Domain

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2 (IPR000608)

Short name: UBQ-conjugat_E2

Domain relationships

Description

The post-translational attachment of ubiquitin (IPR000626) to proteins (ubiquitinylation) alters the function, location or trafficking of a protein, or targets it to the 26S proteasome for degradation [PMID: 15556404, PMID: 15196553, PMID: 15454246]. Ubiquitinylation is an ATP-dependent process that involves the action of at least three enzymes: a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1, IPR000011), a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), and a ubiquitin ligase (E3, IPR000569, IPR003613), which work sequentially in a cascade [PMID: 14998368]. The E1 enzyme mediates an ATP-dependent transfer of a thioester-linked ubiquitin molecule to a cysteine residue on the E2 enzyme. The E2 enzyme (EC:6.3.2.19) then either transfers the ubiquitin moiety directly to a substrate, or to an E3 ligase, which can also ubiquitinylate a substrate.

There are several different E2 enzymes (over 30 in humans), which are broadly grouped into four classes, all of which have a core catalytic domain (containing the active site cysteine), and some of which have short N- and C-terminal amino acid extensions: class I enzymes consist of just the catalytic core domain (UBC), class II possess a UBC and a C-terminal extension, class III possess a UBC and an N-terminal extension, and class IV possess a UBC and both N- and C-terminal extensions. These extensions appear to be important for some subfamily function, including E2 localisation and protein-protein interactions [PMID: 15545318]. In addition, there are proteins with an E2-like fold that are devoid of catalytic activity, but which appear to assist in poly-ubiquitin chain formation.

GO terms

Biological Process

No terms assigned in this category.

Molecular Function

GO:0016881 acid-amino acid ligase activity

Cellular Component

No terms assigned in this category.

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
PROSITE profiles
Pfam