Family

Dopamine D4 receptor (IPR002185)

Short name: Dopamine_D4_rcpt

Family relationships

Description

Dopamine receptors are members of the rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptor family and are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Dysfunction of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the CNS has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders [PMID: 15148138], including social phobia [PMID: 10698826], Tourette's syndrome [PMID: 16613557], Parkinson's disease [PMID: 17017512], schizophrenia [PMID: 16613557], neuroleptic malignant syndrome [PMID: 12555236], attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [PMID: 16961425] and drug and alcohol dependence [PMID: 16613557, PMID: 11920678]. As a result, dopamine receptors are common drug targets; antipsychotics are often dopamine receptor antagonists while psychostimulants are typically indirect agonists of dopamine receptors [PMID: 9633679, PMID: 16433053, PMID: 14060771, PMID: 1060115].

There are at least five different known subtypes of dopamine receptors designated D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 [PMID: 12836695]. They are distinguished by their G-protein coupling, ligand specificity, anatomical distribution and physiological effects. Dopamine receptors are divided into two further subfamilies. The D1-like family consists of D1 and D5 receptors, which couple to Gs and mediate excitatory neurotransmission. The D2-like family, meanwhile, consists of D2, D3 and D4 receptors, which couple to Gi/Go and mediate inhibitory neurotransmission. Although dopamine receptors are widely distributed in the brain, they are found in different locations that have different receptor type densities, presumably reflecting different functional roles [PMID: 9457173]. D1 and D2 receptor subtypes are found at 10-100 times the levels of the D3, D4, D5 subtypes [PMID: 16458973].

Dopamine D4 receptors have a similar pharmacological profile to D2 receptors. D4 receptors are expressed in the brain, predominantly in the medulla, amgdala, midbrain and frontal cortex; lower levels are found in the striatum and olfactory tubercle. D4 receptor mRNA has also been detected in peripheral tissues, and the protein appears to be expressed preferentially in the cardiovascular system in the rat. Dopamine D4 receptors may be involved in modulation of gastric acid secretion [PMID: 8152334]. Knockout studies have shown that mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors are supersensitive to a number of psychoactive substances, including ethanol, cocaine, and methamphetamine [PMID: 9323127].

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0007195 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway

Molecular Function

GO:0004952 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity

Cellular Component

GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
PANTHER
PRINTS