Glucose transporter, type 2 (GLUT2) (IPR002440)
Short name: Glc_transpt_2
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- MFS transporter superfamily (IPR036259)
The ability to transport glucose across the plasma membrane is a feature common to nearly all cells, from simple bacteria through to highly specialised mammalian neurones. Facilitative sugar transport is mediated by members of the GLUT transporter family, which form an aqueous pore across the membrane through which sugars can move in a passive (i.e., energy-independent) manner; in consequence, they can only transport sugars down their concentration gradient. The GLUT family of glycosylated transmembrane proteins are predicted to span the membrane 12 times with both amino- and carboxyl-termini located in the cytosol. On the basis of sequence homology and structural similarity, three subclasses of sugar transporters have been defined: Class I (GLUTs 1-4) are glucose transporters; Class II (GLUTs 5, 7, 9 and 11) are fructose transporters; and Class III (GLUTs 6, 8, 10, 12 and HMIT1) are structurally atypical members of the GLUT family, which are poorly defined at present, indeed GLUT6 may only be a pseudo-gene [PMID: 2180146, PMID: 8366068, PMID: 3839598, PMID: 3170580,PMID: 9841639].
The confirmed isoforms are expressed in a tissue and cell-specific manner, and exhibit distinct kinetic and regulatory properties, presumably reflecting their specific functional roles. They belong to a much larger 'major facilitator superfamily' of 12 TM transporters that are involved in the transport of a variety of hexoses and other carbon compounds, and include: bacterial sugar-proton symporters (H+/xylose and H+/arabinose); bacterial transporters of carboxylic acids and antibiotics; and sugar transporters in various yeast, protozoa and higher plants. Nevertheless, amino acid identity within the superfamily may be as low as ~25% [PMID: 3543693, PMID: 8438231]. Besides the 12 presumed TM domains, the most characteristic structural feature of the superfamily is a five residue motif (RXGRR, where X is any amino acid). In the GLUT transporters, this motif is present in the presumed cytoplasmic loops connecting TM domains 2 with 3, and also 8 with 9. The 12 TM transporter superfamily appears to be structurally unrelated to the Na+-coupled, Na+/glucose co-transporters (SGLT1-3) found in the intestine and kidney, which are able to transport glucose against its concentration gradient [PMID: 2446136].
Comparison of the hydropathy profiles for GLUT1-5 reveals that they are virtually superimposable, despite the fact that their primary structures may differ by up to 60%. Of the presumed TM domains, the fourth, fifth and sixth are the most highly conserved, and conserved residues are also found in the short exofacial loops joining the putative TM regions. The presumed cytoplasmic N- and C-termini, and the extracellular loop between the first and second TM domains, show the greatest divergence, both in terms of primary structure and size.
GLUT2 is the major glucose transporter isoform expressed in hepatocytes, insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells, and absorptive epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa and kidney. It functions as a low affinity, high-turnover transport system; together with the enzyme glucokinase, it is thought to act as a glucose-sensing apparatus that plays a role in blood glucose homeostasis, by responding to changes in blood glucose concentration (such as might occur following a meal) and altering the rate of glucose uptake into liver cells, where it can be stored as glycogen. It consists of 524 amino acids (human isoform) and is ~55% identical to GLUT1 at the amino acid level. GLUT2 has received attention as a molecule that could be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Reductions in pancreatic beta cell GLUT2 levels have been observed in several animal models of diabetes, as well as human patients; whether this is causative, or an epiphenomenon remains to be resolved.
- PR01191 (GLUCTRSPORT2)