Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor family (IPR001658)

Short name: GphnRH_fam_rcpt

Overlapping homologous superfamilies


Family relationships


Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), also known as luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) and luliberin, is synthesized and released from neurons within the hypothalamus [PMID: 11041448]. GnRH is a regulator of reproductive processes, and is responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary, playing an important role in the control of gonadal function and normal ovarian cyclicity [PMID: 4938639].

There are two major forms of receptor for GnRH, termed GnRHR [PMID: 4938639] and GnRHR2 [PMID: 9419371], which are members the rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. They are expressed on the surface of pituitary gonadotrope cells, as well as lymphocytes, breast, ovary and prostate [PMID: 7534732, PMID: 11713589, PMID: 6291912]. GnRHR and GnRHR2 couple primarily to Gq/11 [PMID: 10734055] but coupling to Gs and Gi in some systems [PMID: 12591945]. In addition, GnRHR2 may mediate G protein-independent signalling to protein kinases [PMID: 15059960].

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors are of potential therapeutic use in the suppression of prostate cancer and endometriosis, as they have been shown to exert antiproliferative and/or proapoptotic effects on hormone-dependent cancer cells and mediate the effects of cytotoxins [PMID: 15561800, PMID: 15613448, PMID: 14726258, PMID: 17237842], [PMID: 9894843]. They may also have application in a number of sex hormone-dependent conditions [PMID: 12072036, PMID: 15306097].

This entry represents the gonadotrophin releasing hormone receptor family and includes GnRHR and GnRHR2.

GO terms

Biological Process

GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway

Molecular Function

GO:0016500 protein-hormone receptor activity

Cellular Component

GO:0016021 integral component of membrane

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.