EC - 15-cis-phytoene synthase

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IntEnz Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name:
15-cis-phytoene synthase
Other names:
geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase
phytoene synthetase
prephytoene-diphosphate synthase
PSY (gene name)
crtB (gene name)
Systematic name:
geranylgeranyl-diphosphate:geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase (15-cis-phytoene forming)




Requires Mn2+ for activity. The enzyme condenses two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate, followed by rearrangement of the cyclopropylcarbinyl intermediate to 15-cis-phytoene.

Links to other databases

Enzymes and pathways: NC-IUBMB , BRENDA , DIAGRAM , ExplorEnz , ENZYME@ExPASy , KEGG , MetaCyc , UniPathway
Structural data: CSA , EC2PDB
Gene Ontology: GO:0016767
CAS Registry Numbers: 50936-61-3 57219-66-6
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: (34) [show] [UniProt]


  1. Chamovitz, D., Misawa, N., Sandmann, G., Hirschberg, J.
    Molecular cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a cyanobacterial gene coding for phytoene synthase, a carotenoid biosynthesis enzyme.
    FEBS Lett. 296: 305-310 (1992). [PMID: 1537409]
  2. Sandmann, G., Misawa, N.
    New functional assignment of the carotenogenic genes crtB and crtE with constructs of these genes from Erwinia species.
    FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 69: 253-257 (1992). [PMID: 1555761]
  3. Scolnik, P. A., Bartley, G. E.
    Nucleotide sequence of an Arabidopsis cDNA for phytoene synthase.
    Plant Physiol. 104: 1471-1472 (1994). [PMID: 8016277]
  4. Misawa, N., Truesdale, M.R., Sandmann, G., Fraser, P.D., Bird, C., Schuch, W. and Bramley, P.M.
    Expression of a tomato cDNA coding for phytoene synthase in Escherichia coli, phytoene formation in vivo and in vitro, and functional analysis of the various truncated gene products.
    J. Biochem. 116: 980-985 (1994). [PMID: 7896759]
  5. Schledz, M., al-Babili, S., von Lintig, J., Haubruck, H., Rabbani, S., Kleinig, H., Beyer, P.
    Phytoene synthase from Narcissus pseudonarcissus: functional expression, galactolipid requirement, topological distribution in chromoplasts and induction during flowering.
    Plant J. 10: 781-792 (1996). [PMID: 8953242]

[EC created 1984, modified 2005, modified 2012]