Family

Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate MARCKS (IPR002101)

Short name: MARCKS

Family relationships

None.

Description

Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) is a predominent cellular substrate for protein kinase C (PKC) that has been implicated in the regulation of brain development, macrophage activation, neuro-secretion and growth factor-dependent mitogenesis [PMID: 8420923, PMID: 11829734]. The N-terminal glycine is the site of myristoylation, which allows effective binding of the protein to the plasma membrane, where it co-localises with PKC [PMID: 2034276]. MARCKS binds calmodulin in a calcium-dependent manner; the region responsible for calcium-binding is highly basic, a domain of about 25 amino acids known as the PSD or effector domain, which also contains the PKC phosphorylation sites and has been shown to contribute to membrane binding. When not phosphorylated, the effector domain can bind to filamentous actin [PMID: 1560845]. It is believed that MARCKS may be a regulated crossbridge between actin and the plasma membrane; modulation of the actin cross-linking activity by calmodulin and phosphorylation, represent a potential convergence of the calcium-calmodulin and PKC signal transduction pathways in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. MARCKS also contains an MH2 domain of unknown function.

MARCKS-related protein (MRP) is similar to MARCKS in terms of properties such as its myristoylation, phosphorylation and calmodulin-binding, and shares a high degree of sequence similarity. The two regions that show the highest similarity are the kinase C phosphorylation site domain and the N-terminal region containing the myristoylation site [PMID: 1864362]. MARCKS and MRP amino acid compositions are similar, but the alanine content of the latter is lower. MARCKS proteins appear to adopt a native unfolded conformation i.e. as randomly folded chains arranged in non-classical extended conformations, in common with other substrates of PKC.

GO terms

Biological Process

No terms assigned in this category.

Molecular Function

GO:0005516 calmodulin binding

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
PANTHER
PRINTS
PROSITE patterns
PROSITE patterns
Pfam