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Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - chondroitin sulfate - Drosophila simulans


Model information
Identifier: BMID000000063244
Format: SBML L3 V1 (Layout)
Project: path2models
Categories: metabolic
Submission: 18 May 2012 05:03:18 UTC
Last modified: 09 Dec 2012 22:07:10 UTC
Published: 19 May 2012 23:49:21 UTC
occursIn Drosophila simulans Taxonomy
isDerivedFrom Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - chondroitin sulfate KEGG Pathway
Model of “Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - chondroitin sulfate” in “Drosophila simulans”
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharide chains consisting of repeating disaccharide units and form proteglycans by covalently attaching to their core proteins. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan with the disaccharide unit GalNAc(b1-4)GlcA(b1-3), modified with ester-linked sulfate at certain positions. Dermatan sulfate (DS) is a modified form of CS, in which a portion of D-glucuronate residues is epimerized to L-iduronates. CS and DS are linked to serine residues in core proteins via a linkage tetrasaccharide formed by the transfer of xylose and three more residues [MD:M00057]. The assembly process of CS is initiated by the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine to the linkage tetrasaccharide. The polymerization step is catalyzed by bifunctional enzymes (chondroitin synthases) that have both b1-3 glucuronosyltransferase and b1-4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities [MD:M00058]. Chondroitin polymerization also requires the action of the chondroitin polymerizing factor. Sulfation of chondroitin in vertebrates is a complex process, with multiple sulfotransferases involved in 4-O sulfation and 6-O sulfation of N-acetylgalactosamine residues. Additional enzymes exist for epimerization of glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in DS, sulfation at the C-2 position of the uronic acids, and other patterns of sulfation found in unusual species of chondroitin.

Graphical representation of 'Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - chondroitin sulfate (Drosophila simulans)'
(PNG image hosted by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, KEGG).
This model has been automatically generated by KEGGtranslator V2.2.0 (KEGGtranslator: visualizing and converting the KEGG PATHWAY database to various formats. Wrzodek C, Dräger A, Zell A. Bioinformatics . 2011, 27 :2314-2315) using information coming from the KEGG PATHWAY Database ( original pathway ).
The missing kinetic equations were added by SBMLsqueezer .
This model has been produced by the path2models project, it is currently hosted on BioModels Database and identified by: BMID000000063244 .
To the extent possible under law, all copyright and related or neighbouring rights to this encoded model have been dedicated to the public domain worldwide. Please refer to CC0 Public Domain Dedication for more information.