E-GEOD-37936 - Context-dependent actions of Exendin-4 on β-cell function and dynamic changes in islet gene expression over time in vivo
Released on 11 April 2014, last updated on 2 June 2014
GLP-1 analogues, such as exendin-4, preserve functional β-cell mass in various model systems and are revolutionising management of type 2 diabetes. Yet, comparatively little is known about effectiveness in the face of severe β-cell depletion. Moreover, direct and sequential effects of exendin-4 on islet-specific gene expression over time in vivo are not well characterised. To address these issues and others, we have examined the time-dependent effects of exendin-4 treatment on β-cell mass regulation alongside accompanying changes in islet gene expression in vivo. Context-dependent actions were assessed by comparing effects on normal islets and also following massive toxigenetic β-cell ablation in pIns-MYCERTAM transgenic mice in vivo. Despite over 90% loss of β-cell mass, exendin-4 treatment normalised blood glucose and insulin levels in hyperglycaemic mice, though benefits rapidly waned on withdrawal of treatment. As exendin-4 did not arrest the decline in β-cell mass or turnover in this study, we could directly isolate effects on function of surviving β-cells. Improved glucose homeostasis was associated with dynamic changes in multiple islet genes and pathways in vivo favouring glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, such as Irs2, Pdx1, Sox4, glucokinase, and glycolysis pathway. Several key growth pathways and epigenetic regulators were also differentially expressed. Thus, even in the face of extensive β-cell loss exendin-4 can markedly improve hyperglycaemia by differential gene expression in surviving islet cells. Activation of MYCERTAM was achieved through administration of 1mg of 4 hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) by daily intraperitoneal injection. To assess the effect of exendin-4 on MYCER-induced hyperglycaemia, mice were given either twice-daily subcutaneous (sc) injections of exendin-4 (50ug/kg dissolved in 5mls water), or equivalent volumes of water vehicle, starting 2 days prior to 4OHT injections. For microarray analyses parallel mouse experiments were set up using 8-12 week old pIns-MYCERTAM male mice either treated with 4OHT or vehicle (peanut oil) and exendin-4 or vehicle, as described, for 4, 8, 16, 32 and 72 hours (n=3 for each time point and for each of four conditions; 4OHT and exendin-4 treated, peanut oil and exendin-4 treated, 4OHT and water treated, peanut oil and water treated). !Sample_data_processing = After the quality control step, the following 8 samples out of 60 showing poor reproducibility were excluded from our further study: GSM930242, GSM930247, GSM930251, GSM930263, GSM930264, GSM930289, GSM930291, GSM930298.
transcription profiling by array
Michael Khan <Michael.Khan@warwick.ac.uk>, Albert Barberà, Asta Laiho, Attilla Gyenesei, James Young, Leena Kytömäki, Martin Weickert, Robert Hermann, Sam Robson, Stella Pelengaris, Sylvie Abouna, Yi-Fang Wang