Clostridium enterotoxin (IPR003897)

Short name: Clenterotox

Overlapping homologous superfamilies

Family relationships



Clostridial species are one of the major causes of food poisoning/gastro-intestinal illnesses. They are Gram-positive, spore-forming rods that occur naturally in the soil [PMID: 8335373]. Among the family are: Clostridium botulinum, which produces one of the most potent toxins in existence; Clostridium tetani, causative agent of tetanus; and Clostridium perfringens, commonly found in wound infections and diarrhoea cases. The use of toxins to damage the host is a method deployed by many bacterial pathogens.

The major virulence factor of C. perfringens is the CPE enterotoxin, which is secreted upon invasion of the host gut, and contributes to food poisoning and other gastrointestinal illnesses [PMID: 8335373]. It has a molecular weight of 35.3kDa, and is responsible for the disintegration of tight junctions between endothelial cells in the gut [PMID: 9087440]. This mechanism is mediated by host claudins-3 and -4, situated at the tight junctions.

Two more host receptors have been characterised and expressed in vivo [PMID: 9334247]. Named CPE-R and RVP1, these may be utilised in the passage of Clostridial species through the gut wall, although the regulatory mechanisms have not been elucidated.

This entry also includes HA-70 from Clostridium botulinum C phage. The hemagglutinin (HA) components of the progenitor toxin protects the structural integrity of botulinum neurotoxin. The structure of HA70 from type C and D toxin (HA70/C/D) has been revealed [PMID: 22684008, PMID: 17581814].

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0009405 pathogenesis

Molecular Function

No terms assigned in this category.

Cellular Component

GO:0005576 extracellular region

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.