Domain

Zinc finger, MYND-type (IPR002893)

Short name: Znf_MYND

Domain relationships

None.

Description

Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. Some of these domains bind zinc, but many do not; instead binding other metals such as iron, or no metal at all. For example, some family members form salt bridges to stabilise the finger-like folds. They were first identified as a DNA-binding motif in transcription factor TFIIIA from Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog), however they are now recognised to bind DNA, RNA, protein and/or lipid substrates [PMID: 10529348, PMID: 15963892, PMID: 15718139, PMID: 17210253, PMID: 12665246]. Their binding properties depend on the amino acid sequence of the finger domains and of the linker between fingers, as well as on the higher-order structures and the number of fingers. Znf domains are often found in clusters, where fingers can have different binding specificities. There are many superfamilies of Znf motifs, varying in both sequence and structure. They display considerable versatility in binding modes, even between members of the same class (e.g. some bind DNA, others protein), suggesting that Znf motifs are stable scaffolds that have evolved specialised functions. For example, Znf-containing proteins function in gene transcription, translation, mRNA trafficking, cytoskeleton organisation, epithelial development, cell adhesion, protein folding, chromatin remodelling and zinc sensing, to name but a few [PMID: 11179890]. Zinc-binding motifs are stable structures, and they rarely undergo conformational changes upon binding their target.

This entry represents MYND-type zinc finger domains. The MYND domain (myeloid, Nervy, and DEAF-1) is present in a large group of proteins that includes RP-8 (PDCD2), Nervy, and predicted proteins from Drosophila, mammals, Caenorhabditis elegans, yeast, and plants [PMID: 7498738, PMID: 8617243, PMID: 2072913]. The MYND domain consists of a cluster of cysteine and histidine residues, arranged with an invariant spacing to form a potential zinc-binding motif [PMID: 8617243]. Mutating conserved cysteine residues in the DEAF-1 MYND domain does not abolish DNA binding, which suggests that the MYND domain might be involved in protein-protein interactions [PMID: 8617243]. Indeed, the MYND domain of ETO/MTG8 interacts directly with the N-CoR and SMRT co-repressors [PMID: 9584201, PMID: 9819404]. Aberrant recruitment of co-repressor complexes and inappropriate transcriptional repression is believed to be a general mechanism of leukemogenesis caused by the t(8;21) translocations that fuse ETO with the acute myelogenous leukemia 1 (AML1) protein. ETO has been shown to be a co-repressor recruited by the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein [PMID: 10688654]. A divergent MYND domain present in the adenovirus E1A binding protein BS69 was also shown to interact with N-CoR and mediate transcriptional repression [PMID: 10734313]. The current evidence suggests that the MYND motif in mammalian proteins constitutes a protein-protein interaction domain that functions as a co-repressor-recruiting interface.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
PROSITE profiles
PROSITE patterns
Pfam