Pathways & interactions
Transcription factor Otx2 (IPR003022)
Short name: Otx2_TF
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- Transcription factor Otx (IPR003025)
- Transcription factor Otx2 (IPR003022)
Otx proteins constitute a class of vertebrate homeodomain-containing transcription factors that have been shown to be essential for anterior head formation, including brain morphogenesis. They are orthologous to the product of the Drosophila head gap gene, orthodenticle (Otd), and appear to play similar roles in both, since the developmental abnormalities caused by disruption of these transcription factors in one, can be recovered by substitution of the factor(s) from the other. Such studies have provided strong evidence that there exists a conserved genetic programme for insect and mammalian brain development, which presumably arose in a more primitive common ancestor [PMID: 10199636, PMID: 10440864].
Two vertebrate orthodenticle-related transcription factors have been indentified, Otx1 and Otx2, which have sizes of 355 and 289 residues respectively. They contain a bicoid-like homeodomain, which features a conserved lysine residue at position 9 of the DNA recognition helix, which is thought to confer high-affinity binding to TAATCC/T elements on DNA [PMID: 10375352]. Otd-like transcription factors have also been found in zebrafish and certain lamprey species.
Mice completely lacking Otx2 (due to targeted gene disruption) die during early embryogenesis. Analysis reveals that they lack the neuroectoderm that is destined to become the forebrain, midbrain and rostral hindbrain. They also show major abnormalities in their body plan. Mice that have artificially-reduced levels of Otx2 develop head abnormalities reminiscent of otocephaly [PMID: 7590242].
- PR01257 (OTX2HOMEOBOX)