Domain

JmjC domain (IPR003347)

Short name: JmjC_dom

Domain relationships

None.

Description

The JmjN and JmjC domains are two non-adjacent domains which have been identified in the jumonji family of transcription factors. Although it was originally suggested that the JmjN and JmjC domains always co-occur and might form a single functional unit within the folded protein, the JmjC domain was latter found without the JmjN domain in organisms from bacteria to human [PMID: 10838566, PMID: 11165500].

Proteins containing JmjC domain are predicted to be metalloenzymes that adopt the cupin fold and are candidates for enzymes that regulate chromatin remodelling [PMID: 11165500]. The cupin fold is a flattened beta-barrel structure containing two sheets of five antiparallel beta strands that form the walls of a zinc-binding cleft. Based on the crystal structure of JmjC domain containing protein FIH and JHDM3A/JMJD2A, the JmjC domain forms an enzymatically active pocket that coordinates Fe(III) and alphaKG. Three amino-acid residues within the JmjC domain bind to the Fe(II) cofactor and two additional residues bind to alphaKG [PMID: 16983801].

JmjC domains were identified in numerous eukaryotic proteins containing domains typical of transcription factors, such as PHD, C2H2, ARID/BRIGHT and zinc fingers [PMID: 11165500, PMID: 12446723]. The JmjC has been shown to function in a histone demethylation mechanism that is conserved from yeast to human [PMID: 16362057]. JmjC domain proteins may be protein hydroxylases that catalyse a novel histone modification [PMID: 15809658]. The human JmjC protein named Tyw5p unexpectedly acts in the biosynthesis of a hypermodified nucleoside, hydroxy-wybutosine, in tRNA-Phe by catalysing hydroxylation [PMID: 20739293].

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
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Pfam