Platelet-activating factor receptor (IPR002282)
Short name: PAF_rcpt
Overlapping homologous superfamilies
- G protein-coupled receptor, rhodopsin-like (IPR000276)
- Platelet-activating factor receptor (IPR002282)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a vast protein family that encompasses a wide range of functions, including various autocrine, paracrine and endocrine processes. They show considerable diversity at the sequence level, on the basis of which they can be separated into distinct groups [PMID: 12679517]. The term clan can be used to describe the GPCRs, as they embrace a group of families for which there are indications of evolutionary relationship, but between which there is no statistically significant similarity in sequence [PMID: 8170923]. The currently known clan members include rhodopsin-like GPCRs (Class A, GPCRA), secretin-like GPCRs (Class B, GPCRB), metabotropic glutamate receptor family (Class C, GPCRC), fungal mating pheromone receptors (Class D, GPCRD), cAMP receptors (Class E, GPCRE) and frizzled/smoothened (Class F, GPCRF) [PMID: 8170923, PMID: 8081729, PMID: 15914470, PMID: 18948278, PMID: 16753280]. GPCRs are major drug targets, and are consequently the subject of considerable research interest. It has been reported that the repertoire of GPCRs for endogenous ligands consists of approximately 400 receptors in humans and mice [PMID: 12679517]. Most GPCRs are identified on the basis of their DNA sequences, rather than the ligand they bind, those that are unmatched to known natural ligands are designated by as orphan GPCRs, or unclassified GPCRs [PMID: 23020293].
The rhodopsin-like GPCRs (GPCRA) represent a widespread protein family that includes hormone, neurotransmitter and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices [PMID: 2111655, PMID: 2830256, PMID: 8386361].
Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a unique phospholipid mediator, possesses potent proinflammatory, smooth-muscle contractile and hypotensive activities, and appears to be crucial in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and in the lethality of endotoxin and anaphylactic shock [PMID: 1846231, PMID: 1322356]. However, little is known of the molecular properties of the PAF receptor and related signal transduction systems [PMID: 1846231]. The gene for the human PAF receptor (PAFR) has been isolated, and encodes a protein that is highly similar to the guinea pig PAF receptor. Analysis of somatic cell hybrids suggests that PAFR is encoded by a single gene on human chromosome 1 [PMID: 1846231].
- PR01153 (PAFRECEPTOR)