Dopamine D1 receptor (IPR001413)
Short name: Dopamine_D1_rcpt
Dopamine receptors are members of the rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptor family and are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Dysfunction of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the CNS has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders [PMID: 15148138], including social phobia [PMID: 10698826], Tourette's syndrome [PMID: 16613557], Parkinson's disease [PMID: 17017512], schizophrenia [PMID: 16613557], neuroleptic malignant syndrome [PMID: 12555236], attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [PMID: 16961425] and drug and alcohol dependence [PMID: 16613557, PMID: 11920678]. As a result, dopamine receptors are common drug targets; antipsychotics are often dopamine receptor antagonists while psychostimulants are typically indirect agonists of dopamine receptors [PMID: 9633679, PMID: 16433053, PMID: 14060771, PMID: 1060115].
There are at least five different known subtypes of dopamine receptors designated D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 [PMID: 12836695]. They are distinguished by their G-protein coupling, ligand specificity, anatomical distribution and physiological effects. Dopamine receptors are divided into two further subfamilies. The D1-like family consists of D1 and D5 receptors, which couple to Gs and mediate excitatory neurotransmission. The D2-like family, meanwhile, consists of D2, D3 and D4 receptors, which couple to Gi/Go and mediate inhibitory neurotransmission. Although dopamine receptors are widely distributed in the brain, they are found in different locations that have different receptor type densities, presumably reflecting different functional roles [PMID: 9457173]. D1 and D2 receptor subtypes are found at 10-100 times the levels of the D3, D4, D5 subtypes [PMID: 16458973].
This entry represents the dopamine D1 receptor, also known as D(1A) dopamine receptor. The receptors are found in greatest abundance in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle, with lower levels in the frontal cortex, habenula, amygdala, hypothalamus and thalamus. In the periphery, binding sites are found in the kidney, heart, liver and parathyroid gland. In humans, the pulmonary artery expresses D1, D2, D4, and D5 receptor subtypes, which may account for vasodilatory effects of dopamine in the blood [PMID: 16968475]. In rats, dopamine D1 receptors are present on the smooth muscle of the blood vessels in most major organs [PMID: 12563019] and have been shown to have vasodilation effects [PMID: 16968475]. They are also present on the juxtaglomerular apparatus and on renal tubules [PMID: 12563019].
Dopamine D1 receptor knockout mice have been shown to have reduced motivation for alcohol consumption [PMID: 9726645]. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the receptor has been associated with bipolar disorder [PMID: 15704231].
GO:0004952 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane