Pathways & interactions
Peptidase S9, serine active site (IPR002471)
Short name: Pept_S9_AS
Proteolytic enzymes that exploit serine in their catalytic activity are ubiquitous, being found in viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes [PMID: 7845208]. They include a wide range of peptidase activity, including exopeptidase, endopeptidase, oligopeptidase and omega-peptidase activity. Many families of serine protease have been identified, these being grouped into clans on the basis of structural similarity and other functional evidence [PMID: 7845208]. Structures are known for members of the clans and the structures indicate that some appear to be totally unrelated, suggesting different evolutionary origins for the serine peptidases [PMID: 7845208].
Not withstanding their different evolutionary origins, there are similarities in the reaction mechanisms of several peptidases. Chymotrypsin, subtilisin and carboxypeptidase C have a catalytic triad of serine, aspartate and histidine in common: serine acts as a nucleophile, aspartate as an electrophile, and histidine as a base [PMID: 7845208]. The geometric orientations of the catalytic residues are similar between families, despite different protein folds [PMID: 7845208]. The linear arrangements of the catalytic residues commonly reflect clan relationships. For example the catalytic triad in the chymotrypsin clan (PA) is ordered HDS, but is ordered DHS in the subtilisin clan (SB) and SDH in the carboxypeptidase clan (SC) [PMID: 7845208, PMID: 8439290].
This signature defines the active site of the serine peptidases belonging to MEROPS peptidase family S9 (prolyl oligopeptidase family, clan SC). The protein fold of the peptidase domain for members of this family resembles that of serine carboxypeptidase D, the type example of clan SC. Examples of protein families containing this active site are:
- Prolyl endopeptidase (EC:184.108.40.206) (PE) (also called post-proline cleaving enzyme). PE is an enzyme that cleaves peptide bonds on the C-terminal side of prolyl residues. The sequence of PE has been obtained from Sus scrofa (Pig) and from bacteria (Flavobacterium meningosepticum and Aeromonas hydrophila); there is a high degree of sequence conservation between these sequences.
- Escherichia coli protease II (EC:220.127.116.11) (oligopeptidase B) (gene prtB) which cleaves peptide bonds on the C-terminal side of lysyl and argininyl residues.
- Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (EC:18.104.22.168) (DPP IV). DPP IV is an enzyme that removes N-terminal dipeptides sequentially from polypeptides having unsubstituted N-termini provided that the penultimate residue is proline.
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) vacuolar dipeptidyl aminopeptidase A (DPAP A) (gene: STE13) which is responsible for the proteolytic maturation of the alpha-factor precursor.
- Yeast vacuolar dipeptidyl aminopeptidase B (DPAP B) (gene: DAP2).
- Acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme (EC:22.214.171.124) (acyl-peptide hydrolase). This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of the amino-terminal peptide bond of an N-acetylated protein to generate a N-acetylated amino acid and a protein with a free amino-terminus.
This signature contains the conserved serine residue that has been experimentally shown (in E. coli protease II as well as in pig and bacterial PE) to be necessary for the catalytic mechanism. This serine, which is part of the catalytic triad (Ser, His, Asp), is generally located about 150 residues away from the C-terminal extremity of these enzymes (which are all proteins that contain about 700 to 800 amino acids).
- PS00708 (PRO_ENDOPEP_SER)