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GO:0016236 macroautophagy

Term Information

ID GO:0016236
Name macroautophagy
Ontology Biological Process
Definition The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane-bounded autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane-bounded structure. Autophagosomes then fuse with a lysosome (or vacuole) releasing single-membrane-bounded autophagic bodies that are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
PMID:11099404 PMID:12914914 PMID:15798367 PMID:16973210 PMID:20159618 PMID:9412464
Comment Targeted macroautophagy sometimes targets regions of cytoplasm containing non-self, such as virus particles or components (e.g. see PMID:20159618). As this is essentially the same process as macroautophagy that encloses and digests only self, the term autophagy is still used despite the enclosure of some non-self (non-auto) entities.
Secondary IDs GO:0034262
GONUTS GO:0016236 Wiki Page

Synonyms

Synonyms are alternative words or phrases closely related in meaning to the term name, with indication of the relationship between the name and synonym given by the synonym scope. Click on the icon for more details.
Type Synonym
exact autophagy in response to cellular starvation
broad autophagy
exact non-specific autophagy
exact starvation-induced autophagy

Taxon Constraints

The use of this term should conform to the following taxon constraints:
Ancestor GO ID Ancestor GO Term Name Relationship Taxon ID Taxon Reference(s)
GO:0006914 autophagy only_in_taxon 2759 Eukaryota
More information on taxon constraints in GO is available here

Cross-references

Database ID
InterPro IPR023261
InterPro IPR033513

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Child Terms

This table lists all terms that are direct descendants (child terms) of GO:0016236:
Relationship To GO:0016236 Child Term Child Term Name
Positively regulates GO:0016239 positive regulation of macroautophagy
Regulates GO:0016241 regulation of macroautophagy
Negatively regulates GO:0016242 negative regulation of macroautophagy
Is a GO:0035973 aggrephagy
Is a GO:0098792 xenophagy
Is a GO:0061709 reticulophagy
Is a GO:0034517 ribophagy
Is a GO:0061723 glycophagy
Is a GO:0061724 lipophagy
Part of GO:0097352 autophagosome maturation
Capable of part of GO:0005776 autophagosome
Negatively regulates GO:1904766 negative regulation of macroautophagy by TORC1 signaling
Is a GO:0000425 macropexophagy
Is a GO:0000423 macromitophagy
Part of GO:0061736 engulfment of target by autophagosome
Part of GO:1905037 autophagosome organization

Protein Annotation

Displaying annotations FIRST to LAST of TOTAL Page size: Additional filters: Bookmarkable link
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Gene Product ID
Symbol
Qualifier
GO Identifier
GO Term Name
Aspect
Original GO ID
Original GO Term Name
Evidence
Reference
With
Taxon
Date
Assigned By
Product Form ID
Name
Synonym
Type
Taxon Name
Sequence

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Co-occurring Terms

These tables show the number of times the term listed in the table has been co-annotated with GO:0016236. The terms are listed in descending order of number of times the term has been co-annotated.
The table on the left is calculated using both electronic and manual-evidenced annotations, while the table on the right is calculated using only manual-evidenced annotations.
Co-occurrence statistics for GO:0016236 based on the entire annotation set Co-occurrence statistics for GO:0016236 based on non-IEA annotations only

Change Log

All changes

Timestamp Action Category Detail
2016-03-17 Added RELATION has part GO:0048102 (autophagic cell death)
2016-03-04 Added SYNONYM autophagy
2015-10-21 Deleted RELATION is a GO:0044712 (single-organism catabolic process)
2015-10-21 Deleted RELATION is a GO:0009267 (cellular response to starvation)
2015-08-21 Added DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane-bounded autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane-bounded structure. Autophagosomes then fuse with a lysosome (or vacuole) releasing single-membrane-bounded autophagic bodies that are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2015-08-21 Deleted DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane-bounded autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane-bounded structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane-bounded autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2015-07-10 Deleted RELATION has part GO:0048102 (autophagic cell death)
2013-11-28 Added RELATION is a GO:0044712 (single-organism catabolic process)
2010-06-15 Added RELATION has part GO:0048102 (autophagic cell death)
2010-06-14 Deleted RELATION has part GO:0048102 (autophagic cell death)
2010-06-08 Added RELATION has part GO:0048102 (autophagic cell death)
2010-01-14 Added SYNONYM starvation-induced autophagy
2008-10-02 Added DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane-bounded autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane-bounded structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane-bounded autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2008-10-02 Deleted DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2008-06-06 Added SECONDARY GO:0034262 (autophagy in response to cellular starvation)
2008-06-06 Added RELATION is a GO:0009267 (cellular response to starvation)
2008-06-06 Added SYNONYM autophagy in response to cellular starvation
2008-06-06 Added SYNONYM non-specific autophagy
2008-05-13 Added DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2008-05-12 Deleted DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2008-04-01 Updated RELATION is a GO:0006914 (autophagy)
2007-01-23 Updated DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2002-11-27 Updated DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the nonselective degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation.
2002-02-06 Updated TERM macroautophagy
2001-08-06 Added DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells.
2001-04-03 Updated TERM macroautophagy
2001-03-30 Added TERM macroautophagy

Term

Timestamp Action Category Detail
2002-02-06 Updated TERM macroautophagy
2001-04-03 Updated TERM macroautophagy
2001-03-30 Added TERM macroautophagy

Definition/synonyms

Timestamp Action Category Detail
2016-03-04 Added SYNONYM autophagy
2015-08-21 Added DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane-bounded autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane-bounded structure. Autophagosomes then fuse with a lysosome (or vacuole) releasing single-membrane-bounded autophagic bodies that are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2015-08-21 Deleted DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane-bounded autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane-bounded structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane-bounded autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2010-01-14 Added SYNONYM starvation-induced autophagy
2008-10-02 Added DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane-bounded autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane-bounded structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane-bounded autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2008-10-02 Deleted DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2008-06-06 Added SYNONYM autophagy in response to cellular starvation
2008-06-06 Added SYNONYM non-specific autophagy
2008-05-13 Added DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2008-05-12 Deleted DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2007-01-23 Updated DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2002-11-27 Updated DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the nonselective degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation.
2001-08-06 Added DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells.

Relationships

Timestamp Action Category Detail
2016-03-17 Added RELATION has part GO:0048102 (autophagic cell death)
2015-10-21 Deleted RELATION is a GO:0044712 (single-organism catabolic process)
2015-10-21 Deleted RELATION is a GO:0009267 (cellular response to starvation)
2015-07-10 Deleted RELATION has part GO:0048102 (autophagic cell death)
2013-11-28 Added RELATION is a GO:0044712 (single-organism catabolic process)
2010-06-15 Added RELATION has part GO:0048102 (autophagic cell death)
2010-06-14 Deleted RELATION has part GO:0048102 (autophagic cell death)
2010-06-08 Added RELATION has part GO:0048102 (autophagic cell death)
2008-06-06 Added RELATION is a GO:0009267 (cellular response to starvation)
2008-04-01 Updated RELATION is a GO:0006914 (autophagy)

Other

Timestamp Action Category Detail
2008-06-06 Added SECONDARY GO:0034262 (autophagy in response to cellular starvation)
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