Histone H3/CENP-A (IPR000164)

Short name: Histone_H3/CENP-A

Overlapping homologous superfamilies

Family relationships



This entry includes histone H3 and its variant, CENP-A (Cse4 in budding yeast, Cnp1 in fission yeast, and CID/CenH3 in fruit flies). Two primate-specific forms of H3, known as H3.X and H3.Y, are found in the brain [PMID: 20819935].

Histone H3 is one of the five histones, along with H1/H5, H2A, H2B and H4. Two copies of each of the H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 histones ensemble to form the core of the nucleosome [PMID: 16472024]. The nucleosome forms octameric structure that wraps DNA in a left-handed manner. H3 is a highly conserved protein of 135 amino acid residues [PMID: 8121801, PMID: 2041803]. Histones can undergo several different types of post-translational modifications that affect transcription, DNA repair, DNA replication and chromosomal stability.

Eukaryotic centromeres consists of an unique nucleosome in which CENP-A can be found [PMID: 22729156]. Human CENP-A nucleosome forms a histone octamer containing two each of histones H2A, H2B, H4 and CENP-A. Similar to the H3-containing nucleosome, the CENP-A nucleosome wraps DNA in a left-handed orientation [PMID: 21743476,PMID: 22127263]. CENP-A nucleosomes function as a scaffold on which other kinetochore proteins assemble. CENP-A may serves as an epigenetic marker for kinetochore assembly [PMID: 24666101]. Deposition of CENP-A to the centromere requires histone chaperone HJURP (Holliday junction recognition protein) [PMID: 21478274].

GO terms

Biological Process

No terms assigned in this category.

Molecular Function

GO:0003677 DNA binding

Cellular Component

GO:0000786 nucleosome

Contributing signatures

Signatures from InterPro member databases are used to construct an entry.
PROSITE patterns
PROSITE patterns