Family

Annexin A2 (IPR002389)

Short name: ANX2

Family relationships

  • Annexin (IPR001464)
    • Annexin A2 (IPR002389)

Description

The annexins (or lipocortins) are a family of proteins that bind to phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner [PMID: 1646719]. The 12 annexins common to vertebrates are classified in the annexin A family and named as annexins A1-A13 (or ANXA1-ANXA13), leaving A12 unassigned in the official nomenclature. Annexins outside vertebrates are classified into families B (in invertebrates), C (in fungi and some groups of unicellular eukaryotes), D (in plants), and E (in protists) [PMID: 15059252]. Annexins are absent from yeasts and prokaryotes [PMID: 15059252].

Most eukaryotic species have 1-20 annexin (ANX) genes. All annexins share a core domain made up of four similar repeats, each approximately 70 amino acids long [PMID: 1646719]. Each individual annexin repeat (sometimes referred to as endonexin folds) is folded into five alpha-helices, and in turn are wound into a right-handed super-helix; they usually contain a characteristic 'type 2' motif for binding calcium ions with the sequence 'GxGT-[38 residues]-D/E'. Animal and fungal annexins also have variable amino-terminal domains. The core domains of most vertebrate annexins have been analysed by X-ray crystallography, revealing conservation of their secondary and tertiary structures despite only 45-55% amino-acid identity among individual members. The four repeats pack into a structure that resembles a flattened disc, with a slightly convex surface on which the Ca 2+ -binding loops are located and a concave surface at which the amino and carboxyl termini come into close apposition.

Annexins are traditionally thought of as calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins, but recent work suggests a more complex set of functions. The famiy has been linked with inhibition of phospholipase activity, exocytosis and endoctyosis, signal transduction, organisation of the extracellular matrix, resistance to reactive oxygen species and DNA replication [PMID: 9797403].

This entry represents annexin A2 that binds two calcium ions and inhibits phospholipase A2, following dephosphorylation by protein kinases involved in the signal transduction pathway. They may also cross-link plasma membrane phospholipids with actin and the cytoskeleton, and possibly play a part in exocytosis, since they are also involved in granule aggregation and membrane fusion.

GO terms

Biological Process

No terms assigned in this category.

Molecular Function

GO:0005509 calcium ion binding
GO:0005544 calcium-dependent phospholipid binding
GO:0008092 cytoskeletal protein binding
GO:0004859 phospholipase inhibitor activity

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
PRINTS
PANTHER