E-GEOD-48945 - Effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on molecular signaling cascades in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus)
Released on 18 July 2013, last updated on 3 June 2014
The objective of this study was to gain mechanistic insight into how mummichog are able to produce eggs during exposures to high levels of EE2. Mummichog were exposed to 0, 50 or 250 ng/L of EE2 for 14 d. A mummichog microarray was used to identify genomic responses associated with high EE2 exposure, and effects of EE2 on target genes involved in lipid mobilization and transport and steroidogenesis, two important (EE2 regulated) pathways involved in egg production, were measured using real-time PCR. In addition, changes at higher level biological endpoints such as plasma steroid production and gonad morphology were measured to examine downstream responses to EE2. There were no differences in gonadosomatic index, liversomatic index, gonad development, or plasma estradiol levels after exposure to EE2, although testosterone decreased with EE2 exposures. Similar to other species, mummichog showed alterations to plasma steroid levels, and similar processes at the molecular level were identified as being altered by EE2, including cell processes associated with lipids. However, unlike other species, mummichog showed no differences in GSI or ovarian development. Fatty acids were affected at both the transcript and translation level, which suggests they are a major target of estrogens. Lipids are important for both growth and reproduction, and provide oocytes with nutrients. Interestingly, mummichog showed no effect on apolipoprotein expression, which is important in lipid transport. Therefore, it is hypothesized that mummichog are normally able to transport lipids for energy and nutrients to the ovary, while this is affected in other species. Novel gene regulatory networks for protein modification targets were also constructed to learn more about the potential roles of estrogens in the teleost liver. Although post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important regulatory mechanisms, the roles of PTMs in protein regulation in fish and the susceptibility of PTMs to aquatic pollutants are largely unexplored and may offer novel insight into mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Mummichog were exposed to 0, 50, and 250 ng/L EE2 for 14 days. Microarray analysis was performed with five biological replicated (5 control, 5 EE2 50 ng/L, 5 EE2 250 ng/L). Female liver tissue was used for the analysis.
transcription profiling by array
Christopher Joseph Martyniuk <email@example.com>, Chris J Martyniuk, Deborah L MacLatchy, Kelly R Munkittrick, Meghan A Doyle, Thijs Bosker