Domain

Alpha carbonic anhydrase (IPR001148)

Short name: Carbonic_anhydrase_a

Domain relationships

None.

Description

Carbonic anhydrases (CA: EC:4.2.1.1) are zinc metalloenzymes which catalyse the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate [PMID: 18336305, PMID: 10978542]. The alpha-CAs are found predominantly in animals but also in bacteria and green algae. There are at least 15 isoforms found in mammals, which can be subdivided into cytosolic CAs (CA-I, CA-II, CA-III, CA-VII and CA XIII), mitochondrial CAs (CA-VA and CA-VB), secreted CAs (CA-VI), membrane-associated (CA-IV, CA-IX, CA-XII and CA-XIV) and those without CA activity, the CA-related proteins (CA-RP VIII, X and XI).

This entry represents a domain characteristic of alpha class carbonic anhydrases. The dominating secondary structure is a 10-stranded, twisted beta-sheet, which divides the molecules into two halves [PMID: 9336012]. Alpha-CAs contain a single zinc atom bound to three conserved histidine residues. The catalytically active group is the zinc-bound water which ionizes to a hydroxide group. In the mechanism of catalysis, nucleophilic attack of CO2 by a zinc-bound hydroxide ion is followed by displacement of the resulting zinc-bound bicarbonate ion by water; subsequent deprotonation regenerates the nucleophilic zinc-bound hydroxide ion [PMID: 8673298, PMID: 11493685].

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
SUPERFAMILY
GENE3D
Pfam
SMART
PROSITE profiles