E-GEOD-7348 - Transcription profiling of mouse naive and tolerant macrophages stimulated with LPS
Submitted on 22 March 2007, released on 15 June 2008, last updated on 2 May 2014
The inflammatory response initiated by microbial products signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system is essential for host defense against infection. Because inflammation can be harmful to host tissues, the innate response is highly regulated. Negative regulation of TLR4, the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), results in LPS tolerance, defined as hyporesponsiveness to repeated stimulation with LPS. LPS tolerance is thought to protect the host from excessive inflammation by turning off TLR4 signal, which then shuts down TLR-induced genes. However, TLR signaling induces hundreds of genes with very different functions. We reasoned that genes with different functions should have different requirements for regulation. Specifically, genes encoding proinflammatory mediators should be transiently inactivated to limit tissue damage, while genes encoding antimicrobial effectors, which directly target pathogens, should remain inducible in tolerant cells to protect the host from infection. Using an in vitro system of LPS tolerance in macrophages, here we show that TLR-induced genes may indeed be divided into two distinct categories based on their functions and regulatory requirements. Further, we show these distinct groups are regulated by gene-specific, and not signal-specific mechanisms. Experiment Overall Design: We examined gene expression using affymetrix genechips in 3 groups of murine bone-marrow derived macrophages: Naive (untreated), Naive stimulated with LPS, and Tolerant stimulated with LPS. Two biological replicates were performed for each group.
transcription profiling by array, unknown experiment type
Gene-specific control of inflammation by TLR-induced chromatin modifications. Simmie L Foster, Diana C Hargreaves, Ruslan Medzhitov. Nature 447(7147):972-8 (2007)