E-GEOD-51207 - Exposure to Cobalt Causes Transcriptomic and Proteomic Changes in Two Rat Liver Derived Cell Lines
Released on 1 December 2013, last updated on 22 July 2015
Cobalt is a transition group metal present in trace amounts in the human diet, but in larger doses it can be acutely toxic or cause adverse health effects in chronic, long term exposures. Its use in many industrial processes and alloys worldwide presents opportunities for occupational exposures, as well as exposures to military personnel. While the toxic effects of cobalt have been widely studied, the exact mechanisms of toxicity remain unclear. In order to further elucidate these mechanisms and identify potential biomarkers of exposure or effect, we exposed two rat liver-derived cell lines, H4-II-E-C3 and MH1C1, to two concentrations of cobalt chloride. We examined changes in gene expression using DNA microarrays in both cell lines and examined changes in cytoplasmic protein abundance in MH1C1 cells using mass spectrometry. We chose to closely examine differentially expressed genes and proteins changing in abundance in both cells lines in order to remove cell line specific effects. We identified enriched pathways, networks, and biological functions using commercial bioinformatic tools and manual annotation. Many of the genes, proteins, and pathways modulated by exposure to cobalt appear to be due to an induction of a hypoxic-like response and oxidative stress. Genes that may be differentially expressed due to a hypoxic-like response are involved in Hif-1α signaling, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and other energy metabolism related processes. Gene expression changes linked to oxidative stress are also known to be involved in the NRF2-mediated response, protein degradation, and glutathione production. Using microarray and mass spectrometry analysis, we were able to identify modulated genes and proteins, further elucidate the mechanisms of toxicity of cobalt, and identify biomarkers of exposure and effect in vitro, providing targets for focused in vitro studies. H4-II-E-C3 and MH1C1 cells were treated with two doses of CoCl2 for 24 h in serum free DMEM. For each condition, we ran four biological replicates, with each replicate having its own untreated control. Therefore, this study contains 24 samples.
transcription profiling by array
Matthew Permenter <email@example.com>, David A Jackson, John A Lewis, Jonathan D Stallings, Matthew G Permenter, Thomas E Sutto, William E Dennis
Exposure to cobalt causes transcriptomic and proteomic changes in two rat liver derived cell lines. Permenter MG1, Dennis WE2, Sutto TE3, Jackson DA2, Lewis JA2, Stallings JD2.