, kidney, stomach, adrenal gland, lung and spleen [PMID: 9722565].

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity

Molecular Function

GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity

Cellular Component

GO:0016021 integral component of membrane

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.