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BIOMD0000000182 - Neves2008 - Role of cell shape and size in controlling intracellular signalling

 

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Reference Publication
Publication ID: 18485874
Neves SR, Tsokas P, Sarkar A, Grace EA, Rangamani P, Taubenfeld SM, Alberini CM, Schaff JC, Blitzer RD, Moraru II, Iyengar R.
Cell shape and negative links in regulatory motifs together control spatial information flow in signaling networks.
Cell 2008 May; 133(4): 666-680
Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1215, New York, NY 10029, USA.  [more]
Model
Original Model: VCell logo
Submitter: Harish Dharuri
Submission ID: MODEL8609366518
Submission Date: 14 Aug 2008 12:47:06 UTC
Last Modification Date: 07 Apr 2014 00:39:35 UTC
Creation Date: 20 Aug 2008 09:35:11 UTC
Encoders:  Harish Dharuri
set #1
bqbiol:isVersionOf Gene Ontology cell morphogenesis
set #2
bqbiol:hasTaxon Taxonomy Rattus norvegicus
bqbiol:hasPart Gene Ontology activation of adenylate cyclase activity
Gene Ontology MAPK cascade
bqbiol:isPartOf KEGG Pathway MAPK signaling pathway - Rattus norvegicus (rat)
Notes
Neves2008 - Role of cell shape and size in controlling intracellular signalling

The role of cell shape and size in the flow of spatial information from the cell surface receptor to downstream components within the cell has been studied on the β-adrenergic receptor to MAPK-signalling network.

This model is described in the article:

Neves SR, Tsokas P, Sarkar A, Grace EA, Rangamani P, Taubenfeld SM, Alberini CM, Schaff JC, Blitzer RD, Moraru II, Iyengar R
Cell. 2008, 133(4):666-680

Abstract:

The role of cell size and shape in controlling local intracellular signaling reactions, and how this spatial information originates and is propagated, is not well understood. We have used partial differential equations to model the flow of spatial information from the beta-adrenergic receptor to MAPK1,2 through the cAMP/PKA/B-Raf/MAPK1,2 network in neurons using real geometries. The numerical simulations indicated that cell shape controls the dynamics of local biochemical activity of signal-modulated negative regulators, such as phosphodiesterases and protein phosphatases within regulatory loops to determine the size of microdomains of activated signaling components. The model prediction that negative regulators control the flow of spatial information to downstream components was verified experimentally in rat hippocampal slices. These results suggest a mechanism by which cellular geometry, the presence of regulatory loops with negative regulators, and key reaction rates all together control spatial information transfer and microdomain characteristics within cells.

To the extent possible under law, all copyright and related or neighbouring rights to this encoded model have been dedicated to the public domain worldwide. Please refer to CC0 Public Domain Dedication for more information.

Model
Publication ID: 18485874 Submission Date: 14 Aug 2008 12:47:06 UTC Last Modification Date: 07 Apr 2014 00:39:35 UTC Creation Date: 20 Aug 2008 09:35:11 UTC
Mathematical expressions
Reactions
activate_Gs pde4_p PPase_Raf iso_binds_BAR
PDE4 bg_binds_GRK MEK_activates_MAPK PKA_activates_Raf
AC_active GTPase trimer G_binds_iso_BAR
A2 highKM_PDE PKA_P_PTP AC_activation
AC_basal B1 GRK PKA_P_PDE
Raf_activates_MEK PTP_PKA B2 PTP
iso_binds_BAR_g PPase_MAPK pp2a_4 pp_ptp
GRK_bg G_binds_BAR PPase_mek A1
Rules
Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_pde4_p_pde4_p) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_PPase_Raf) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_PDE4_PDE4) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_MEK_activates_MAPK)
Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_PKA_activates_Raf) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_AC_active_AC_active) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_highKM_PDE) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_PKA_P_PTP)
Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_AC_basal_AC_basal) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_grk_GRK) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_PKA_P_PDE) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_Raf_activates_MEK)
Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_PTP_PKA) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_PTP) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_PPase_MAPK) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_pp2a_4_pp2a_4)
Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_pp_ptp) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_GRK_bg_GRK_bg) Assignment Rule (variable: Vmax_PPase_mek)  
Physical entities
Compartments Species
cyto G_GDP_cyto G_protein_cyto G_a_s_cyto
GRK_bg_cyto PDE4_cyto ATP_cyto
R2C2_cyto PP_PDE_cyto MAPK_active_cyto
MEK_cyto MEK_active_cyto B_Raf_active_cyto
bg_cyto B_Raf_cyto PKA_cyto
AMP_cyto GRK_cyto PP2A_cyto
MAPK_cyto PTP_cyto PTP_PKA_cyto
c_R2C2_cyto c2_R2C2_cyto c3_R2C2_cyto
PDE_high_km_cyto cAMP_cyto PTP_PP_cyto
PDE4_P_cyto    
extra iso_extra    
cyto_mem AC_active_cyto_mem iso_BAR_p_cyto_mem AC_PKA_cyto_mem
BAR_cyto_mem BAR_G_cyto_mem iso_BAR_cyto_mem
AC_cyto_mem iso_BAR_G_cyto_mem  
Global parameters
KMOLE Vmax_pde4_p_pde4_p kcat_PPase_Raf Vmax_PPase_Raf
Vmax_PDE4_PDE4 Vmax_MEK_activates_MAPK kcat_PKA_activates_Raf Vmax_PKA_activates_Raf
Vmax_AC_active_AC_active Vmax_highKM_PDE kcat_PKA_P_PTP Vmax_PKA_P_PTP
Vmax_AC_basal_AC_basal Vmax_grk_GRK Vmax_PKA_P_PDE Vmax_Raf_activates_MEK
kcat_PTP_PKA Vmax_PTP_PKA kcat_PTP Vmax_PTP
kcat_PPase_MAPK Vmax_PPase_MAPK Vmax_pp2a_4_pp2a_4 kcat_pp_ptp_pp_ptp
Vmax_pp_ptp Vmax_GRK_bg_GRK_bg kcat_PPase_mek Vmax_PPase_mek
Reactions (32)
 
 activate_Gs [iso_BAR_G_cyto_mem] ↔ [iso_BAR_cyto_mem] + [bg_cyto] + [G_a_s_cyto];  
 
 pde4_p [cAMP_cyto] ↔ [AMP_cyto];   {PDE4_P_cyto}
 
 PPase_Raf [B_Raf_active_cyto] ↔ [B_Raf_cyto];   {PP2A_cyto}
 
 iso_binds_BAR [BAR_cyto_mem] + [iso_extra] ↔ [iso_BAR_cyto_mem];  
 
 PDE4 [cAMP_cyto] ↔ [AMP_cyto];   {PDE4_cyto}
 
 bg_binds_GRK [GRK_cyto] + [bg_cyto] ↔ [GRK_bg_cyto];  
 
 MEK_activates_MAPK [MAPK_cyto] ↔ [MAPK_active_cyto];   {MEK_active_cyto}
 
 PKA_activates_Raf [B_Raf_cyto] ↔ [B_Raf_active_cyto];   {PKA_cyto}
 
 AC_active [ATP_cyto] ↔ [cAMP_cyto];   {AC_active_cyto_mem}
 
 GTPase [G_a_s_cyto] ↔ [G_GDP_cyto];  
 
 trimer [bg_cyto] + [G_GDP_cyto] ↔ [G_protein_cyto];  
 
 G_binds_iso_BAR [iso_BAR_cyto_mem] + [G_protein_cyto] ↔ [iso_BAR_G_cyto_mem];  
 
 A2 [c3_R2C2_cyto] + [cAMP_cyto] ↔ [PKA_cyto];  
 
 highKM_PDE [cAMP_cyto] ↔ [AMP_cyto];   {PDE_high_km_cyto}
 
 PKA_P_PTP [PTP_cyto] ↔ [PTP_PKA_cyto];   {PKA_cyto}
 
 AC_activation [G_a_s_cyto] + [AC_cyto_mem] ↔ [AC_active_cyto_mem];  
 
 AC_basal [ATP_cyto] ↔ [cAMP_cyto];   {AC_cyto_mem}
 
 B1 [R2C2_cyto] + [cAMP_cyto] ↔ [c_R2C2_cyto];  
 
 GRK [iso_BAR_cyto_mem] ↔ [iso_BAR_p_cyto_mem];   {GRK_cyto}
 
 PKA_P_PDE [PDE4_cyto] ↔ [PDE4_P_cyto];   {PKA_cyto}
 
 Raf_activates_MEK [MEK_cyto] ↔ [MEK_active_cyto];   {B_Raf_active_cyto}
 
 PTP_PKA [MAPK_active_cyto] ↔ [MAPK_cyto];   {PTP_PKA_cyto}
 
 B2 [c_R2C2_cyto] + [cAMP_cyto] ↔ [c2_R2C2_cyto];  
 
 PTP [MAPK_active_cyto] ↔ [MAPK_cyto];   {PTP_cyto}
 
 iso_binds_BAR_g [iso_extra] + [BAR_G_cyto_mem] ↔ [iso_BAR_G_cyto_mem];  
 
 PPase_MAPK [MAPK_active_cyto] ↔ [MAPK_cyto];   {PP2A_cyto}
 
 pp2a_4 [PDE4_P_cyto] ↔ [PDE4_cyto];   {PP_PDE_cyto}
 
 pp_ptp [PTP_PKA_cyto] ↔ [PTP_cyto];   {PTP_PP_cyto}
 
 GRK_bg [iso_BAR_cyto_mem] ↔ [iso_BAR_p_cyto_mem];   {GRK_bg_cyto}
 
 G_binds_BAR [BAR_cyto_mem] + [G_protein_cyto] ↔ [BAR_G_cyto_mem];  
 
 PPase_mek [MEK_active_cyto] ↔ [MEK_cyto];   {PP2A_cyto}
 
 A1 [c2_R2C2_cyto] + [cAMP_cyto] ↔ [c3_R2C2_cyto];  
 
Rules (19)
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_pde4_p_pde4_p) Vmax_pde4_p_pde4_p = 20*0.00166112956810631*PDE4_P_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_PPase_Raf) Vmax_PPase_Raf = kcat_PPase_Raf*0.00166112956810631*PP2A_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_PDE4_PDE4) Vmax_PDE4_PDE4 = 8*0.00166112956810631*PDE4_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_MEK_activates_MAPK) Vmax_MEK_activates_MAPK = 0.15*0.00166112956810631*MEK_active_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_PKA_activates_Raf) Vmax_PKA_activates_Raf = kcat_PKA_activates_Raf*0.00166112956810631*PKA_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_AC_active_AC_active) Vmax_AC_active_AC_active = 8.5*AC_active_cyto_mem
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_highKM_PDE) Vmax_highKM_PDE = 8*0.00166112956810631*PDE_high_km_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_PKA_P_PTP) Vmax_PKA_P_PTP = kcat_PKA_P_PTP*0.00166112956810631*PKA_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_AC_basal_AC_basal) Vmax_AC_basal_AC_basal = 0.2*AC_cyto_mem
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_grk_GRK) Vmax_grk_GRK = 0.104*0.00166112956810631*GRK_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_PKA_P_PDE) Vmax_PKA_P_PDE = 10*0.00166112956810631*PKA_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_Raf_activates_MEK) Vmax_Raf_activates_MEK = 0.105*0.00166112956810631*B_Raf_active_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_PTP_PKA) Vmax_PTP_PKA = kcat_PTP_PKA*0.00166112956810631*PTP_PKA_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_PTP) Vmax_PTP = kcat_PTP*0.00166112956810631*PTP_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_PPase_MAPK) Vmax_PPase_MAPK = kcat_PPase_MAPK*0.00166112956810631*PP2A_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_pp2a_4_pp2a_4) Vmax_pp2a_4_pp2a_4 = 5*0.00166112956810631*PP_PDE_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_pp_ptp) Vmax_pp_ptp = kcat_pp_ptp_pp_ptp*0.00166112956810631*PTP_PP_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_GRK_bg_GRK_bg) Vmax_GRK_bg_GRK_bg = 1.34*0.00166112956810631*GRK_bg_cyto
 
 Assignment Rule (name: Vmax_PPase_mek) Vmax_PPase_mek = kcat_PPase_mek*0.00166112956810631*PP2A_cyto
 
 cyto Spatial dimensions: 3.0  Compartment size: 1.0
 
 G_GDP_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 G_protein_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 2167.2  (Units: molecules)
 
 G_a_s_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 GRK_bg_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 PDE4_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 240.8  (Units: molecules)
 
 ATP_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 3010000.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 R2C2_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 120.4  (Units: molecules)
 
 PP_PDE_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 120.4  (Units: molecules)
 
 MAPK_active_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 MEK_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 108.36  (Units: molecules)
 
 MEK_active_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 B_Raf_active_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 bg_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 B_Raf_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 120.4  (Units: molecules)
 
 PKA_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 AMP_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 3010000.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 GRK_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.602  (Units: molecules)
 
 PP2A_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 60.2  (Units: molecules)
 
 MAPK_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 216.72  (Units: molecules)
 
 PTP_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 120.4  (Units: molecules)
 
 PTP_PKA_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 c_R2C2_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 c2_R2C2_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 c3_R2C2_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 PDE_high_km_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 301.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 cAMP_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 PTP_PP_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 60.2  (Units: molecules)
 
 PDE4_P_cyto
Compartment: cyto
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 extra Spatial dimensions: 3.0  Compartment size: 0.111111111111111
 
 iso_extra
Compartment: extra
Initial concentration: 6020.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 cyto_mem Spatial dimensions: 2.0  Compartment size: 0.2  (Units: um2)
 
 AC_active_cyto_mem
Compartment: cyto_mem
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 iso_BAR_p_cyto_mem
Compartment: cyto_mem
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 AC_PKA_cyto_mem
Compartment: cyto_mem
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 BAR_cyto_mem
Compartment: cyto_mem
Initial concentration: 94.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 BAR_G_cyto_mem
Compartment: cyto_mem
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 iso_BAR_cyto_mem
Compartment: cyto_mem
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 AC_cyto_mem
Compartment: cyto_mem
Initial concentration: 300.0  (Units: molecules)
 
 iso_BAR_G_cyto_mem
Compartment: cyto_mem
Initial concentration: 0.0  (Units: molecules)
 
Global Parameters (28)
 
   KMOLE
Value: 0.00166112956810631   (Units: uM_um3_molecules_1)
Constant
 
   Vmax_pde4_p_pde4_p
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   kcat_PPase_Raf
Value: 5.0   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
   Vmax_PPase_Raf
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   Vmax_PDE4_PDE4
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   Vmax_MEK_activates_MAPK
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   kcat_PKA_activates_Raf
Value: 10.0   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
   Vmax_PKA_activates_Raf
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   Vmax_AC_active_AC_active
Value: NaN   (Units: molecules_um_2_s_1)
 
   Vmax_highKM_PDE
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   kcat_PKA_P_PTP
Value: 0.2   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
   Vmax_PKA_P_PTP
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   Vmax_AC_basal_AC_basal
Value: NaN   (Units: molecules_um_2_s_1)
 
   Vmax_grk_GRK
Value: NaN   (Units: molecules_um_2_s_1)
 
   Vmax_PKA_P_PDE
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   Vmax_Raf_activates_MEK
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   kcat_PTP_PKA
Value: 0.1   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
   Vmax_PTP_PKA
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   kcat_PTP
Value: 1.06   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
   Vmax_PTP
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   kcat_PPase_MAPK
Value: 0.636   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
   Vmax_PPase_MAPK
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   Vmax_pp2a_4_pp2a_4
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   kcat_pp_ptp_pp_ptp
Value: 5.0   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
   Vmax_pp_ptp
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
   Vmax_GRK_bg_GRK_bg
Value: NaN   (Units: molecules_um_2_s_1)
 
   kcat_PPase_mek
Value: 5.0   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
   Vmax_PPase_mek
Value: NaN   (Units: uM_s_1)
 
activate_Gs (3)
 
   I
Constant
 
   Kf_activate_Gs
Value: 0.025   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr_activate_Gs
Constant
 
pde4_p (1)
 
   Km_pde4_p
Value: 1.3   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
PPase_Raf (1)
 
   Km
Value: 15.7   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
iso_binds_BAR (3)
 
   I
Constant
 
   Kf
Value: 1.0   (Units: uM_1_s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr
Value: 0.2   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
PDE4 (1)
 
   Km_PDE4
Value: 1.3   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
bg_binds_GRK (2)
 
   Kf_bg_binds_GRK
Value: 1.0   (Units: uM_1_s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr_bg_binds_GRK
Value: 0.25   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
MEK_activates_MAPK (1)
 
   Km
Value: 0.046296   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
PKA_activates_Raf (1)
 
   Km
Value: 0.5   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
AC_active (2)
 
   I
Constant
 
   Km_AC_active
Value: 32.0   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
GTPase (2)
 
   Kf_GTPase
Value: 0.06667   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr_GTPase
Constant
 
trimer (2)
 
   Kf_trimer
Value: 6.0   (Units: uM_1_s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr_trimer
Constant
 
G_binds_iso_BAR (3)
 
   I
Constant
 
   Kf_G_binds_iso_BAR
Value: 10.0   (Units: uM_1_s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr_G_binds_iso_BAR
Value: 0.1   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
A2 (2)
 
   Kf
Value: 8.35   (Units: uM_1_s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr
Value: 0.0167   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
highKM_PDE (1)
 
   Km
Value: 15.0   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
PKA_P_PTP (1)
 
   Km
Value: 0.1   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
AC_activation (3)
 
   I
Constant
 
   Kf_AC_activation
Value: 500.0   (Units: uM_1_s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr_AC_activation
Value: 1.0   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
AC_basal (2)
 
   I
Constant
 
   Km_AC_basal
Value: 1030.0   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
B1 (2)
 
   Kf
Value: 0.0059   (Units: uM_1_s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr
Value: 2.8E-4   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
GRK (2)
 
   I
Constant
 
   Km_grk
Value: 15.0   (Units: molecules_um_2)
Constant
 
PKA_P_PDE (1)
 
   Km
Value: 0.5   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
Raf_activates_MEK (1)
 
   Km
Value: 0.15909   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
PTP_PKA (1)
 
   Km
Value: 9.0   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
B2 (2)
 
   Kf
Value: 0.0059   (Units: uM_1_s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr
Value: 2.8E-4   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
PTP (1)
 
   Km
Value: 0.46   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
iso_binds_BAR_g (3)
 
   I
Constant
 
   Kf
Value: 1.0   (Units: uM_1_s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr
Value: 0.062   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
PPase_MAPK (1)
 
   Km
Value: 0.77   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
pp2a_4 (1)
 
   Km_pp2a_4
Value: 8.0   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
pp_ptp (1)
 
   Km
Value: 6.0   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
GRK_bg (2)
 
   I
Constant
 
   Km_GRK_bg
Value: 4.0   (Units: molecules_um_2)
Constant
 
G_binds_BAR (3)
 
   I
Constant
 
   Kf_G_binds_BAR
Value: 0.3   (Units: uM_1_s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr_G_binds_BAR
Value: 0.1   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
PPase_mek (1)
 
   Km
Value: 15.7   (Units: uM)
Constant
 
A1 (2)
 
   Kf
Value: 8.35   (Units: uM_1_s_1)
Constant
 
   Kr
Value: 0.0167   (Units: s_1)
Constant
 
Representative curation result(s)
Representative curation result(s) of BIOMD0000000182

Curator's comment: (updated: 14 Aug 2008 13:46:32 BST)

The plot corresponds to Fig S1 in the supplement of the paper. Results obtained using MathSBML.

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