Pathways & interactions
Restriction endonuclease, type I, HsdS (IPR000055)
Short name: Restrct_endonuc_typeI_HsdS
There are four classes of restriction endonucleases: types I, II,III and IV. All types of enzymes recognise specific short DNA sequences and carry out the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. They differ in their recognition sequence, subunit composition, cleavage position, and cofactor requirements [PMID: 15121719, PMID: 12665693], as summarised below:
- Type I enzymes (EC:220.127.116.11) cleave at sites remote from recognition site; require both ATP and S-adenosyl-L-methionine to function; multifunctional protein with both restriction and methylase (EC:18.104.22.168) activities.
- Type II enzymes (EC:22.214.171.124) cleave within or at short specific distances from recognition site; most require magnesium; single function (restriction) enzymes independent of methylase.
- Type III enzymes (EC:126.96.36.199) cleave at sites a short distance from recognition site; require ATP (but doesn't hydrolyse it); S-adenosyl-L-methionine stimulates reaction but is not required; exists as part of a complex with a modification methylase methylase (EC:188.8.131.52).
- Type IV enzymes target methylated DNA.
Type I restriction endonucleases are components of prokaryotic DNA restriction-modification mechanisms that protects the organism against invading foreign DNA. Type I enzymes have three different subunits subunits - M (modification), S (specificity) and R (restriction) - that form multifunctional enzymes with restriction (EC:184.108.40.206), methylase (EC:220.127.116.11) and ATPase activities [PMID: 15121719, PMID: 12595133]. The S subunit is required for both restriction and modification and is responsible for recognition of the DNA sequence specific for the system. The M subunit is necessary for modification, and the R subunit is required for restriction. These enzymes use S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) as the methyl group donor in the methylation reaction, and have a requirement for ATP. They recognise asymmetric DNA sequences split into two domains of specific sequence, one 3-4 bp long and another 4-5 bp long, separated by a nonspecific spacer 6-8 bp in length. Cleavage occurs a considerable distance from the recognition sites, rarely less than 400 bp away and up to 7000 bp away. Adenosyl residues are methylated, one on each strand of the recognition sequence. These enzymes are widespread in eubacteria and archaea. In enteric bacteria they have been subdivide into four families: types IA, IB, IC and ID.
This entry represents the S subunit of type I restriction endonucleases (EC:18.104.22.168). The M and S subunits together form a methyltransferase that methylates two adenine residues in complementary strands of a bipartite DNA recognition sequence. In the presence of the R subunit the complex can also act as an endonuclease, binding to the same target sequence but cutting the DNA some distance from this site. Whether the DNA is cut or modified depends on the methylation state of the target sequence: when the target site is unmodified, the DNA is cut; when the target site is hemi-methylated, the complex acts as a maintenance methyltransferase to modify the DNA, methylating both strands [PMID: 9837717]. Most of the proteins in this family have two copies of the domain.
- PF01420 (Methylase_S)