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GO Term History: Displaying 500 audit records for all terms for the date 2008-05-12

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Introduction

This page displays the differences recorded in the full Gene Ontology OBO v1.2 file as audited by the UniProt-GOA database during its daily update cycle.
If there is any delay in uploading the current OBO file, the changes displayed and the date recorded for these changes may not correspond to when the changes to the OBO file were committed.

All changes

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2008-05-12 GO:0046608 carotenoid isomerase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the isomerization of poly-cis-carotenoids to all-trans-carotenoids.
2008-05-12 GO:0018884 carbazole metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbazole, a heterocyclic aromatic compound containing a dibenzopyrrole system that is produced during coal gasification and is present in cigarette smoke. Coal tar produced at high temperature contains an average of 1.5% carbazole. It is used widely in synthesis of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and plastics and is a suspected carcinogen.
2008-05-12 GO:0030246 carbohydrate binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with any carbohydrate.
2008-05-12 GO:0016051 carbohydrate biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.
2008-05-12 GO:0016052 carbohydrate catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.
2008-05-12 GO:0009756 carbohydrate mediated signaling Deleted DEFINITION A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of carbohydrate.
2008-05-12 GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.
2008-05-12 GO:0009758 carbohydrate utilization Deleted DEFINITION Series of processes that involve carbohydrate sensing, carbohydrate transportation and carbohydrate metabolism which lead to the utilization of carbohydrates.
2008-05-12 GO:0030634 carbon fixation by acetyl-CoA pathway Deleted DEFINITION A pathway of carbon dioxide fixation in which one molecule of acetyl-CoA is completely synthesized from two molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2).
2008-05-12 GO:0018492 carbon-monoxide dehydrogenase (acceptor) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CO + H2O + acceptor = CO2 + reduced acceptor.
2008-05-12 GO:0008805 carbon-monoxide oxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CO + H2O + ferrocytochrome b-561 = CO2 + 2 H+ + 2 ferricytochrome b-561.
2008-05-12 GO:0019382 carbon tetrachloride catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carbon tetrachloride, a toxic, carcinogenic compound which is used as a general solvent in industrial degreasing operations. It is also used as grain fumigant and a chemical intermediate in the production of refrigerants.
2008-05-12 GO:0018885 carbon tetrachloride metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbon tetrachloride, a toxic, carcinogenic compound which is used as a general solvent in industrial degreasing operations. It is also used as grain fumigant and a chemical intermediate in the production of refrigerants.
2008-05-12 GO:0004089 carbonate dehydratase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: H2CO3 = CO2 + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0004090 carbonyl reductase (NADPH) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: R-CHOH-R' + NADP+ = R-CO-R' + NADPH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0004091 carboxylesterase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a carboxylic ester + H2O = an alcohol + a carboxylic anion.
2008-05-12 GO:0046394 carboxylic acid biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (-COOH) groups.
2008-05-12 GO:0046395 carboxylic acid catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (-COOH) groups.
2008-05-12 GO:0019752 carboxylic acid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).
2008-05-12 GO:0008806 carboxymethylenebutenolidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide + H2O = 4 oxohex-2-enedioate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004182 carboxypeptidase A activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptidyl-L-amino acid + H2O = peptide + L-amino acid. Little or no action with -Asp, -Glu, -Arg, -Lys or -Pro.
2008-05-12 GO:0004186 carboxypeptidase C activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity.
2008-05-12 GO:0004187 carboxypeptidase D activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the preferential release of a C-terminal arginine or lysine residue. Function is inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate and sensitive to thiol-blocking reagents.
2008-05-12 GO:0004183 carboxypeptidase E activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptidyl-L-lysine (or peptidyl-L-arginine) + H2O = peptide + L-lysine (or L-arginine). Function is activated by Co2+ and inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline and other chelating agents.
2008-05-12 GO:0008807 carboxyvinyl-carboxyphosphonate phosphorylmutase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1-carboxyvinyl carboxyphosphonate = 3-(hydrohydroxyphosphoryl)pyruvate + CO2.
2008-05-12 GO:0008808 cardiolipin synthase activity Deleted DEFINITION Phosphatidylglycerol + phosphatidylglycerol = diphosphatidylglycerol (cardiolipin) + glycerol.
2008-05-12 GO:0045329 carnitine biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carnitine (hydroxy-trimethyl aminobutyric acid), a compound that participates in the transfer of acyl groups across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
2008-05-12 GO:0042413 carnitine catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carnitine (hydroxy-trimethyl aminobutyric acid), a compound that participates in the transfer of acyl groups across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
2008-05-12 GO:0009437 carnitine metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carnitine (hydroxy-trimethyl aminobutyric acid), a compound that participates in the transfer of acyl groups across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
2008-05-12 GO:0019254 carnitine metabolic process, CoA-linked Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carnitine, where metabolism is linked to CoA.
2008-05-12 GO:0004092 carnitine O-acetyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + carnitine = CoA + O-acetylcarnitine.
2008-05-12 GO:0008458 carnitine O-octanoyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: octanoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = CoA + L-octanoylcarnitine.
2008-05-12 GO:0004095 carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: palmitoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = CoA + L-palmitoylcarnitine.
2008-05-12 GO:0006853 carnitine shuttle Deleted DEFINITION The transfer of acyl groups to and from acyl-CoA molecules to form O-acylcarnitine, which can exchange across the mitochondrial inner membrane with unacylated carnitine.
2008-05-12 GO:0016719 carotene 7,8-desaturase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: neurosporene + donor-H2 + O2 = lycopene + acceptor + 2 H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0016120 carotene biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carotenes, hydrocarbon carotenoids.
2008-05-12 GO:0016121 carotene catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carotenes, hydrocarbon carotenoids.
2008-05-12 GO:0016117 carotenoid biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carotenoids, tetraterpenoid compounds in which two units of 4 isoprenoid residues joined head-to-tail are themselves joined tail-to-tail.
2008-05-12 GO:0016118 carotenoid catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carotenoids, tetraterpenoid compounds in which two units of 4 isoprenoid residues joined head-to-tail are themselves joined tail-to-tail.
2008-05-12 GO:0007050 cell cycle arrest Deleted DEFINITION The process by which the cell cycle is halted during one of the normal phases (G1, S, G2, M).
2008-05-12 GO:0003750 cell cycle regulator Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0008219 cell death Deleted DEFINITION The specific activation or halting of processes within a cell so that its vital functions markedly cease, rather than simply deteriorating gradually over time, which culminates in cell death.
2008-05-12 GO:0030154 cell differentiation Deleted DEFINITION The process whereby relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate.
2008-05-12 GO:0009826 unidimensional cell growth Deleted DEFINITION The process by which a cell irreversibly increases in size in one [spatial] dimension or along one axis.
2008-05-12 GO:0009825 multidimensional cell growth Deleted DEFINITION The process by which a cell irreversibly increases in size in two or three [spatial] dimensions or along two or three axes.
2008-05-12 GO:0045165 cell fate commitment Deleted DEFINITION The commitment of cells to specific cell fates and their capacity to differentiate into particular kinds of cells. Positional information is established through protein signals that emanate from a localized source within a cell (the initial one-cell zygote) or within a developmental field.
2008-05-12 GO:0001709 cell fate determination Deleted DEFINITION Process involved in cell fate commitment. Once determination has taken place, a cell becomes committed to differentiate down a particular pathway regardless of its environment.
2008-05-12 GO:0001708 cell fate specification Deleted DEFINITION The process involved in the specification of cell identity. Once specification has taken place, a cell will be committed to differentiate down a specific pathway if left in its normal environment.
2008-05-12 GO:0030260 entry into host cell Deleted DEFINITION The invasion by an organism of a cell of its host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction.
2008-05-12 GO:0008715 CDP-diacylglycerol diphosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + H2O = CMP + phosphatidate.
2008-05-12 GO:0008444 CDP-diacylglycerol-glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + glycerol 3-phosphate = CMP + 3-(3-phosphatidyl)-glycerol 1-phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0003881 CDP-diacylglycerol-inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + myo-inositol = CMP + phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol.
2008-05-12 GO:0003882 CDP-diacylglycerol-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + L-serine = CMP + O-sn-phosphatidyl-L-serine.
2008-05-12 GO:0045321 leukocyte activation Deleted DEFINITION A change in morphology and behavior of a leukocyte resulting from exposure to a specific antigen, mitogen, cytokine, cellular ligand, or soluble factor.
2008-05-12 GO:0005194 cell adhesion molecule activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Mediates the adhesion of the cell to other cells or to the extracellular matrix.
2008-05-12 GO:0004895 cell adhesion receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Combining with cell adhesion molecules to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0007574 cell aging (sensu Saccharomyces) Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Process associated with continued cell division (budding) by the mother cell. Age is often measured by counting the number of bud scars on the cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0018459 carveol dehydrogenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (-)-trans-carveol + NADP+ = (-)-carvone + NADPH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0018494 carvone reductase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: carvone + 2 H+ + 2 e- = dihydrocarvone.
2008-05-12 GO:0008303 caspase complex Deleted DEFINITION A cytosolic endopeptidase with specificity for the hydrolysis of aspartyl bonds. Caspases are involved in apoptosis.
2008-05-12 GO:0004096 catalase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2 H2O2 = O2 + 2 H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0006802 catalase reaction Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The processes involved in the induction or activation of catalase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of H2O2 into H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0018576 catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: catechol + O2 = cis,cis-muconate.
2008-05-12 GO:0009713 catechol-containing compound biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of catechol, a compound containing a pyrocatechol nucleus or substituent.
2008-05-12 GO:0019614 catechol-containing compound catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of catechol, a compound containing a pyrocatechol nucleus or substituent.
2008-05-12 GO:0009712 catechol-containing compound metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a compound containing a pyrocatechol (1,2-benzenediol) nucleus or substituent.
2008-05-12 GO:0004097 catechol oxidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2 catechol + O2 = 2 1,2-benzoquinone + 2 H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0042423 catecholamine biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
2008-05-12 GO:0042424 catecholamine catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
2008-05-12 GO:0006584 catecholamine metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
2008-05-12 GO:0004213 cathepsin B activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds with a broad specificity. Preferentially cleaves the terminal bond of -Arg-Arg-Xaa motifs in small molecule substrates (thus differing from cathepsin L). In addition to being an endopeptidase, shows peptidyl-dipeptidase activity, liberating C-terminal dipeptides.
2008-05-12 GO:0004192 cathepsin D activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Specificity similar to, but narrower than, that of pepsin A. Does not cleave the Gln4-His5 bond in the B chain of insulin.
2008-05-12 GO:0004193 cathepsin E activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Similar to cathepsin D, but slightly broader specificity.
2008-05-12 GO:0004261 cathepsin G activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Specificity similar to chymotrypsin C.
2008-05-12 GO:0004215 cathepsin H activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, acting as an aminopeptidase (notably, cleaving Arg-Xaa bonds) as well as an endopeptidase.
2008-05-12 GO:0004216 cathepsin K activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Has a broad proteolytic activity. With small-molecule substrates and inhibitors, the major determinant of specificity is P2, which is preferably Leu, Met > Phe, and not Arg.
2008-05-12 GO:0004217 cathepsin L activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Specificity close to that of papain. As compared to cathepsin B, cathepsin L exhibits higher activity towards protein substrates, but has little activity on Z-Arg-Arg-NHMec, and no peptidyl-dipeptidase activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0004218 cathepsin S activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Similar to cathepsin L, but with much less activity on the terminal bond of Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec, and more activity on the terminal bond of Z-Val-Val-Arg-Xaa compounds.
2008-05-12 GO:0046583 cation efflux transmembrane transporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a cation or cations from the inside of the cell to the outside of the cell across a membrane.
2008-05-12 GO:0030003 cellular cation homeostasis Deleted DEFINITION The regulation of the levels, transport, and metabolism of cations within a cell or between a cell and its external environment.
2008-05-12 GO:0008324 cation transmembrane transporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of cation from one side of the membrane to the other.
2008-05-12 GO:0009485 cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: 4 ferrocytochrome c + O2 = 4 ferricytochrome c + 2 H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0045222 CD4 biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of CD4, a CD marker that occurs on T-helper cells and is involved in MHC class II restricted interactions.
2008-05-12 GO:0046705 CDP biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of CDP, cytidine (5'-)diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0046706 CDP catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of CDP, cytidine (5'-)diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0046704 CDP metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving CDP, cytidine (5'-)diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0016024 CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of CDP-diacylglycerol, CDP-1,2-diacylglycerol, a substance composed of diacylglycerol in glycosidic linkage with cytidine diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0046342 CDP-diacylglycerol catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of CDP-diacylglycerol, CDP-1,2-diacylglycerol, a substance composed of diacylglycerol in glycosidic linkage with cytidine diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0046341 CDP-diacylglycerol metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving CDP-diacylglycerol, CDP-1,2-diacylglycerol, a substance composed of diacylglycerol in glycosidic linkage with cytidine diphosphate. It is a common intermediate in phospholipid biosynthesis.
2008-05-12 GO:0005391 sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + Na+(in) + K+(out) = ADP + phosphate + Na+(out) + K+(in).
2008-05-12 GO:0005625 soluble fraction Deleted DEFINITION That fraction of cells, prepared by disruptive biochemical methods, that is soluble in water.
2008-05-12 GO:0016444 somatic cell DNA recombination Deleted DEFINITION Recombination occurring within or between DNA molecules in somatic cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0016446 somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes Deleted DEFINITION Mutations occurring somatically that result in amino acid changes in the rearranged V regions of immunoglobulins.
2008-05-12 GO:0003704 specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity Deleted DEFINITION Functions to enable the transcription of specific, or specific sets, of genes by RNA polymerase II.
2008-05-12 GO:0000170 sphingosine hydroxylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydroxylation of sphingolipid long chain bases.
2008-05-12 GO:0042196 chlorinated hydrocarbon metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving chlorinated hydrocarbons, any hydrocarbon with one or more chlorine atoms attached to it.
2008-05-12 GO:0018914 chlorobenzene metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving chlorobenzene, a derivative of benzene with a chlorine atoms attached to the ring. It is a colorless liquid that is manufactured for use as a solvent. It quickly evaporates in the air and is degraded by hydroxyl radicals that are produced photochemically. The gas acts as a source of ClOx, which helps in the breakdown of stratospheric ozone.
2008-05-12 GO:0018850 chloromuconate cycloisomerase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2-chloro-2,5-dihydro-5-oxofuran-2-acetate = 3-chloro-cis,cis-muconate.
2008-05-12 GO:0018642 chlorophenol 4-monooxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the addition or substitution of an OH group on C4 of a halogenated phenol.
2008-05-12 GO:0016168 chlorophyll binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with chlorophyll; any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment.
2008-05-12 GO:0015995 chlorophyll biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of chlorophyll, any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment, from less complex precursors.
2008-05-12 GO:0015996 chlorophyll catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of chlorophyll, any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment, into less complex products.
2008-05-12 GO:0015994 chlorophyll metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving chlorophyll, any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment.
2008-05-12 GO:0046408 chlorophyll synthetase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the esterification reaction: chlorophyllide a + phytyl pyrophosphate = chlorophyll a + pyrophosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0009904 chloroplast accumulation movement Deleted DEFINITION The relocation process by which chloroplasts in photosynthetic cells move toward a brighter area in a cell to optimize photosynthesis.
2008-05-12 GO:0009903 chloroplast avoidance movement Deleted DEFINITION The relocation process by which chloroplasts in photosynthetic cells avoid strong light and move away from it in order to preserve the photosynthetic machinery.
2008-05-12 GO:0016477 cell migration Deleted DEFINITION The orderly movement of cells from one site to another, often during the development of a multicellular organism.
2008-05-12 GO:0042074 cell migration involved in gastrulation Deleted DEFINITION The migration of individual cells within the blastocyst to help establish the multi-layered body plan of the organism (gastrulation). For example, the migration of cells from the surface to the interior of the embryo (ingression).
2008-05-12 GO:0006928 movement of cell or subcellular component Deleted DEFINITION Any process involved in the controlled movement of a cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0009920 cell plate formation involved in plant-type cell wall biogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the cell plate is formed at the equator of the spindle in the dividing cells during early telophase.
2008-05-12 GO:0016171 cell surface antigen Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0042280 cell surface antigen activity, host-interacting Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Functions as an immunogenic target for the host immune system that masks other invariant surface molecules from immune recognition.
2008-05-12 GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway Deleted DEFINITION Any series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to a receptor on the surface of the target cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0009274 peptidoglycan-based cell wall Deleted DEFINITION A protective structure outside the cytoplasmic membrane composed of peptidoglycan, a molecule made up of a glycan (sugar) backbone of repetitively alternating N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid with short, attached, cross-linked peptide chains containing unusual amino acids; also called murein. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Bacteria (Bacteria, ncbi_taxonomy_id:2).
2008-05-12 GO:0009277 fungal-type cell wall Deleted DEFINITION A rigid yet dynamic structure surrounding the plasma membrane that affords protection from stresses and contributes to cell morphogenesis, consisting of extensively cross-linked glycoproteins and carbohydrates. The glycoproteins may be modified with N- or O-linked carbohydrates, or glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; the polysaccharides are primarily branched glucans, including beta-linked and alpha-linked glucans, and may also include chitin and other carbohydrate polymers, but not cellulose or pectin. Enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis are also found in the cell wall. Note that some forms of fungi develop a capsule outside of the cell wall under certain circumstances; this is considered a separate structure.
2008-05-12 GO:0009276 Gram-negative-bacterium-type cell wall Deleted DEFINITION The peptidoglycan layer of the Gram-negative cell envelope. In Gram-negative cells the peptidoglycan is relatively thin (1-2nm) and is linked to the outer membrane by lipoproteins. In Gram-negative cells the peptidoglycan is too thin to retain the primary stain in the Gram staining procedure and therefore cells appear red after Gram stain. As in but not restricted to the Gram-negative bacteria.
2008-05-12 GO:0009275 Gram-positive-bacterium-type cell wall Deleted DEFINITION A layer of peptidoglycan found outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. The peptidoglycan is relatively thick (20-80nm) and retains the primary stain of the Gram procedure, thus cells appear blue after Gram stain. The cell walls often contain teichoic acids (acidic anionic polysaccharides) bound to the peptidoglycan. As in but not restricted to the Gram-positive bacteria.
2008-05-12 GO:0042546 cell wall biogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the cell wall, the rigid or semi-rigid envelope lying outside the cell membrane of plant, fungal and most prokaryotic cells, maintaining their shape and protecting them from osmotic lysis.
2008-05-12 GO:0009273 peptidoglycan-based cell wall biogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the peptidoglycan-based cell wall.
2008-05-12 GO:0009272 fungal-type cell wall biogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the fungal-type cell wall.
2008-05-12 GO:0009832 plant-type cell wall biogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the cellulose and pectin-containing cell wall.
2008-05-12 GO:0016998 cell wall macromolecule catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a cell wall.
2008-05-12 GO:0006039 cell wall chitin catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of cell wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0006037 cell wall chitin metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cell wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0009280 cell wall inner membrane Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. In Gram-negative bacteria the membrane that separates the cytoplasm from the murein sacculus.
2008-05-12 GO:0009828 plant-type cell wall loosening Deleted DEFINITION The series of events causing chemical and structural alterations of an existing cellulose and pectin-containing cell wall that results in greater extensibility of the wall. As in, but not restricted to, the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:3398).
2008-05-12 GO:0004103 choline kinase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + choline = ADP + O-phosphocholine.
2008-05-12 GO:0019695 choline metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium), an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
2008-05-12 GO:0019133 choline monooxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: choline + 2 reduced ferredoxin + O2 + 2 H+ = betaine aldehyde hydrate + 2 oxidized ferredoxin + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0004102 choline O-acetyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + choline = CoA + O-acetylcholine.
2008-05-12 GO:0005828 kinetochore microtubule Deleted DEFINITION Any of the spindle microtubules that attach to the kinetochores of chromosomes by their plus ends, and maneuver the chromosomes during mitotic or meiotic chromosome segregation.
2008-05-12 GO:0006089 lactate metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving lactate, the anion of lactic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0030027 lamellipodium Deleted DEFINITION A thin sheetlike process extended by the leading edge of a crawling fibroblast; contains a dense meshwork of actin filaments.
2008-05-12 GO:0030032 lamellipodium assembly Deleted DEFINITION Formation of a lamellipodium, a thin sheetlike extension of the surface of a migrating cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0005638 lamin filament Deleted DEFINITION Any of a group of intermediate-filament proteins that form the fibrous matrix on the inner surface of the nuclear envelope. They are classified as lamins A, B and C.
2008-05-12 GO:0005606 laminin-1 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005607 laminin-2 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha4, beta1 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005608 laminin-3 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha1, beta2 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005609 laminin-4 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha2, beta2 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005610 laminin-5 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha3, beta3 and gamma2 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005611 laminin-6 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha3, beta1 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005612 laminin-7 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha3, beta2 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0016606 LYSP100-associated nuclear domain Deleted DEFINITION A class of nuclear body (Lands = LYSP100-associated nuclear domains); they are globular, electron-dense structures that may traffic between the nucleus and cytoplasm; they react against SP140 auto-antibodies.
2008-05-12 GO:0000250 lanosterol synthase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene = lanosterol. This is a cyclization reaction that forms the sterol nucleus.
2008-05-12 GO:0016328 lateral plasma membrane Deleted DEFINITION The membranes on the sides of epithelial cells which lie at the interface of adjacent cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0016524 latrotoxin receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION Combining with alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin, to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0000237 leptotene Deleted DEFINITION Progression through the first stage of prophase I in meiosis, in which chromosomes first become visible.
2008-05-12 GO:0009516 leucoplast Deleted DEFINITION Colorless plastid involved in the synthesis of monoterpenes.
2008-05-12 GO:0006691 leukotriene metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving leukotriene, a pharmacologically active substance derived from a polyunsaturated fatty acid, such as arachidonic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0016922 ligand-dependent nuclear receptor binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively, in a ligand dependent manner, with a nuclear receptor protein.
2008-05-12 GO:0016923 ligand-dependent thyroid hormone receptor interactor activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Ligand dependent interaction with the thyroid hormone receptor.
2008-05-12 GO:0009503 thylakoid light-harvesting complex Deleted DEFINITION A thylakoid membrane complex of chlorophylls a and b together with chlorophyll a-b binding proteins. In addition, LHCs contain a number of other proteins, the function of which is speculative, together with accessory pigments. The LHCs capture and transfer energy to photosystems I and II. As in, but not restricted to, green plants and algae (Viridiplantae, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33090).
2008-05-12 GO:0009518 PSI associated light-harvesting complex I Deleted DEFINITION Protein-pigment complex associated with photosystem I.
2008-05-12 GO:0009517 PSII associated light-harvesting complex II Deleted DEFINITION Protein-pigment complex associated with photosystem II.
2008-05-12 GO:0009807 lignan biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lignans, any member of a class of plant metabolites related to lignins. Lignans are usually found as phenylpropanoid dimers in which the phenylpropanoid units are linked tail to tail and thus having a 2,3 dibenzylbutane skeleton, but higher oligomers can also exist.
2008-05-12 GO:0009806 lignan metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving lignans, any member of a class of plant metabolites related to lignins. Lignans are usually found as phenylpropanoid dimers in which the phenylpropanoid units are linked tail to tail and thus having a 2,3 dibenzylbutane skeleton, but higher oligomers can also exist.
2008-05-12 GO:0009809 lignin biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lignins, a class of polymers formed by the dehydrogenetive radical polymerization of various phenylpropanoid monomers.
2008-05-12 GO:0009808 lignin metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving lignins, a class of polymers of phenylpropanoid units.
2008-05-12 GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent. Includes fatty acids; neutral fats, other fatty-acid esters, and soaps; long-chain (fatty) alcohols and waxes; sphingoids and other long-chain bases; glycolipids, phospholipids and sphingolipids; and carotenes, polyprenols, sterols, terpenes and other isoprenoids.
2008-05-12 GO:0001530 lipopolysaccharide binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with lipopolysaccharide.
2008-05-12 GO:0015437 lipopolysaccharide-transporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + lipopolysaccharide(in) = ADP + phosphate + lipopolysaccharide(out).
2008-05-12 GO:0017118 lipoyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of the lipoyl group from lipoyl-AMP to the lysine residue of lipoate-dependent enzyme.
2008-05-12 GO:0015063 long-wave-sensitive opsin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An opsin with maximal absorption above 500 nm.
2008-05-12 GO:0009673 low-affinity phosphate transmembrane transporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of phosphate from one side of the membrane to the other. In low affinity transport the transporter is able to bind the solute only if it is present at very high concentrations.
2008-05-12 GO:0009676 low-affinity sulfate:proton symporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: sulfate(out) + H+(out) = sulfate(in) + H+(in). Transporter that mediates the transport of sulfate between cellular or subcellular compartments with a low affinity for hydrogen and sulfate.
2008-05-12 GO:0000072 M phase specific microtubule process Deleted DEFINITION A microtubule-based process that occurs only during M phase of the cell cycle.
2008-05-12 GO:0000216 M/G1 transition of mitotic cell cycle Deleted DEFINITION Progression from M phase to G1 phase of the mitotic cell cycle.
2008-05-12 GO:0016236 macroautophagy Deleted DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2008-05-12 GO:0004012 phospholipid-translocating ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the movement of phospholipids from one membrane face to the other ('flippase' activity), driven by the hydrolysis of ATP.
2008-05-12 GO:0015444 magnesium-importing ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + Mg2+(out) = ADP + phosphate + Mg2+(in).
2008-05-12 GO:0030011 maintenance of cell polarity Deleted DEFINITION The maintenance of established anisotropic intracellular organization or cell growth patterns.
2008-05-12 GO:0005803 secretory vesicle Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A small subcellular vesicle, or granule, surrounded by a single-layered membrane; formed from the Golgi apparatus and contains a highly concentrated protein destined for secretion.
2008-05-12 GO:0008337 selectin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A class of cell adhesion molecules that bind to carbohydrate via a lectin-like domain; integral membrane glycoproteins.
2008-05-12 GO:0005918 septate junction Deleted DEFINITION Invertebrate-specific cell-cell junctions which form a band around the apical borders of epithelial cells and attach to actin filaments.
2008-05-12 GO:0006714 sesquiterpenoid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving sesquiterpenoid compounds, terpenoids with three isoprene units.
2008-05-12 GO:0016016 short-wave-sensitive opsin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An opsin with maximal absorption between 400 and 500 nm.
2008-05-12 GO:0016987 sigma factor activity Deleted DEFINITION A sigma factor is the promoter specificity subunit of eubacterial-type multisubunit RNA polymerases, those whose core subunit composition is often described as alpha(2)-beta-beta-prime. (This type of multisubunit RNA polymerase complex is known to be found in eubacteria and plant plastids). Although sigma does not bind DNA on its own, when combined with the core to form the holoenzyme, this binds specifically to promoter sequences, with the sigma factor making sequence specific contacts with the promoter elements. The sigma subunit is released from the elongating form of the polymerase and is thus free to act catalytically for multiple RNA polymerase core enzymes.
2008-05-12 GO:0008548 signal-recognition-particle GTPase activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: GTP + H2O = GDP + phosphate. Activity is associated with the signal-recognition particle, a protein and RNA-containing structure involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein synthesis.
2008-05-12 GO:0008180 COP9 signalosome Deleted DEFINITION A protein complex that catalyzes the deneddylation of proteins, including the cullin component of SCF ubiquitin E3 ligase; deneddylation increases the activity of cullin family ubiquitin ligases. The signalosome is involved in many regulatory process, including some which control development, in many species; also regulates photomorphogenesis in plants; in many species its subunits are highly similar to those of the proteasome.
2008-05-12 GO:0015445 silver-exporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + Ag+(in) = ADP + phosphate + Ag+(out).
2008-05-12 GO:0008310 single-stranded DNA 3'-5' exodeoxyribonuclease activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the sequential cleavage of mononucleotides from a free 3' terminus of a single-stranded DNA molecule.
2008-05-12 GO:0008297 single-stranded DNA exodeoxyribonuclease activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the sequential cleavage of mononucleotides from a free 5' or 3' terminus of a single-stranded DNA molecule.
2008-05-12 GO:0007062 sister chromatid cohesion Deleted DEFINITION The cell cycle process by which the sister chromatids of a replicated chromosome are joined along the entire length of the chromosome.
2008-05-12 GO:0003925 small monomeric GTPase activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: GTP + H2O = GDP + phosphate. Small monomeric enzymes with a molecular mass of 21 kDa that are distantly related to the alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase. They are involved in cell-growth regulation (RAS subfamily), membrane vesicle traffic and uncoating (RAB and ARF subfamilies), nuclear protein import (RAN subfamily) and organization of the cytoskeleton (Rho and Rac subfamilies).
2008-05-12 GO:0006408 snRNA export from nucleus Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of snRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
2008-05-12 GO:0000244 spliceosomal tri-snRNP complex assembly Deleted DEFINITION The formation of a tri-snRNP complex containing U4 and U6 (or U4atac and U6atac) snRNAs and U5 snRNAs and associated proteins. This includes reannealing of U4 and U6 (or U4atac and U6atac) snRNAs released from previous rounds of splicing to reform the U4/U6 snRNP (or U4atac/U6atac snRNP) as well as the subsequent association of the U5 snRNP with the U4/U6 snRNP (or U4atac/U6atac snRNP) to form a tri-snRNP that is ready to reassemble into another spliceosome complex.
2008-05-12 GO:0008554 sodium-exporting ATPase activity, phosphorylative mechanism Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + Na+(in) = ADP + phosphate + Na+(out); by a phosphorylative mechanism.
2008-05-12 GO:0016472 sodium ion-transporting two-sector ATPase complex Deleted DEFINITION A large protein complex that catalyzes the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP by a rotational mechanism, coupled to the transport of sodium ions across a membrane. The complex comprises a membrane sector (F0 or V0) that carries out ion transport and a cytoplasmic compartment sector (F1 or V1) that catalyzes ATP synthesis or hydrolysis.
2008-05-12 GO:0007349 cellularization Deleted DEFINITION The separation of a multi-nucleate cell or syncytium into individual cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0032953 regulation of (1->3)-beta-D-glucan biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways relusting in the formation of beta-1,3 glucans.
2008-05-12 GO:0032952 regulation of (1->3)-beta-D-glucan metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving beta-1,3 glucans.
2008-05-12 GO:0008810 cellulase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin and cereal beta-D-glucans.
2008-05-12 GO:0016162 cellulose 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose and cellotetraose, releasing cellobiose from the non-reducing ends of the chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0030248 cellulose binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with cellulose.
2008-05-12 GO:0030244 cellulose biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cellulose, a linear beta1-4 glucan of molecular mass 50-400 kDa with the pyranose units in the -4C1 conformation.
2008-05-12 GO:0030245 cellulose catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of cellulose, a linear beta1-4 glucan of molecular mass 50-400 kDa with the pyranose units in the -4C1 conformation.
2008-05-12 GO:0030243 cellulose metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cellulose, a linear beta1-4 glucan of molecular mass 50-400 kDa with the pyranose units in the -4C1 conformation.
2008-05-12 GO:0009549 cellulose microfibril Deleted DEFINITION Cellulose is a straight chain polysaccharide composed of B(14) linked glucose subunits. It is a major component of plant cell walls where it is found as microfibrils laid down in orthogonal layers. Higher plant microfibrils are about 10nm in diameter and extremely long in relation to their width. The cellulose molecules are oriented parallel to the long axis of the microfibril in a paracrystalline array, which provides great tensile strength. The microfibrils are held in place by the wall matrix and their orientation is closely controlled by the protoplast.
2008-05-12 GO:0016761 cellulose synthase (GDP-forming) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: GDP-glucose + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n) = GDP + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n+1).
2008-05-12 GO:0016760 cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n) = UDP + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n+1).
2008-05-12 GO:0009947 centrolateral axis specification Deleted DEFINITION The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of the centrolateral axis. In plants, this axis is duplicated and runs from the midrib to the margin of the leaf.
2008-05-12 GO:0005698 centromere Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The region of a eukaryotic chromosome that is attached to the spindle during nuclear division. It is defined genetically as the region of the chromosome that always segregates at the first division of meiosis; the region of the chromosome in which no crossing over occurs. At the start of M phase, each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids with a constriction at a point which forms the centromere. During late prophase two kinetochores assemble on each centromere, one kinetochore on each sister chromatid.
2008-05-12 GO:0007002 centromere binding Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0007376 cephalic furrow formation Deleted DEFINITION Formation of a partial necklace of inturning tissue on the lateral sides of the embryo, along the dorsal-ventral axis. This furrow demarcates head from thorax in the developing protostome.
2008-05-12 GO:0017040 ceramidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: N-acylsphingosine + H2O = a fatty acid + sphingosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0046513 ceramide biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of ceramides, any N-acylated sphingoid.
2008-05-12 GO:0046514 ceramide catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of ceramides, any N-acetylated sphingoid.
2008-05-12 GO:0008120 ceramide glucosyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + N-acylsphingosine = UDP + D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0001729 ceramide kinase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + ceramide = ADP + ceramide 1-phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0006124 ferredoxin metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving ferredoxin, any simple, nonenzymatic iron-sulfur protein that is characterized by having equal numbers of atoms of iron and labile sulfur. Iron and sulfur atoms are present in one or two clusters of two or four atoms of each.
2008-05-12 GO:0008937 ferredoxin-NAD(P) reductase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: reduced ferredoxin + NAD(P)+ = oxidized ferredoxin + NAD(P)H + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0008860 ferredoxin-NAD+ reductase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: reduced ferredoxin + NAD+ = oxidized ferredoxin + NADH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0008199 ferric iron binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with ferric iron, Fe(III).
2008-05-12 GO:0000293 ferric-chelate reductase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2 Fe2+ + NAD+ = 2 Fe3+ + NADH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0004325 ferrochelatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: protoporphyrin + Fe2+ = protoheme + 2 H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0008198 ferrous iron binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with ferrous iron, Fe(II).
2008-05-12 GO:0004322 ferroxidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4 Fe2+ + 4 H+ + O2 = 4 Fe3+ + 2 H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0009566 fertilization Deleted DEFINITION The union of gametes of opposite sexes during the process of sexual reproduction to form a zygote. It involves the fusion of the gametic nuclei (karyogamy) and cytoplasm (plasmogamy).
2008-05-12 GO:0007338 single fertilization Deleted DEFINITION The union of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
2008-05-12 GO:0046424 ferulate 5-hydroxylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ferulic acid + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 5-hydroxyferulic acid + H2O + NADP+.
2008-05-12 GO:0030600 feruloyl esterase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: feruloyl-polysaccharide + H2O = ferulate + polysaccharide.
2008-05-12 GO:0001660 fever generation Deleted DEFINITION A rise in body temperature above the normal, often as a response to infection.
2008-05-12 GO:0008543 fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway Deleted DEFINITION The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a fibroblast growth factor receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.
2008-05-12 GO:0008001 fibrinogen Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0005104 fibroblast growth factor receptor binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR).
2008-05-12 GO:0042029 fibrolase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage of 14-Ala-Leu-15 in insulin B chain and cleavage of 413-Lys-Leu-414 in alpha chain of fibrinogen.
2008-05-12 GO:0030447 filamentous growth Deleted DEFINITION The process by which a multicellular organism or a group of unicellular organisms grow in a threadlike, filamentous shape.
2008-05-12 GO:0004415 hyalurononglucosaminidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate.
2008-05-12 GO:0030641 regulation of cellular pH Deleted DEFINITION The regulation of the levels, transport, and metabolism of hydrogen ions (protons) within a cell or between a cell and its external environment.
2008-05-12 GO:0006818 hydrogen transport Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of hydrogen (H2 or H+), into, out of, within or between cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0045289 luciferin monooxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the oxidation of luciferin. The reaction results in light emission as luciferin returns to the ground state after enzymatic oxidation.
2008-05-12 GO:0042299 lupeol synthase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cyclization of (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene to lupeol.
2008-05-12 GO:0016829 lyase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage of C-C, C-O, C-N and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation, or conversely adding a group to a double bond. They differ from other enzymes in that two substrates are involved in one reaction direction, but only one in the other direction. When acting on the single substrate, a molecule is eliminated and this generates either a new double bond or a new ring.
2008-05-12 GO:0009941 chloroplast envelope Deleted DEFINITION The double lipid bilayer enclosing the chloroplast and separating its contents from the rest of the cytoplasm; includes the intermembrane space.
2008-05-12 GO:0009706 chloroplast inner membrane Deleted DEFINITION The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the chloroplast envelope; also faces the chloroplast stroma.
2008-05-12 GO:0009707 chloroplast outer membrane Deleted DEFINITION The outer, i.e. cytoplasm-facing, lipid bilayer of the chloroplast envelope.
2008-05-12 GO:0009902 chloroplast relocation Deleted DEFINITION The process by which chloroplasts in photosynthetic cells migrate toward illuminated sites to optimize photosynthesis and move away from excessively illuminated areas to protect the photosynthetic machinery.
2008-05-12 GO:0045037 protein import into chloroplast stroma Deleted DEFINITION The import of proteins into the chloroplast stroma. Import depends on ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by stromal chaperones. Chloroplast stromal proteins, such as the S subunit of rubisco, have a N-terminal stromal-import sequence of about 44 amino acids which is cleaved from the protein precursor after import.
2008-05-12 GO:0045038 protein import into chloroplast thylakoid membrane Deleted DEFINITION The import of proteins into the chloroplast thylakoid membranes. Proteins that are destined for the thylakoid lumen require two uptake-targeting sequences: the first targets the protein to the stroma, and the second targets the protein from the stroma to the thylakoid lumen. Four separate thylakoid-import systems deal with the proteins once they are in the stroma.
2008-05-12 GO:0009494 chloroplast-type ferredoxin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0001567 cholesterol 25-hydroxylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + AH2 + O2 = 25-hydroxycholesterol + A + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0008123 cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol + NADP+ + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0030299 intestinal cholesterol absorption Deleted DEFINITION Uptake of cholesterol into the blood by absorption from the small intestine.
2008-05-12 GO:0006695 cholesterol biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones.
2008-05-12 GO:0006707 cholesterol catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones.
2008-05-12 GO:0008203 cholesterol metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones. It is a component of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer and of plasma lipoproteins and can be found in all animal tissues.
2008-05-12 GO:0008386 cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + reduced adrenal ferredoxin + O2 = pregnenolone + 4-methylpentanal + oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0016995 cholesterol oxidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + O2 = cholest-4-en-3-one + H2O2.
2008-05-12 GO:0030301 cholesterol transport Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3-beta-ol, into, out of, within or between cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0042425 choline biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium), an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
2008-05-12 GO:0042426 choline catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium), an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
2008-05-12 GO:0008812 choline dehydrogenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: choline + acceptor = betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor.
2008-05-12 GO:0030069 lysogeny Deleted DEFINITION The incorporation of a bacteriophage genome into the genome of its bacterial host organism.
2008-05-12 GO:0004622 lysophospholipase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2-lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O = glycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate.
2008-05-12 GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane Deleted DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding the lysosome and separating its contents from the cell cytoplasm.
2008-05-12 GO:0008245 lysosomal membrane hydrogen-transporting ATPase Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0004188 serine-type Pro-X carboxypeptidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage of a Pro-Xaa bond by a serine-type peptidase mechanism to release a C-terminal amino acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0005764 lysosome Deleted DEFINITION Any of a group of related cytoplasmic, membrane bound organelles that are found in most animal cells and that contain a variety of hydrolases, most of which have their maximal activities in the pH range 5-6. The contained enzymes display latency if properly isolated. About 40 different lysosomal hydrolases are known and lysosomes have a great variety of morphologies and functions.
2008-05-12 GO:0007040 lysosome organization Deleted DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of lysosomes.
2008-05-12 GO:0001619 lysosphingolipid and lysophosphatidic acid receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION Combining with lysosphingolipid or lysophosphatidic acid to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0003796 lysozyme activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of the 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid in peptidoglycan heteropolymers of the prokaryotes cell walls and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrins.
2008-05-12 GO:0000323 lytic vacuole Deleted DEFINITION A vacuole that is maintained at an acidic pH and which contains degradative enzymes, including a wide variety of acid hydrolases.
2008-05-12 GO:0000327 lytic vacuole within protein storage vacuole Deleted DEFINITION A membrane-bounded compartment containing crystals of phytic acid and proteins characteristic of a lytic vacuole, found within a storage vacuole.
2008-05-12 GO:0030068 lytic viral life cycle Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0019077 lytic viral release Deleted DEFINITION A viral infection and replication that leads to the destruction (lysis) of the infected cell with the release of virions.
2008-05-12 GO:0046200 m-cresol biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of m-cresol (3-hydroxytoluene), the meta-isoform of cresol.
2008-05-12 GO:0042213 m-cresol catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of m-cresol (3-hydroxytoluene), the meta-isoform of cresol.
2008-05-12 GO:0018221 peptidyl-serine palmitoylation Deleted DEFINITION The palmitoylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-palmitoyl-L-threonine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018070 peptidyl-serine phosphopantetheinylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphopantetheinylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phosphopantetheine-L-serine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018105 peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-serine.
2008-05-12 GO:0019126 peptidyl-serine racemization Deleted DEFINITION The racemization of peptidyl-serine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018178 peptidyl-threonine adenylylation Deleted DEFINITION The adenylylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-(phospho-5'-adenosine)-L-threonine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018220 peptidyl-threonine palmitoylation Deleted DEFINITION The palmitoylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-palmitoyl-L-threonine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018107 peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-threonine.
2008-05-12 GO:0019879 peptidyl-thyronine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-tyrosine Deleted DEFINITION The formation of peptidyl-thyronine from peptidyl-tyrosine in thyroglobulin by phenyl transfer coupled with the formation of peptidyl-dehydroalanine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018078 peptidyl-thyronine iodination Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine, formed from tyrosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018408 peptidyl-thyronine iodination to form 3',3'',5',5''-tetraiodo-L-thyronine Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine to form peptidyl-3',3'',5',5''-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (L-thyroxine).
2008-05-12 GO:0018407 peptidyl-thyronine iodination to form 3',3'',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine to form peptidyl-3',3'',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine (triiodothyronine).
2008-05-12 GO:0018080 peptidyl-tryptophan bromination Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-tryptophan, to form peptidyl-L-6'-bromotryptophan.
2008-05-12 GO:0045325 peptidyl-tryptophan hydroxylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational hydroxylation of peptidyl-tryptophan, to form peptidyl-L-3-hydroxytryptophan.
2008-05-12 GO:0019926 peptidyl-tryptophan oxidation to tryptophyl quinone Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational oxidation of peptidyl-tryptophan to form tryptophan-6,7-dione, otherwise known as tryptophyl quinone, which is further modified by cross-linking to either tryptophan or cysteine.
2008-05-12 GO:0019128 peptidyl-tryptophan racemization Deleted DEFINITION The racemization of peptidyl-tryptophan.
2008-05-12 GO:0018062 peptidyl-tryptophan succinylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of an N-terminal peptidyl-tryptophan residue to form peptidyl-N2-succinyl-L-tryptophan.
2008-05-12 GO:0018254 peptidyl-tyrosine adenylylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational adenylylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-O4'-(phospho-5'-adenosine)-L-tyrosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018251 peptidyl-tyrosine dehydrogenation Deleted DEFINITION The oxidation of the C alpha-C beta bond of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-dehydrotyrosine coupled with cyclization of neighboring residues.
2008-05-12 GO:0018336 peptidyl-tyrosine hydroxylation Deleted DEFINITION The hydroxylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-dihydroxyphenylalanine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018108 peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-O4'-phospho-L-tyrosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0006478 peptidyl-tyrosine sulfation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational sulfation of peptidyl-tyrosine residues to form peptidyl-O4'-sulfo-L-tyrosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018165 peptidyl-tyrosine uridylylation Deleted DEFINITION The uridylylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-O4'-(phospho-5'-uridine)-L-tyrosine, found in glutamine synthetase.
2008-05-12 GO:0004598 peptidylamidoglycolate lyase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptidylamidoglycolate = peptidyl amide + glyoxylate.
2008-05-12 GO:0000048 peptidyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptidyl-tRNA(1) + aminoacyl-tRNA(2) = tRNA(1) + peptidylaminoacyl-tRNA(2).
2008-05-12 GO:0009724 detection of abscisic acid stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which an abscisic acid stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0009721 detection of auxin stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which an auxin stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0042494 detection of bacterial lipoprotein Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which a bacterial lipoprotein stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. Bacterial lipoproteins are lipoproteins characterized by the presence of conserved sequence motifs called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
2008-05-12 GO:0009729 detection of brassinosteroid stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which a brassinosteroid stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0009730 detection of carbohydrate stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which a carbohydrate stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0009722 detection of cytokinin stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which a cytokinin stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0001553 luteinization Deleted DEFINITION Differentiation of theca and granulosa cells into luteal cells. Also other processes involved in the formation of a corpus luteum after ovulation.
2008-05-12 GO:0001554 luteolysis Deleted DEFINITION Regression of ovarian corpora lutea.
2008-05-12 GO:0015465 lysin activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An agent that can lyse cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0000279 M phase Deleted DEFINITION Progression through M phase, the part of the cell cycle comprising nuclear division.
2008-05-12 GO:0000087 mitotic M phase Deleted DEFINITION Progression through M phase, the part of the mitotic cell cycle during which mitosis takes place.
2008-05-12 GO:0000032 cell wall mannoprotein biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cell wall mannoproteins, any cell wall protein that contains covalently bound mannose residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0042545 cell wall modification Deleted DEFINITION The series of events leading to chemical and structural alterations of an existing cell wall that can result in loosening, increased extensibility or disassembly.
2008-05-12 GO:0009827 plant-type cell wall modification Deleted DEFINITION The series of events leading to chemical and structural alterations of an existing cellulose and pectin-containing cell wall that can result in loosening, increased extensibility or disassembly. As in, but not restricted to, the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:3398).
2008-05-12 GO:0009830 cell wall modification involved in abscission Deleted DEFINITION The series of events that occur during abscission that result in chemical and structural alterations of existing cell walls.
2008-05-12 GO:0042547 cell wall modification involved in multidimensional cell growth Deleted DEFINITION The series of events that occur during cell growth that result in chemical or structural changes to existing cell walls.
2008-05-12 GO:0009831 plant-type cell wall modification involved in multidimensional cell growth Deleted DEFINITION The series of events that occur during cell growth that result in chemical or structural changes to existing cell walls of the type composed chiefly of cellulose and pectin.
2008-05-12 GO:0009829 cell wall modification involved in fruit ripening Deleted DEFINITION The series of events that occur during ripening that result in chemical or structural alterations of existing cell walls.
2008-05-12 GO:0007047 cellular cell wall organization Deleted DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the cell wall, the rigid or semi-rigid envelope lying outside the cell membrane of plant, fungal and most prokaryotic cells, maintaining their shape and protecting them from osmotic lysis.
2008-05-12 GO:0045168 cell-cell signaling involved in cell fate commitment Deleted DEFINITION Signaling at long or short range between cells that results in the commitment of a cell to a certain fate.
2008-05-12 GO:0045123 cellular extravasation Deleted DEFINITION The migration of leukocytes from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissue.
2008-05-12 GO:0000902 cell morphogenesis Deleted DEFINITION Any process that modulates the size or shape of a cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0000904 cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation Deleted DEFINITION The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs when relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history.
2008-05-12 GO:0000903 regulation of cell shape during vegetative growth phase Deleted DEFINITION The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs during the development of a cell as it progresses through a mitotic cell cycle when it is not undergoing terminal differentiation.
2008-05-12 GO:0045333 cellular respiration Deleted DEFINITION The enzymatic release of energy from organic compounds (especially carbohydrates and fats) which either requires oxygen (aerobic respiration) or does not (anaerobic respiration).
2008-05-12 GO:0000022 mitotic spindle elongation Deleted DEFINITION Lengthening of the distance between poles of the mitotic spindle.
2008-05-12 GO:0003674 molecular_function Deleted DEFINITION Elemental activities, such as catalysis or binding, describing the actions of a gene product at the molecular level. A given gene product may exhibit one or more molecular functions.
2008-05-12 GO:0015412 molybdate transmembrane-transporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + molybdate(out) = ADP + phosphate + molybdate(in).
2008-05-12 GO:0006777 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the Mo-molybdopterin cofactor, essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum (Mo) ion coordinated by one or two molybdopterin ligands.
2008-05-12 GO:0015407 monosaccharide-transporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + monosaccharide(out) = ADP + phosphate + monosaccharide(in). Ribose, xylose, arabinose, galactose and methylgalactoside are imported.
2008-05-12 GO:0016098 monoterpenoid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving monoterpenoid compounds, terpenoids having a C10 skeleton.
2008-05-12 GO:0006406 mRNA export from nucleus Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
2008-05-12 GO:0030049 muscle filament sliding Deleted DEFINITION The sliding of actin thin filaments and myosin thick filaments past each other in muscle contraction. This involves a process of interaction of myosin located on a thick filament with actin located on a thin filament. During this process ATP is split and forces are generated.
2008-05-12 GO:0005863 striated muscle myosin thick filament Deleted DEFINITION Bipolar filaments formed of polymers of a muscle-specific myosin II isoform, found in the middle of sarcomeres in myofibrils.
2008-05-12 GO:0005865 striated muscle thin filament Deleted DEFINITION Filaments formed of actin and associated proteins; attached to Z discs at either end of sarcomeres in myofibrils.
2008-05-12 GO:0005862 muscle thin filament tropomyosin Deleted DEFINITION A form of the tropomyosin dimer found associated with actin and the troponin complex in muscle thin filaments.
2008-05-12 GO:0006021 inositol biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
2008-05-12 GO:0006020 inositol metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
2008-05-12 GO:0008934 inositol monophosphate 1-phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: myo-inositol 1-phosphate + H2O = myo-inositol + phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0030016 myofibril Deleted DEFINITION The contractile element of skeletal and cardiac muscle; a long, highly organized bundle of actin, myosin, and other proteins that contracts by a sliding filament mechanism.
2008-05-12 GO:0016459 myosin complex Deleted DEFINITION A protein complex, formed of one or more myosin heavy chains plus associated light chains and other proteins, that functions as a molecular motor; uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move actin filaments or to move vesicles or other cargo on fixed actin filaments; has magnesium-ATPase activity and binds actin. Myosin classes are distinguished based on sequence features of the motor, or head, domain, but also have distinct tail regions that are believed to bind specific cargoes.
2008-05-12 GO:0042496 detection of diacyl bacterial lipopeptide Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which a diacylated bacterial lipoprotein stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. Diacylated bacterial lipoproteins are diacylated lipoproteins characterized by the presence of conserved sequence motifs called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
2008-05-12 GO:0009726 detection of endogenous stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which an endogenous stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0005632 inner layer of spore wall Deleted DEFINITION Either of the two innermost layers of the spore wall, as described in Saccharomyces.
2008-05-12 GO:0005822 inner plaque of spindle pole body Deleted DEFINITION One of three laminate structures that form the spindle pole body; the inner plaque is in the nucleus.
2008-05-12 GO:0016312 inositol bisphosphate phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of one of the two phosphate groups of an inositol bisphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004446 inositol-hexakisphosphate phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: myo-inositol hexakisphosphate + H2O = myo-inositol pentakisphosphate (mixed isomers) + phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004441 inositol-1,4-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate + H2O = 1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate + phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004444 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 1-phosphatase Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-1 position of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004445 inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate + H2O = myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate + phosphate, and 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate + H2O = 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate + phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0016313 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate phosphatase Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The removal of one of the phosphate groups from an inositol triphosphate to produce an inositol bisphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0016316 phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate 4-phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1-phosphatidyl-myo-inositol 3,4-bisphosphate + H2O = 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate + phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004428 inositol or phosphatidylinositol kinase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the phosphorylation of myo-inositol (1,2,3,5/4,6-cyclohexanehexol) or a phosphatidylinositol.
2008-05-12 GO:0004437 inositol or phosphatidylinositol phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of a phosphate group from phosphorylated myo-inositol (1,2,3,5/4,6-cyclohexanehexol) or a phosphatidylinositol.
2008-05-12 GO:0005626 insoluble fraction Deleted DEFINITION That fraction of cells, prepared by disruptive biochemical methods, that is not soluble in water.
2008-05-12 GO:0030070 insulin processing Deleted DEFINITION The formation of mature insulin by proteolysis of the precursor preproinsulin. The signal sequence is first cleaved from preproinsulin to form proinsulin; proinsulin is then cleaved to release the C peptide, leaving the A and B chains of mature insulin linked by disulfide bridges.
2008-05-12 GO:0016021 integral component of membrane Deleted DEFINITION Penetrating at least one phospholipid bilayer of a membrane. May also refer to the state of being buried in the bilayer with no exposure outside the bilayer. When used to describe a protein, indicates that all or part of the peptide sequence is embedded in the membrane.
2008-05-12 GO:0016541 intein Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Intervening protein sequence excised from a protein precursor in protein splicing; inteins catalyze their own excision and many also possess endonuclease activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0005911 cell-cell junction Deleted DEFINITION A specialized region of connection between two cells including but not limited to gap junctions, desmosomes, and tight junctions, but excluding direct cytoplasmic junctions such as ring canals.
2008-05-12 GO:0016517 interleukin-12 receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION Combining with interleukin-12 to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0016515 interleukin-13 receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION Combining with interleukin-13 to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0005898 interleukin-13 receptor complex Deleted DEFINITION A complex that binds interleukin-13; consists of two chains, interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain and interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain.
2008-05-12 GO:0016516 interleukin-4 receptor complex Deleted DEFINITION Complexes that bind interleukin-4; consist of alpha, beta, and gamma chains and exist in three forms, one containing extracellular transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, one lacking the cytoplasmic domain and a third that is secreted.
2008-05-12 GO:0005821 intermediate layer of spindle pole body Deleted DEFINITION Structure between the central and outer plaques of the spindle pole body.
2008-05-12 GO:0001560 regulation of cell growth by extracellular stimulus Deleted DEFINITION Any process whereby external signals modulate the frequency, rate or extent of cell growth, the irreversible increase in size of a cell over time.
2008-05-12 GO:0001559 regulation of cell growth by detection of nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio Deleted DEFINITION Any process whereby the size of the nucleus with respect to the cytoplasm modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell growth, the irreversible increase in size of a cell over time.
2008-05-12 GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of proteins in a cell, including the movement of proteins between specific compartments or structures within a cell, such as organelles of a eukaryotic cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0006873 cellular ion homeostasis Deleted DEFINITION The regulation of the levels, transport, and metabolism of ions within a cell or between a cell and its external environment.
2008-05-12 GO:0008042 iron-sulfur electron transfer carrier Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An iron-sulfur protein that serves as an electron acceptor and electron donor in an electron transport system.
2008-05-12 GO:0004452 isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the isomerization of isopentenyl diphosphate into dimethylallyl diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0045436 lycopene beta cyclase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cyclization of beta rings at one or both ends of the lycopene molecule (psi, psi-carotene) to form gamma-carotene or the bicyclic beta-carotene (beta, beta-carotene), respectively.
2008-05-12 GO:0045435 lycopene epsilon cyclase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cyclization of an epsilon ring at one end of the lycopene molecule (psi, psi-carotene) to form delta-carotene (epsilon, psi-carotene).
2008-05-12 GO:0046649 lymphocyte activation Deleted DEFINITION A change in morphology and behavior of a lymphocyte resulting from exposure to a specific antigen, mitogen, cytokine, chemokine, cellular ligand, or soluble factor.
2008-05-12 GO:0005557 lymphocyte antigen Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0046651 lymphocyte proliferation Deleted DEFINITION The expansion of a lymphocyte population by cell division.
2008-05-12 GO:0030098 lymphocyte differentiation Deleted DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized precursor cell acquires specialized features of B cells, T cells, or natural killer cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0004184 lysine carboxypeptidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptidyl-L-lysine (or peptidyl-L-arginine) + H2O = peptide + L-lysine (or L-arginine). Release of a C-terminal basic amino acid, preferentially lysine; inactivates bradykinin and anaphylatoxins in blood plasma.
2008-05-12 GO:0004468 lysine N-acetyltransferase activity, acting on acetyl phosphate as donor Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl phosphate + L-lysine = phosphate + N6-acetyl-L-lysine.
2008-05-12 GO:0009085 lysine biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0009089 lysine biosynthetic process via diaminopimelate Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lysine, via the intermediate diaminopimelate.
2008-05-12 GO:0019878 lysine biosynthetic process via aminoadipic acid Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lysine by the aminoadipic pathway.
2008-05-12 GO:0006554 lysine catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0008923 lysine decarboxylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-lysine = cadaverine + CO2.
2008-05-12 GO:0006553 lysine metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0030631 pyrrolysine incorporation Deleted DEFINITION The incorporation of a lysine methylamine methyltransferase cofactor adduct into a peptide; uses a special tRNA that recognizes the UAG codon as a modified lysine, rather than as a termination codon. The lysine methylamine methyltransferase cofactor adduct is synthesized from a lysine charged tRNA before its incorporation; it is not a posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine; this modification is found in several Methanosarcina methylamine methyltransferases.
2008-05-12 GO:0018113 lysine racemase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-lysine = D-lysine.
2008-05-12 GO:0015819 lysine transport Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid, into, out of, within or between cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0015189 L-lysine transmembrane transporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of L-lysine from one side of a membrane to the other. L-lysine is 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0004824 lysine-tRNA ligase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + L-lysine + tRNA(Lys) = AMP + diphosphate + L-lysyl-tRNA(Lys).
2008-05-12 GO:0000075 cell cycle checkpoint Deleted DEFINITION A point in the eukaryotic cell cycle where progress through the cycle can be halted until conditions are suitable for the cell to proceed to the next stage.
2008-05-12 GO:0030037 actin filament reorganization involved in cell cycle Deleted DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby rearrangement of the spatial distribution of actin filaments and associated proteins occurs.
2008-05-12 GO:0000267 cell fraction Deleted DEFINITION A generic term for parts of cells prepared by disruptive biochemical techniques.
2008-05-12 GO:0016049 cell growth Deleted DEFINITION The process by which a cell irreversibly increases in size over time by accretion and biosynthetic production of matter similar to that already present.
2008-05-12 GO:0030054 cell junction Deleted DEFINITION A specialized region of connection between two cells or between a cell and the extracellular matrix.
2008-05-12 GO:0016043 cellular component organization Deleted DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cellular component; includes the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope.
2008-05-12 GO:0009504 cell plate Deleted DEFINITION The nascent cell membrane and cell wall structure that forms between two daughter nuclei near the center of a dividing plant cell. It develops at the equitorial region of the phragmoplast. It grows outwards to join with the lateral walls and form two daughter cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0008283 cell proliferation Deleted DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.
2008-05-12 GO:0030030 cell projection organization Deleted DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.
2008-05-12 GO:0005618 cell wall Deleted DEFINITION The rigid or semi-rigid envelope lying outside the cell membrane of plant, fungal, and most prokaryotic cells, maintaining their shape and protecting them from osmotic lysis. In plants it is made of cellulose and, often, lignin; in fungi it is composed largely of polysaccharides; in bacteria it is composed of peptidoglycan.
2008-05-12 GO:0009505 plant-type cell wall Deleted DEFINITION A more or less rigid stucture enclosing the protoplast of a cell and composed of cellulose and pectin and other organic and inorganic substances. As in, but not restricted to, the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:3398).
2008-05-12 GO:0009279 cell outer membrane Deleted DEFINITION A lipid bilayer that forms the outermost layer of the cell envelope; enriched in polysaccharide and protein; the outer leaflet of the membrane contains specific lipopolysaccharide structures.
2008-05-12 GO:0005913 cell-cell adherens junction Deleted DEFINITION An adherens junction which connects two cells to each other.
2008-05-12 GO:0016337 single organismal cell-cell adhesion Deleted DEFINITION The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules.
2008-05-12 GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling Deleted DEFINITION Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another.
2008-05-12 GO:0007160 cell-matrix adhesion Deleted DEFINITION The binding of a cell to the extracellular matrix via adhesion molecules.
2008-05-12 GO:0030055 cell-substrate junction Deleted DEFINITION A specialized region of connection between a cell and the extracellular matrix.
2008-05-12 GO:0005924 cell-substrate adherens junction Deleted DEFINITION An adherens junction which connects a cell to the extracellular matrix.
2008-05-12 GO:0005575 cellular_component Deleted DEFINITION The part of a cell or its extracellular environment in which a gene product is located. A gene product may be located in one or more parts of a cell and its location may be as specific as a particular macromolecular complex, that is, a stable, persistent association of macromolecules that function together.
2008-05-12 GO:0005823 central plaque of spindle pole body Deleted DEFINITION One of three laminate structures that form the spindle pole body; the central plaque is embedded in the nuclear envelope.
2008-05-12 GO:0019228 neuronal action potential Deleted DEFINITION The process that modulates the membrane potential involved in the propagation of a signal in a neuron.
2008-05-12 GO:0007078 lamin depolymerization Deleted DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby lamin is depolymerized.
2008-05-12 GO:0007551 maintenance of dosage compensation Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0009489 rubredoxin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A low molecular weight mononuclear iron protein involved in electron transfer, with an iron tetrahedrally coordinated by the sulfurs of four conserved cysteine residues.
2008-05-12 GO:0000084 mitotic S phase Deleted DEFINITION Progression through S phase, the part of the mitotic cell cycle during which DNA synthesis takes place.
2008-05-12 GO:0009697 salicylic acid biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid), a derivative of benzoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0009696 salicylic acid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving of salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid), a derivative of benzoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0016909 SAP kinase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the phosphorylation of proteins. A family of protein kinases that perform a crucial step in relaying signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Strongly activated by stress signals such as heat or osmotic shock, DNA-damaging agents, inhibitors of protein synthesis and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
2008-05-12 GO:0016134 saponin metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving saponins, glycosides of plants in which the aglycan (sapogenin) moiety is a terpene or steroid and the sugar moiety is a glucose, a galactose, a pentose, a methylpentose or an oligosaccharide. Saponins are powerful surfactant agents and membrane active; they are, hence, toxic to animals on injection.
2008-05-12 GO:0004494 methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-2-methyl-3-oxopropanoyl-CoA = succinyl-CoA.
2008-05-12 GO:0042192 methylmercury biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of methylmercury (MeHg+), a highly toxic organometal.
2008-05-12 GO:0042193 methylmercury catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of methylmercury (MeHg+), a highly toxic organometal.
2008-05-12 GO:0042191 methylmercury metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving methylmercury (MeHg+), a highly toxic organometal which can accumulate in tissues, particularly in fish species.
2008-05-12 GO:0008930 methylthioadenosine nucleosidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: methylthioadenosine + H2O = adenine + 5-methylthio-D-ribose.
2008-05-12 GO:0019727 mevaldate reductase (NAD+) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-mevalonate + NAD+ = mevaldate + NADH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0019726 mevaldate reductase (NADPH) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-mevalonate + NADP+ = mevaldate + NADPH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0015728 mevalonate transport Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of mevalonate into, out of, within or between cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0045341 MHC class I biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of major histocompatibility protein class I.
2008-05-12 GO:0030106 MHC class I receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A major histocompatibility complex class I receptor. These display processed antigens from the endocytosed bacteria. MHC class I proteins can form complexes with processed antigen peptides only if the antigen is synthesized in the same cell. As a consequence, T lymphocytes can only bind to class-I-positive cells that are synthesizing the antigen (e.g. virus-infected cells).
2008-05-12 GO:0045342 MHC class II biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of major histocompatibility protein class II.
2008-05-12 GO:0045012 MHC class II receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A major histocompatibility complex class II receptor. These display processed antigens from virally-infected or transformed cells. Class-II-positive cells ('antigen-presenting cells') can take up antigens from outside by endocytosis, degrade them into small peptides, and re-export the peptides (now bound to MHC class II protein) to the cell surface. These peptide-MHC class II complexes can then be recognized by specific CD4+ lymphocytes.
2008-05-12 GO:0003822 MHC-interacting protein Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0009555 pollen development Deleted DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pollen grain over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The process begins with the meiosis of the microsporocyte to form four haploid microspores. The nucleus of each microspore then divides by mitosis to form a two-celled organism, the pollen grain, that contains a tube cell as well as a smaller generative cell. The pollen grain is surrounded by an elaborate cell wall. In some species, the generative cell immediately divides again to give a pair of sperm cells. In most flowering plants, however this division takes place later, in the tube that develops when a pollen grain germinates.
2008-05-12 GO:0020009 microneme Deleted DEFINITION Elongated tubular organelle arranged longitudinally in the apical complex of an apicomplexan parasite.
2008-05-12 GO:0005792 microsome Deleted DEFINITION Any of the small, heterogeneous, artifactual, vesicular particles, 50-150 nm in diameter, that are formed when some eukaryotic cells are homogenized and that sediment on centrifugation at 100000 g.
2008-05-12 GO:0009556 microsporogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The process by which the microsporocyte undergoes meiosis, giving rise to four haploid microspores.
2008-05-12 GO:0001578 microtubule bundle formation Deleted DEFINITION A process that results in a parallel arrangement of microtubules.
2008-05-12 GO:0030496 midbody Deleted DEFINITION A thin cytoplasmic bridge formed between daughter cells at the end of cytokinesis. The midbody forms where the contractile ring constricts, and may persist for some time before finally breaking to complete cytokinesis.
2008-05-12 GO:0042474 middle ear morphogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of middle ear are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form. The middle ear is the air-filled cavity within the skull of vertebrates that lies between the outer ear and the inner ear. It is linked to the pharynx (and therefore to outside air) via the Eustachian tube and in mammals contains the three ear ossicles, which transmit auditory vibrations from the outer ear (via the tympanum) to the inner ear (via the oval window).
2008-05-12 GO:0005189 milk protein Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0006705 mineralocorticoid biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of mineralocorticoids, hormonal C21 corticosteroids synthesized from cholesterol.
2008-05-12 GO:0006712 mineralocorticoid catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of mineralocorticoids, hormonal C21 corticosteroids synthesized from cholesterol.
2008-05-12 GO:0008212 mineralocorticoid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving mineralocorticoids, hormonal C21 corticosteroids synthesized from cholesterol. Mineralocorticoids act primarily on water and electrolyte balance.
2008-05-12 GO:0005689 U12-type spliceosomal complex Deleted DEFINITION The minor (U12-dependent) spliceosome is composed of the snRNPs, U11, U12, U4atac, U6atac, and U5 (which is also a component of the major spliceosome). This minor form of the spliceosome is responsible for the splicing of the majority of introns with atypical AT-AC terminal dinucleotides, as well as other non-canonical introns. The entire splice site signal, not just the terminal dinucleotides, is involved in determining which spliceosome utilizes the site.
2008-05-12 GO:0005558 minor histocompatibility antigen Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0000700 mismatch base pair DNA N-glycosylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of single bases present in mismatches by the cleavage the N-C1' glycosidic bond between the target damaged DNA base and the deoxyribose sugar. The reaction releases a free base and leaves an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site.
2008-05-12 GO:0006298 mismatch repair Deleted DEFINITION A system for the correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. The mismatch repair system promotes genomic fidelity by repairing base-base mismatches, insertion-deletion loops and heterologies generated during DNA replication and recombination.
2008-05-12 GO:0045025 mitochondrial degradosome Deleted DEFINITION The mitochondrial degradosome (mtEXO) is a three-protein complex which has a 3' to 5' exoribonuclease activity and participates in intron-independent turnover and processing of mitochondrial transcripts.
2008-05-12 GO:0000002 mitochondrial genome maintenance Deleted DEFINITION The maintenance of the structure and integrity of the mitochondrial genome; includes replication and segregation of the mitochondrial chromosome.
2008-05-12 GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane Deleted DEFINITION The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial envelope. It is highly folded to form cristae.
2008-05-12 GO:0007091 metaphase/anaphase transition of mitotic cell cycle Deleted DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a cell progresses from metaphase to anaphase during mitosis, triggered by the destruction of mitotic cyclins.
2008-05-12 GO:0000236 mitotic prometaphase Deleted DEFINITION Progression through prometaphase, the stage following prophase in mitosis (in higher eukaryotes) during which the nuclear envelope is disrupted and breaks into membrane vesicles, and the spindle microtubules enter the nuclear region. Kinetochores mature on each centromere and attach to some of the spindle microtubules. Kinetochore microtubules begin the process of aligning chromosomes in one plane halfway between the poles.
2008-05-12 GO:0000088 mitotic prophase Deleted DEFINITION Progression through prophase, the initial stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes are condensed but are not yet attached to a mitotic spindle.
2008-05-12 GO:0007052 mitotic spindle organization Deleted DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the microtubule spindle during a mitotic cell cycle.
2008-05-12 GO:0009190 cyclic nucleotide biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue.
2008-05-12 GO:0009214 cyclic nucleotide catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue.
2008-05-12 GO:0009187 cyclic nucleotide metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue.
2008-05-12 GO:0009778 cyclic photosynthetic phosphorylation Deleted DEFINITION ATP synthesis is driven by a proton gradient generated across the thylakoid membrane. Involves only photosystem I.
2008-05-12 GO:0019935 cyclic-nucleotide-mediated signaling Deleted DEFINITION A series of molecular signals in which a cell uses a cyclic nucleotide to convert an extracellular signal into a response.
2008-05-12 GO:0008054 negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase by cyclin degradation Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of cyclins, proteins whose levels in a cell varies markedly during the cell cycle, and which play key roles in regulating cell cycle phase transitions.
2008-05-12 GO:0000307 cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex Deleted DEFINITION Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) are heterodimeric enzymes that contain a kinase catalytic subunit associated with a regulatory cyclin partner.
2008-05-12 GO:0000308 cytoplasmic cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex Deleted DEFINITION Cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) complex found in the cytoplasm.
2008-05-12 GO:0019908 nuclear cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex Deleted DEFINITION Cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) complex found in the nucleus.
2008-05-12 GO:0019801 cyclization of asparagine involved in intein-mediated protein splicing Deleted DEFINITION The cyclization of asparagine to yield an L-aspartimide (otherwise known as alpha-aminosuccinimide) residue at the C-terminus of an excised intein during protein splicing.
2008-05-12 GO:0019802 cyclization of glutamine involved in intein-mediated protein splicing Deleted DEFINITION The cyclization of glutamine to yield an L-glutamimide residue at the C-terminus of an excised intein during protein splicing.
2008-05-12 GO:0016871 cycloartenol synthase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene = cycloartenol.
2008-05-12 GO:0008162 cyclodiene resistance Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0016354 cyclodiene susceptibility/resistance Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0018811 cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA hydratase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA + H2O = 2-hydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxyl-CoA.
2008-05-12 GO:0018823 cyclohexa-1,5-dienecarbonyl-CoA hydratase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cyclohex-1,5-dienecarbonyl-CoA + H2O = 6-hydroxycyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA.
2008-05-12 GO:0018460 cyclohexanol dehydrogenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cyclohexanol + NAD+ = cyclohexanone + NADH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0018891 cyclohexanol metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cyclohexanol, the monohydroxy derivative of cyclohexane. It is used as a solvent and blending agent.
2008-05-12 GO:0018667 cyclohexanone monooxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cyclohexanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 6-hexanolide + NADP+ + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0018527 cyclohexylamine oxidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cyclohexylamine + O2 + H2O = cyclohexanone + NH3 + H2O2.
2008-05-12 GO:0018892 cyclohexylsulfamate metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cyclohexylsulfamate, also known as cyclamic acid. Sodium cyclohexylsulfamate (CHS-Na) was a widely used sweetening agent but was banned because of the suspicion of carcinogenicity and metabolic conversion to cyclohexylamine (CHA), a toxic substance. It is now used as a fungicide.
2008-05-12 GO:0008825 cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + phospholipid olefinic fatty acid = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + phospholipid cyclopropane fatty acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0016018 cyclosporin A binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with cyclosporin A, a cyclic undecapeptide that contains several N-methylated and unusual amino acids.
2008-05-12 GO:0008570 myosin ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate. The hydrolysis of ATP by myosin that provides the energy for actomyosin contraction.
2008-05-12 GO:0016460 myosin II complex Deleted DEFINITION A myosin complex containing two class II myosin heavy chains, two myosin essential light chains and two myosin regulatory light chains. Also known as classical myosin or conventional myosin, the myosin II class includes the major muscle myosin of vertebrate and invertebrate muscle, and is characterized by alpha-helical coiled coil tails that self assemble to form a variety of filament structures.
2008-05-12 GO:0001517 N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-sulfate.
2008-05-12 GO:0000225 N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol deacetylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: N-acetyl-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol + H2O = D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol + acetate. The second step enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), used to anchor various eukaryotic proteins to the cell-surface membrane. Catalyzes the N-deacetylation of GlcNAc-PI to GlcN-PI.
2008-05-12 GO:0016258 N-glycan diversification Deleted DEFINITION The generation, in the Golgi apparatus, of side chain diversity from high mannose Man5GlcNAc2-Asn N-glycans by specific glycosyltransferases and glycosidases.
2008-05-12 GO:0008581 ubiquitin-specific protease 5 activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of the Gly76-Lys48 isopeptide bond of polyubiquitin.
2008-05-12 GO:0000151 ubiquitin ligase complex Deleted DEFINITION A protein complex that includes a ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) and other proteins that may confer substrate specificity on the complex.
2008-05-12 GO:0004221 ubiquitin thiolesterase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ubiquitin C-terminal thiolester + H2O = ubiquitin + a thiol. Hydrolysis of esters, including those formed between thiols such as dithiothreitol or glutathione and the C-terminal glycine residue of the polypeptide ubiquitin, and AMP-ubiquitin.
2008-05-12 GO:0004842 ubiquitin-protein transferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + ubiquitin + protein lysine = AMP + diphosphate + protein N-ubiquityllysine.
2008-05-12 GO:0004843 ubiquitin-specific protease activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various forms of polymeric ubiquitin sequences. Will remove ubiquitin from larger leaving groups.
2008-05-12 GO:0016461 unconventional myosin complex Deleted DEFINITION A portmanteau term for myosins other than myosin II.
2008-05-12 GO:0015292 uniporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transport of a single molecular species across a membrane; transport is independent of the movement of any other molecular species.
2008-05-12 GO:0000050 urea cycle Deleted DEFINITION A cyclic metabolic pathway that converts waste nitrogen in the form of ammonium to urea.
2008-05-12 GO:0015065 uridine nucleotide receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION Combining with UTP or UDP to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0017131 uridine-rich cytoplasmic polyadenylylation element binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with U-rich sequence in the 3'-end of mRNAs; required for cytoplasmic polyadenylylation.
2008-05-12 GO:0009411 response to UV Deleted DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an ultraviolet radiation (UV light) stimulus. Ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 380 nanometers.
2008-05-12 GO:0015064 UV-sensitive opsin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An opsin with maximal absorption below 400 nm.
2008-05-12 GO:0030050 vesicle transport along actin filament Deleted DEFINITION Movement of a vesicle along an actin filament, mediated by motor proteins.
2008-05-12 GO:0008576 vesicle-fusing ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate. The hydrolysis of ATP by an AAA-ATPase, involved in the heterotypic fusion of membrane vesicles with target membranes and the homotypic fusion of various membrane compartments.
2008-05-12 GO:0016032 viral process Deleted DEFINITION The process by which a virus reproduces. Usually, this is by infection of a host cell, replication of the viral genome, and assembly of progeny virus particles. In some cases the viral genetic material may integrate into the host genome and only subsequently, under particular circumstances, 'complete' its life cycle.
2008-05-12 GO:0007601 visual perception Deleted DEFINITION The series of events required for an organism to receive a visual stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Visual stimuli are detected in the form of photons and are processed to form an image.
2008-05-12 GO:0015420 cobalamin-transporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + cobalamin(out) = ADP + phosphate + cobalamin(in). Cobalamin = vitamin B12.
2008-05-12 GO:0001518 voltage-gated sodium channel complex Deleted DEFINITION A sodium channel in a cell membrane whose opening is governed by the membrane potential.
2008-05-12 GO:0016122 xanthophyll metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xanthophylls, oxygen-containing carotenoids.
2008-05-12 GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a xenobiotic compound, a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e.g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2008-05-12 GO:0008559 xenobiotic-transporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + xenobiotic(in) = ADP + phosphate + xenobiotic(out).
2008-05-12 GO:0005999 xylulose biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of xylulose, the ketopentose threo-2-pentulose.
2008-05-12 GO:0005998 xylulose catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of xylulose, the ketopentose threo-2-pentulose.
2008-05-12 GO:0005997 xylulose metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xylulose, the ketopentose threo-2-pentulose.
2008-05-12 GO:0030018 Z disc Deleted DEFINITION Platelike region of a muscle sarcomere to which the plus ends of actin filaments are attached.
2008-05-12 GO:0016035 zeta DNA polymerase complex Deleted DEFINITION A heterodimeric DNA polymerase complex that catalyzes error-prone DNA synthesis in contexts such as translesion synthesis and double-stranded break repair. First characterized in Saccharomyces, in which the subunits are Rev3p and Rev7p; a third protein, Rev1p, is often associated with the polymerase dimer.
2008-05-12 GO:0016463 zinc-exporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + Zn2+(in) = ADP + phosphate + Zn2+(out).
2008-05-12 GO:0009056 catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances, including the breakdown of carbon compounds with the liberation of energy for use by the cell or organism.

Definition/synonyms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2008-05-12 GO:0046608 carotenoid isomerase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the isomerization of poly-cis-carotenoids to all-trans-carotenoids.
2008-05-12 GO:0018884 carbazole metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbazole, a heterocyclic aromatic compound containing a dibenzopyrrole system that is produced during coal gasification and is present in cigarette smoke. Coal tar produced at high temperature contains an average of 1.5% carbazole. It is used widely in synthesis of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and plastics and is a suspected carcinogen.
2008-05-12 GO:0030246 carbohydrate binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with any carbohydrate.
2008-05-12 GO:0016051 carbohydrate biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.
2008-05-12 GO:0016052 carbohydrate catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.
2008-05-12 GO:0009756 carbohydrate mediated signaling Deleted DEFINITION A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of carbohydrate.
2008-05-12 GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.
2008-05-12 GO:0009758 carbohydrate utilization Deleted DEFINITION Series of processes that involve carbohydrate sensing, carbohydrate transportation and carbohydrate metabolism which lead to the utilization of carbohydrates.
2008-05-12 GO:0030634 carbon fixation by acetyl-CoA pathway Deleted DEFINITION A pathway of carbon dioxide fixation in which one molecule of acetyl-CoA is completely synthesized from two molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2).
2008-05-12 GO:0018492 carbon-monoxide dehydrogenase (acceptor) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CO + H2O + acceptor = CO2 + reduced acceptor.
2008-05-12 GO:0008805 carbon-monoxide oxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CO + H2O + ferrocytochrome b-561 = CO2 + 2 H+ + 2 ferricytochrome b-561.
2008-05-12 GO:0019382 carbon tetrachloride catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carbon tetrachloride, a toxic, carcinogenic compound which is used as a general solvent in industrial degreasing operations. It is also used as grain fumigant and a chemical intermediate in the production of refrigerants.
2008-05-12 GO:0018885 carbon tetrachloride metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbon tetrachloride, a toxic, carcinogenic compound which is used as a general solvent in industrial degreasing operations. It is also used as grain fumigant and a chemical intermediate in the production of refrigerants.
2008-05-12 GO:0004089 carbonate dehydratase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: H2CO3 = CO2 + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0004090 carbonyl reductase (NADPH) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: R-CHOH-R' + NADP+ = R-CO-R' + NADPH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0004091 carboxylesterase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a carboxylic ester + H2O = an alcohol + a carboxylic anion.
2008-05-12 GO:0046394 carboxylic acid biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (-COOH) groups.
2008-05-12 GO:0046395 carboxylic acid catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (-COOH) groups.
2008-05-12 GO:0019752 carboxylic acid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).
2008-05-12 GO:0008806 carboxymethylenebutenolidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide + H2O = 4 oxohex-2-enedioate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004182 carboxypeptidase A activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptidyl-L-amino acid + H2O = peptide + L-amino acid. Little or no action with -Asp, -Glu, -Arg, -Lys or -Pro.
2008-05-12 GO:0004186 carboxypeptidase C activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity.
2008-05-12 GO:0004187 carboxypeptidase D activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the preferential release of a C-terminal arginine or lysine residue. Function is inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate and sensitive to thiol-blocking reagents.
2008-05-12 GO:0004183 carboxypeptidase E activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptidyl-L-lysine (or peptidyl-L-arginine) + H2O = peptide + L-lysine (or L-arginine). Function is activated by Co2+ and inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline and other chelating agents.
2008-05-12 GO:0008807 carboxyvinyl-carboxyphosphonate phosphorylmutase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1-carboxyvinyl carboxyphosphonate = 3-(hydrohydroxyphosphoryl)pyruvate + CO2.
2008-05-12 GO:0008808 cardiolipin synthase activity Deleted DEFINITION Phosphatidylglycerol + phosphatidylglycerol = diphosphatidylglycerol (cardiolipin) + glycerol.
2008-05-12 GO:0045329 carnitine biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carnitine (hydroxy-trimethyl aminobutyric acid), a compound that participates in the transfer of acyl groups across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
2008-05-12 GO:0042413 carnitine catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carnitine (hydroxy-trimethyl aminobutyric acid), a compound that participates in the transfer of acyl groups across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
2008-05-12 GO:0009437 carnitine metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carnitine (hydroxy-trimethyl aminobutyric acid), a compound that participates in the transfer of acyl groups across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
2008-05-12 GO:0019254 carnitine metabolic process, CoA-linked Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving carnitine, where metabolism is linked to CoA.
2008-05-12 GO:0004092 carnitine O-acetyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + carnitine = CoA + O-acetylcarnitine.
2008-05-12 GO:0008458 carnitine O-octanoyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: octanoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = CoA + L-octanoylcarnitine.
2008-05-12 GO:0004095 carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: palmitoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = CoA + L-palmitoylcarnitine.
2008-05-12 GO:0006853 carnitine shuttle Deleted DEFINITION The transfer of acyl groups to and from acyl-CoA molecules to form O-acylcarnitine, which can exchange across the mitochondrial inner membrane with unacylated carnitine.
2008-05-12 GO:0016719 carotene 7,8-desaturase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: neurosporene + donor-H2 + O2 = lycopene + acceptor + 2 H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0016120 carotene biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carotenes, hydrocarbon carotenoids.
2008-05-12 GO:0016121 carotene catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carotenes, hydrocarbon carotenoids.
2008-05-12 GO:0016117 carotenoid biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carotenoids, tetraterpenoid compounds in which two units of 4 isoprenoid residues joined head-to-tail are themselves joined tail-to-tail.
2008-05-12 GO:0016118 carotenoid catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carotenoids, tetraterpenoid compounds in which two units of 4 isoprenoid residues joined head-to-tail are themselves joined tail-to-tail.
2008-05-12 GO:0007050 cell cycle arrest Deleted DEFINITION The process by which the cell cycle is halted during one of the normal phases (G1, S, G2, M).
2008-05-12 GO:0003750 cell cycle regulator Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0008219 cell death Deleted DEFINITION The specific activation or halting of processes within a cell so that its vital functions markedly cease, rather than simply deteriorating gradually over time, which culminates in cell death.
2008-05-12 GO:0030154 cell differentiation Deleted DEFINITION The process whereby relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate.
2008-05-12 GO:0009826 unidimensional cell growth Deleted DEFINITION The process by which a cell irreversibly increases in size in one [spatial] dimension or along one axis.
2008-05-12 GO:0009825 multidimensional cell growth Deleted DEFINITION The process by which a cell irreversibly increases in size in two or three [spatial] dimensions or along two or three axes.
2008-05-12 GO:0045165 cell fate commitment Deleted DEFINITION The commitment of cells to specific cell fates and their capacity to differentiate into particular kinds of cells. Positional information is established through protein signals that emanate from a localized source within a cell (the initial one-cell zygote) or within a developmental field.
2008-05-12 GO:0001709 cell fate determination Deleted DEFINITION Process involved in cell fate commitment. Once determination has taken place, a cell becomes committed to differentiate down a particular pathway regardless of its environment.
2008-05-12 GO:0001708 cell fate specification Deleted DEFINITION The process involved in the specification of cell identity. Once specification has taken place, a cell will be committed to differentiate down a specific pathway if left in its normal environment.
2008-05-12 GO:0030260 entry into host cell Deleted DEFINITION The invasion by an organism of a cell of its host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction.
2008-05-12 GO:0008715 CDP-diacylglycerol diphosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + H2O = CMP + phosphatidate.
2008-05-12 GO:0008444 CDP-diacylglycerol-glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + glycerol 3-phosphate = CMP + 3-(3-phosphatidyl)-glycerol 1-phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0003881 CDP-diacylglycerol-inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + myo-inositol = CMP + phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol.
2008-05-12 GO:0003882 CDP-diacylglycerol-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + L-serine = CMP + O-sn-phosphatidyl-L-serine.
2008-05-12 GO:0045321 leukocyte activation Deleted DEFINITION A change in morphology and behavior of a leukocyte resulting from exposure to a specific antigen, mitogen, cytokine, cellular ligand, or soluble factor.
2008-05-12 GO:0005194 cell adhesion molecule activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Mediates the adhesion of the cell to other cells or to the extracellular matrix.
2008-05-12 GO:0004895 cell adhesion receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Combining with cell adhesion molecules to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0007574 cell aging (sensu Saccharomyces) Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Process associated with continued cell division (budding) by the mother cell. Age is often measured by counting the number of bud scars on the cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0018459 carveol dehydrogenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (-)-trans-carveol + NADP+ = (-)-carvone + NADPH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0018494 carvone reductase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: carvone + 2 H+ + 2 e- = dihydrocarvone.
2008-05-12 GO:0008303 caspase complex Deleted DEFINITION A cytosolic endopeptidase with specificity for the hydrolysis of aspartyl bonds. Caspases are involved in apoptosis.
2008-05-12 GO:0004096 catalase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2 H2O2 = O2 + 2 H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0006802 catalase reaction Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The processes involved in the induction or activation of catalase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of H2O2 into H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0018576 catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: catechol + O2 = cis,cis-muconate.
2008-05-12 GO:0009713 catechol-containing compound biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of catechol, a compound containing a pyrocatechol nucleus or substituent.
2008-05-12 GO:0019614 catechol-containing compound catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of catechol, a compound containing a pyrocatechol nucleus or substituent.
2008-05-12 GO:0009712 catechol-containing compound metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a compound containing a pyrocatechol (1,2-benzenediol) nucleus or substituent.
2008-05-12 GO:0004097 catechol oxidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2 catechol + O2 = 2 1,2-benzoquinone + 2 H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0042423 catecholamine biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
2008-05-12 GO:0042424 catecholamine catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
2008-05-12 GO:0006584 catecholamine metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
2008-05-12 GO:0004213 cathepsin B activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds with a broad specificity. Preferentially cleaves the terminal bond of -Arg-Arg-Xaa motifs in small molecule substrates (thus differing from cathepsin L). In addition to being an endopeptidase, shows peptidyl-dipeptidase activity, liberating C-terminal dipeptides.
2008-05-12 GO:0004192 cathepsin D activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Specificity similar to, but narrower than, that of pepsin A. Does not cleave the Gln4-His5 bond in the B chain of insulin.
2008-05-12 GO:0004193 cathepsin E activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Similar to cathepsin D, but slightly broader specificity.
2008-05-12 GO:0004261 cathepsin G activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Specificity similar to chymotrypsin C.
2008-05-12 GO:0004215 cathepsin H activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, acting as an aminopeptidase (notably, cleaving Arg-Xaa bonds) as well as an endopeptidase.
2008-05-12 GO:0004216 cathepsin K activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Has a broad proteolytic activity. With small-molecule substrates and inhibitors, the major determinant of specificity is P2, which is preferably Leu, Met > Phe, and not Arg.
2008-05-12 GO:0004217 cathepsin L activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Specificity close to that of papain. As compared to cathepsin B, cathepsin L exhibits higher activity towards protein substrates, but has little activity on Z-Arg-Arg-NHMec, and no peptidyl-dipeptidase activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0004218 cathepsin S activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Similar to cathepsin L, but with much less activity on the terminal bond of Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec, and more activity on the terminal bond of Z-Val-Val-Arg-Xaa compounds.
2008-05-12 GO:0046583 cation efflux transmembrane transporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a cation or cations from the inside of the cell to the outside of the cell across a membrane.
2008-05-12 GO:0030003 cellular cation homeostasis Deleted DEFINITION The regulation of the levels, transport, and metabolism of cations within a cell or between a cell and its external environment.
2008-05-12 GO:0008324 cation transmembrane transporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of cation from one side of the membrane to the other.
2008-05-12 GO:0009485 cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: 4 ferrocytochrome c + O2 = 4 ferricytochrome c + 2 H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0045222 CD4 biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of CD4, a CD marker that occurs on T-helper cells and is involved in MHC class II restricted interactions.
2008-05-12 GO:0046705 CDP biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of CDP, cytidine (5'-)diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0046706 CDP catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of CDP, cytidine (5'-)diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0046704 CDP metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving CDP, cytidine (5'-)diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0016024 CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of CDP-diacylglycerol, CDP-1,2-diacylglycerol, a substance composed of diacylglycerol in glycosidic linkage with cytidine diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0046342 CDP-diacylglycerol catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of CDP-diacylglycerol, CDP-1,2-diacylglycerol, a substance composed of diacylglycerol in glycosidic linkage with cytidine diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0046341 CDP-diacylglycerol metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving CDP-diacylglycerol, CDP-1,2-diacylglycerol, a substance composed of diacylglycerol in glycosidic linkage with cytidine diphosphate. It is a common intermediate in phospholipid biosynthesis.
2008-05-12 GO:0005391 sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + Na+(in) + K+(out) = ADP + phosphate + Na+(out) + K+(in).
2008-05-12 GO:0005625 soluble fraction Deleted DEFINITION That fraction of cells, prepared by disruptive biochemical methods, that is soluble in water.
2008-05-12 GO:0016444 somatic cell DNA recombination Deleted DEFINITION Recombination occurring within or between DNA molecules in somatic cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0016446 somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes Deleted DEFINITION Mutations occurring somatically that result in amino acid changes in the rearranged V regions of immunoglobulins.
2008-05-12 GO:0003704 specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity Deleted DEFINITION Functions to enable the transcription of specific, or specific sets, of genes by RNA polymerase II.
2008-05-12 GO:0000170 sphingosine hydroxylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydroxylation of sphingolipid long chain bases.
2008-05-12 GO:0042196 chlorinated hydrocarbon metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving chlorinated hydrocarbons, any hydrocarbon with one or more chlorine atoms attached to it.
2008-05-12 GO:0018914 chlorobenzene metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving chlorobenzene, a derivative of benzene with a chlorine atoms attached to the ring. It is a colorless liquid that is manufactured for use as a solvent. It quickly evaporates in the air and is degraded by hydroxyl radicals that are produced photochemically. The gas acts as a source of ClOx, which helps in the breakdown of stratospheric ozone.
2008-05-12 GO:0018850 chloromuconate cycloisomerase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2-chloro-2,5-dihydro-5-oxofuran-2-acetate = 3-chloro-cis,cis-muconate.
2008-05-12 GO:0018642 chlorophenol 4-monooxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the addition or substitution of an OH group on C4 of a halogenated phenol.
2008-05-12 GO:0016168 chlorophyll binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with chlorophyll; any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment.
2008-05-12 GO:0015995 chlorophyll biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of chlorophyll, any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment, from less complex precursors.
2008-05-12 GO:0015996 chlorophyll catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of chlorophyll, any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment, into less complex products.
2008-05-12 GO:0015994 chlorophyll metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving chlorophyll, any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment.
2008-05-12 GO:0046408 chlorophyll synthetase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the esterification reaction: chlorophyllide a + phytyl pyrophosphate = chlorophyll a + pyrophosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0009904 chloroplast accumulation movement Deleted DEFINITION The relocation process by which chloroplasts in photosynthetic cells move toward a brighter area in a cell to optimize photosynthesis.
2008-05-12 GO:0009903 chloroplast avoidance movement Deleted DEFINITION The relocation process by which chloroplasts in photosynthetic cells avoid strong light and move away from it in order to preserve the photosynthetic machinery.
2008-05-12 GO:0016477 cell migration Deleted DEFINITION The orderly movement of cells from one site to another, often during the development of a multicellular organism.
2008-05-12 GO:0042074 cell migration involved in gastrulation Deleted DEFINITION The migration of individual cells within the blastocyst to help establish the multi-layered body plan of the organism (gastrulation). For example, the migration of cells from the surface to the interior of the embryo (ingression).
2008-05-12 GO:0006928 movement of cell or subcellular component Deleted DEFINITION Any process involved in the controlled movement of a cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0009920 cell plate formation involved in plant-type cell wall biogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the cell plate is formed at the equator of the spindle in the dividing cells during early telophase.
2008-05-12 GO:0016171 cell surface antigen Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0042280 cell surface antigen activity, host-interacting Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Functions as an immunogenic target for the host immune system that masks other invariant surface molecules from immune recognition.
2008-05-12 GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway Deleted DEFINITION Any series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to a receptor on the surface of the target cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0009274 peptidoglycan-based cell wall Deleted DEFINITION A protective structure outside the cytoplasmic membrane composed of peptidoglycan, a molecule made up of a glycan (sugar) backbone of repetitively alternating N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid with short, attached, cross-linked peptide chains containing unusual amino acids; also called murein. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Bacteria (Bacteria, ncbi_taxonomy_id:2).
2008-05-12 GO:0009277 fungal-type cell wall Deleted DEFINITION A rigid yet dynamic structure surrounding the plasma membrane that affords protection from stresses and contributes to cell morphogenesis, consisting of extensively cross-linked glycoproteins and carbohydrates. The glycoproteins may be modified with N- or O-linked carbohydrates, or glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; the polysaccharides are primarily branched glucans, including beta-linked and alpha-linked glucans, and may also include chitin and other carbohydrate polymers, but not cellulose or pectin. Enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis are also found in the cell wall. Note that some forms of fungi develop a capsule outside of the cell wall under certain circumstances; this is considered a separate structure.
2008-05-12 GO:0009276 Gram-negative-bacterium-type cell wall Deleted DEFINITION The peptidoglycan layer of the Gram-negative cell envelope. In Gram-negative cells the peptidoglycan is relatively thin (1-2nm) and is linked to the outer membrane by lipoproteins. In Gram-negative cells the peptidoglycan is too thin to retain the primary stain in the Gram staining procedure and therefore cells appear red after Gram stain. As in but not restricted to the Gram-negative bacteria.
2008-05-12 GO:0009275 Gram-positive-bacterium-type cell wall Deleted DEFINITION A layer of peptidoglycan found outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. The peptidoglycan is relatively thick (20-80nm) and retains the primary stain of the Gram procedure, thus cells appear blue after Gram stain. The cell walls often contain teichoic acids (acidic anionic polysaccharides) bound to the peptidoglycan. As in but not restricted to the Gram-positive bacteria.
2008-05-12 GO:0042546 cell wall biogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the cell wall, the rigid or semi-rigid envelope lying outside the cell membrane of plant, fungal and most prokaryotic cells, maintaining their shape and protecting them from osmotic lysis.
2008-05-12 GO:0009273 peptidoglycan-based cell wall biogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the peptidoglycan-based cell wall.
2008-05-12 GO:0009272 fungal-type cell wall biogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the fungal-type cell wall.
2008-05-12 GO:0009832 plant-type cell wall biogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the cellulose and pectin-containing cell wall.
2008-05-12 GO:0016998 cell wall macromolecule catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a cell wall.
2008-05-12 GO:0006039 cell wall chitin catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of cell wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0006037 cell wall chitin metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cell wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0009280 cell wall inner membrane Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. In Gram-negative bacteria the membrane that separates the cytoplasm from the murein sacculus.
2008-05-12 GO:0009828 plant-type cell wall loosening Deleted DEFINITION The series of events causing chemical and structural alterations of an existing cellulose and pectin-containing cell wall that results in greater extensibility of the wall. As in, but not restricted to, the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:3398).
2008-05-12 GO:0004103 choline kinase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + choline = ADP + O-phosphocholine.
2008-05-12 GO:0019695 choline metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium), an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
2008-05-12 GO:0019133 choline monooxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: choline + 2 reduced ferredoxin + O2 + 2 H+ = betaine aldehyde hydrate + 2 oxidized ferredoxin + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0004102 choline O-acetyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + choline = CoA + O-acetylcholine.
2008-05-12 GO:0005828 kinetochore microtubule Deleted DEFINITION Any of the spindle microtubules that attach to the kinetochores of chromosomes by their plus ends, and maneuver the chromosomes during mitotic or meiotic chromosome segregation.
2008-05-12 GO:0006089 lactate metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving lactate, the anion of lactic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0030027 lamellipodium Deleted DEFINITION A thin sheetlike process extended by the leading edge of a crawling fibroblast; contains a dense meshwork of actin filaments.
2008-05-12 GO:0030032 lamellipodium assembly Deleted DEFINITION Formation of a lamellipodium, a thin sheetlike extension of the surface of a migrating cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0005638 lamin filament Deleted DEFINITION Any of a group of intermediate-filament proteins that form the fibrous matrix on the inner surface of the nuclear envelope. They are classified as lamins A, B and C.
2008-05-12 GO:0005606 laminin-1 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha1, beta1 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005607 laminin-2 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha4, beta1 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005608 laminin-3 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha1, beta2 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005609 laminin-4 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha2, beta2 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005610 laminin-5 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha3, beta3 and gamma2 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005611 laminin-6 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha3, beta1 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0005612 laminin-7 complex Deleted DEFINITION A laminin complex composed of alpha3, beta2 and gamma1 polypeptide chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0016606 LYSP100-associated nuclear domain Deleted DEFINITION A class of nuclear body (Lands = LYSP100-associated nuclear domains); they are globular, electron-dense structures that may traffic between the nucleus and cytoplasm; they react against SP140 auto-antibodies.
2008-05-12 GO:0000250 lanosterol synthase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene = lanosterol. This is a cyclization reaction that forms the sterol nucleus.
2008-05-12 GO:0016328 lateral plasma membrane Deleted DEFINITION The membranes on the sides of epithelial cells which lie at the interface of adjacent cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0016524 latrotoxin receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION Combining with alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin, to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0000237 leptotene Deleted DEFINITION Progression through the first stage of prophase I in meiosis, in which chromosomes first become visible.
2008-05-12 GO:0009516 leucoplast Deleted DEFINITION Colorless plastid involved in the synthesis of monoterpenes.
2008-05-12 GO:0006691 leukotriene metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving leukotriene, a pharmacologically active substance derived from a polyunsaturated fatty acid, such as arachidonic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0016922 ligand-dependent nuclear receptor binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively, in a ligand dependent manner, with a nuclear receptor protein.
2008-05-12 GO:0016923 ligand-dependent thyroid hormone receptor interactor activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Ligand dependent interaction with the thyroid hormone receptor.
2008-05-12 GO:0009503 thylakoid light-harvesting complex Deleted DEFINITION A thylakoid membrane complex of chlorophylls a and b together with chlorophyll a-b binding proteins. In addition, LHCs contain a number of other proteins, the function of which is speculative, together with accessory pigments. The LHCs capture and transfer energy to photosystems I and II. As in, but not restricted to, green plants and algae (Viridiplantae, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33090).
2008-05-12 GO:0009518 PSI associated light-harvesting complex I Deleted DEFINITION Protein-pigment complex associated with photosystem I.
2008-05-12 GO:0009517 PSII associated light-harvesting complex II Deleted DEFINITION Protein-pigment complex associated with photosystem II.
2008-05-12 GO:0009807 lignan biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lignans, any member of a class of plant metabolites related to lignins. Lignans are usually found as phenylpropanoid dimers in which the phenylpropanoid units are linked tail to tail and thus having a 2,3 dibenzylbutane skeleton, but higher oligomers can also exist.
2008-05-12 GO:0009806 lignan metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving lignans, any member of a class of plant metabolites related to lignins. Lignans are usually found as phenylpropanoid dimers in which the phenylpropanoid units are linked tail to tail and thus having a 2,3 dibenzylbutane skeleton, but higher oligomers can also exist.
2008-05-12 GO:0009809 lignin biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lignins, a class of polymers formed by the dehydrogenetive radical polymerization of various phenylpropanoid monomers.
2008-05-12 GO:0009808 lignin metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving lignins, a class of polymers of phenylpropanoid units.
2008-05-12 GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent. Includes fatty acids; neutral fats, other fatty-acid esters, and soaps; long-chain (fatty) alcohols and waxes; sphingoids and other long-chain bases; glycolipids, phospholipids and sphingolipids; and carotenes, polyprenols, sterols, terpenes and other isoprenoids.
2008-05-12 GO:0001530 lipopolysaccharide binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with lipopolysaccharide.
2008-05-12 GO:0015437 lipopolysaccharide-transporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + lipopolysaccharide(in) = ADP + phosphate + lipopolysaccharide(out).
2008-05-12 GO:0017118 lipoyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of the lipoyl group from lipoyl-AMP to the lysine residue of lipoate-dependent enzyme.
2008-05-12 GO:0015063 long-wave-sensitive opsin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An opsin with maximal absorption above 500 nm.
2008-05-12 GO:0009673 low-affinity phosphate transmembrane transporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of phosphate from one side of the membrane to the other. In low affinity transport the transporter is able to bind the solute only if it is present at very high concentrations.
2008-05-12 GO:0009676 low-affinity sulfate:proton symporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: sulfate(out) + H+(out) = sulfate(in) + H+(in). Transporter that mediates the transport of sulfate between cellular or subcellular compartments with a low affinity for hydrogen and sulfate.
2008-05-12 GO:0000072 M phase specific microtubule process Deleted DEFINITION A microtubule-based process that occurs only during M phase of the cell cycle.
2008-05-12 GO:0000216 M/G1 transition of mitotic cell cycle Deleted DEFINITION Progression from M phase to G1 phase of the mitotic cell cycle.
2008-05-12 GO:0016236 macroautophagy Deleted DEFINITION The major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Though once thought to be a purely non-selective process, it appears that some types of macroautophagy, e.g. macropexophagy, macromitophagy, may involve selective targeting of the targets to be degraded.
2008-05-12 GO:0004012 phospholipid-translocating ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the movement of phospholipids from one membrane face to the other ('flippase' activity), driven by the hydrolysis of ATP.
2008-05-12 GO:0015444 magnesium-importing ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + Mg2+(out) = ADP + phosphate + Mg2+(in).
2008-05-12 GO:0030011 maintenance of cell polarity Deleted DEFINITION The maintenance of established anisotropic intracellular organization or cell growth patterns.
2008-05-12 GO:0005803 secretory vesicle Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A small subcellular vesicle, or granule, surrounded by a single-layered membrane; formed from the Golgi apparatus and contains a highly concentrated protein destined for secretion.
2008-05-12 GO:0008337 selectin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A class of cell adhesion molecules that bind to carbohydrate via a lectin-like domain; integral membrane glycoproteins.
2008-05-12 GO:0005918 septate junction Deleted DEFINITION Invertebrate-specific cell-cell junctions which form a band around the apical borders of epithelial cells and attach to actin filaments.
2008-05-12 GO:0006714 sesquiterpenoid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving sesquiterpenoid compounds, terpenoids with three isoprene units.
2008-05-12 GO:0016016 short-wave-sensitive opsin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An opsin with maximal absorption between 400 and 500 nm.
2008-05-12 GO:0016987 sigma factor activity Deleted DEFINITION A sigma factor is the promoter specificity subunit of eubacterial-type multisubunit RNA polymerases, those whose core subunit composition is often described as alpha(2)-beta-beta-prime. (This type of multisubunit RNA polymerase complex is known to be found in eubacteria and plant plastids). Although sigma does not bind DNA on its own, when combined with the core to form the holoenzyme, this binds specifically to promoter sequences, with the sigma factor making sequence specific contacts with the promoter elements. The sigma subunit is released from the elongating form of the polymerase and is thus free to act catalytically for multiple RNA polymerase core enzymes.
2008-05-12 GO:0008548 signal-recognition-particle GTPase activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: GTP + H2O = GDP + phosphate. Activity is associated with the signal-recognition particle, a protein and RNA-containing structure involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein synthesis.
2008-05-12 GO:0008180 COP9 signalosome Deleted DEFINITION A protein complex that catalyzes the deneddylation of proteins, including the cullin component of SCF ubiquitin E3 ligase; deneddylation increases the activity of cullin family ubiquitin ligases. The signalosome is involved in many regulatory process, including some which control development, in many species; also regulates photomorphogenesis in plants; in many species its subunits are highly similar to those of the proteasome.
2008-05-12 GO:0015445 silver-exporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + Ag+(in) = ADP + phosphate + Ag+(out).
2008-05-12 GO:0008310 single-stranded DNA 3'-5' exodeoxyribonuclease activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the sequential cleavage of mononucleotides from a free 3' terminus of a single-stranded DNA molecule.
2008-05-12 GO:0008297 single-stranded DNA exodeoxyribonuclease activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the sequential cleavage of mononucleotides from a free 5' or 3' terminus of a single-stranded DNA molecule.
2008-05-12 GO:0007062 sister chromatid cohesion Deleted DEFINITION The cell cycle process by which the sister chromatids of a replicated chromosome are joined along the entire length of the chromosome.
2008-05-12 GO:0003925 small monomeric GTPase activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: GTP + H2O = GDP + phosphate. Small monomeric enzymes with a molecular mass of 21 kDa that are distantly related to the alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase. They are involved in cell-growth regulation (RAS subfamily), membrane vesicle traffic and uncoating (RAB and ARF subfamilies), nuclear protein import (RAN subfamily) and organization of the cytoskeleton (Rho and Rac subfamilies).
2008-05-12 GO:0006408 snRNA export from nucleus Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of snRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
2008-05-12 GO:0000244 spliceosomal tri-snRNP complex assembly Deleted DEFINITION The formation of a tri-snRNP complex containing U4 and U6 (or U4atac and U6atac) snRNAs and U5 snRNAs and associated proteins. This includes reannealing of U4 and U6 (or U4atac and U6atac) snRNAs released from previous rounds of splicing to reform the U4/U6 snRNP (or U4atac/U6atac snRNP) as well as the subsequent association of the U5 snRNP with the U4/U6 snRNP (or U4atac/U6atac snRNP) to form a tri-snRNP that is ready to reassemble into another spliceosome complex.
2008-05-12 GO:0008554 sodium-exporting ATPase activity, phosphorylative mechanism Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + Na+(in) = ADP + phosphate + Na+(out); by a phosphorylative mechanism.
2008-05-12 GO:0016472 sodium ion-transporting two-sector ATPase complex Deleted DEFINITION A large protein complex that catalyzes the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP by a rotational mechanism, coupled to the transport of sodium ions across a membrane. The complex comprises a membrane sector (F0 or V0) that carries out ion transport and a cytoplasmic compartment sector (F1 or V1) that catalyzes ATP synthesis or hydrolysis.
2008-05-12 GO:0007349 cellularization Deleted DEFINITION The separation of a multi-nucleate cell or syncytium into individual cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0032953 regulation of (1->3)-beta-D-glucan biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways relusting in the formation of beta-1,3 glucans.
2008-05-12 GO:0032952 regulation of (1->3)-beta-D-glucan metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving beta-1,3 glucans.
2008-05-12 GO:0008810 cellulase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin and cereal beta-D-glucans.
2008-05-12 GO:0016162 cellulose 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose and cellotetraose, releasing cellobiose from the non-reducing ends of the chains.
2008-05-12 GO:0030248 cellulose binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with cellulose.
2008-05-12 GO:0030244 cellulose biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cellulose, a linear beta1-4 glucan of molecular mass 50-400 kDa with the pyranose units in the -4C1 conformation.
2008-05-12 GO:0030245 cellulose catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of cellulose, a linear beta1-4 glucan of molecular mass 50-400 kDa with the pyranose units in the -4C1 conformation.
2008-05-12 GO:0030243 cellulose metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cellulose, a linear beta1-4 glucan of molecular mass 50-400 kDa with the pyranose units in the -4C1 conformation.
2008-05-12 GO:0009549 cellulose microfibril Deleted DEFINITION Cellulose is a straight chain polysaccharide composed of B(14) linked glucose subunits. It is a major component of plant cell walls where it is found as microfibrils laid down in orthogonal layers. Higher plant microfibrils are about 10nm in diameter and extremely long in relation to their width. The cellulose molecules are oriented parallel to the long axis of the microfibril in a paracrystalline array, which provides great tensile strength. The microfibrils are held in place by the wall matrix and their orientation is closely controlled by the protoplast.
2008-05-12 GO:0016761 cellulose synthase (GDP-forming) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: GDP-glucose + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n) = GDP + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n+1).
2008-05-12 GO:0016760 cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n) = UDP + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n+1).
2008-05-12 GO:0009947 centrolateral axis specification Deleted DEFINITION The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of the centrolateral axis. In plants, this axis is duplicated and runs from the midrib to the margin of the leaf.
2008-05-12 GO:0005698 centromere Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The region of a eukaryotic chromosome that is attached to the spindle during nuclear division. It is defined genetically as the region of the chromosome that always segregates at the first division of meiosis; the region of the chromosome in which no crossing over occurs. At the start of M phase, each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids with a constriction at a point which forms the centromere. During late prophase two kinetochores assemble on each centromere, one kinetochore on each sister chromatid.
2008-05-12 GO:0007002 centromere binding Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0007376 cephalic furrow formation Deleted DEFINITION Formation of a partial necklace of inturning tissue on the lateral sides of the embryo, along the dorsal-ventral axis. This furrow demarcates head from thorax in the developing protostome.
2008-05-12 GO:0017040 ceramidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: N-acylsphingosine + H2O = a fatty acid + sphingosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0046513 ceramide biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of ceramides, any N-acylated sphingoid.
2008-05-12 GO:0046514 ceramide catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of ceramides, any N-acetylated sphingoid.
2008-05-12 GO:0008120 ceramide glucosyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + N-acylsphingosine = UDP + D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0001729 ceramide kinase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + ceramide = ADP + ceramide 1-phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0006124 ferredoxin metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving ferredoxin, any simple, nonenzymatic iron-sulfur protein that is characterized by having equal numbers of atoms of iron and labile sulfur. Iron and sulfur atoms are present in one or two clusters of two or four atoms of each.
2008-05-12 GO:0008937 ferredoxin-NAD(P) reductase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: reduced ferredoxin + NAD(P)+ = oxidized ferredoxin + NAD(P)H + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0008860 ferredoxin-NAD+ reductase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: reduced ferredoxin + NAD+ = oxidized ferredoxin + NADH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0008199 ferric iron binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with ferric iron, Fe(III).
2008-05-12 GO:0000293 ferric-chelate reductase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2 Fe2+ + NAD+ = 2 Fe3+ + NADH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0004325 ferrochelatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: protoporphyrin + Fe2+ = protoheme + 2 H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0008198 ferrous iron binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with ferrous iron, Fe(II).
2008-05-12 GO:0004322 ferroxidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4 Fe2+ + 4 H+ + O2 = 4 Fe3+ + 2 H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0009566 fertilization Deleted DEFINITION The union of gametes of opposite sexes during the process of sexual reproduction to form a zygote. It involves the fusion of the gametic nuclei (karyogamy) and cytoplasm (plasmogamy).
2008-05-12 GO:0007338 single fertilization Deleted DEFINITION The union of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
2008-05-12 GO:0046424 ferulate 5-hydroxylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ferulic acid + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 5-hydroxyferulic acid + H2O + NADP+.
2008-05-12 GO:0030600 feruloyl esterase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: feruloyl-polysaccharide + H2O = ferulate + polysaccharide.
2008-05-12 GO:0001660 fever generation Deleted DEFINITION A rise in body temperature above the normal, often as a response to infection.
2008-05-12 GO:0008543 fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway Deleted DEFINITION The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a fibroblast growth factor receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.
2008-05-12 GO:0008001 fibrinogen Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0005104 fibroblast growth factor receptor binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR).
2008-05-12 GO:0042029 fibrolase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage of 14-Ala-Leu-15 in insulin B chain and cleavage of 413-Lys-Leu-414 in alpha chain of fibrinogen.
2008-05-12 GO:0030447 filamentous growth Deleted DEFINITION The process by which a multicellular organism or a group of unicellular organisms grow in a threadlike, filamentous shape.
2008-05-12 GO:0004415 hyalurononglucosaminidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate.
2008-05-12 GO:0030641 regulation of cellular pH Deleted DEFINITION The regulation of the levels, transport, and metabolism of hydrogen ions (protons) within a cell or between a cell and its external environment.
2008-05-12 GO:0006818 hydrogen transport Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of hydrogen (H2 or H+), into, out of, within or between cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0045289 luciferin monooxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the oxidation of luciferin. The reaction results in light emission as luciferin returns to the ground state after enzymatic oxidation.
2008-05-12 GO:0042299 lupeol synthase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cyclization of (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene to lupeol.
2008-05-12 GO:0016829 lyase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage of C-C, C-O, C-N and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation, or conversely adding a group to a double bond. They differ from other enzymes in that two substrates are involved in one reaction direction, but only one in the other direction. When acting on the single substrate, a molecule is eliminated and this generates either a new double bond or a new ring.
2008-05-12 GO:0009941 chloroplast envelope Deleted DEFINITION The double lipid bilayer enclosing the chloroplast and separating its contents from the rest of the cytoplasm; includes the intermembrane space.
2008-05-12 GO:0009706 chloroplast inner membrane Deleted DEFINITION The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the chloroplast envelope; also faces the chloroplast stroma.
2008-05-12 GO:0009707 chloroplast outer membrane Deleted DEFINITION The outer, i.e. cytoplasm-facing, lipid bilayer of the chloroplast envelope.
2008-05-12 GO:0009902 chloroplast relocation Deleted DEFINITION The process by which chloroplasts in photosynthetic cells migrate toward illuminated sites to optimize photosynthesis and move away from excessively illuminated areas to protect the photosynthetic machinery.
2008-05-12 GO:0045037 protein import into chloroplast stroma Deleted DEFINITION The import of proteins into the chloroplast stroma. Import depends on ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by stromal chaperones. Chloroplast stromal proteins, such as the S subunit of rubisco, have a N-terminal stromal-import sequence of about 44 amino acids which is cleaved from the protein precursor after import.
2008-05-12 GO:0045038 protein import into chloroplast thylakoid membrane Deleted DEFINITION The import of proteins into the chloroplast thylakoid membranes. Proteins that are destined for the thylakoid lumen require two uptake-targeting sequences: the first targets the protein to the stroma, and the second targets the protein from the stroma to the thylakoid lumen. Four separate thylakoid-import systems deal with the proteins once they are in the stroma.
2008-05-12 GO:0009494 chloroplast-type ferredoxin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0001567 cholesterol 25-hydroxylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + AH2 + O2 = 25-hydroxycholesterol + A + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0008123 cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol + NADP+ + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0030299 intestinal cholesterol absorption Deleted DEFINITION Uptake of cholesterol into the blood by absorption from the small intestine.
2008-05-12 GO:0006695 cholesterol biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones.
2008-05-12 GO:0006707 cholesterol catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones.
2008-05-12 GO:0008203 cholesterol metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones. It is a component of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer and of plasma lipoproteins and can be found in all animal tissues.
2008-05-12 GO:0008386 cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + reduced adrenal ferredoxin + O2 = pregnenolone + 4-methylpentanal + oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0016995 cholesterol oxidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + O2 = cholest-4-en-3-one + H2O2.
2008-05-12 GO:0030301 cholesterol transport Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3-beta-ol, into, out of, within or between cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0042425 choline biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium), an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
2008-05-12 GO:0042426 choline catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium), an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
2008-05-12 GO:0008812 choline dehydrogenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: choline + acceptor = betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor.
2008-05-12 GO:0030069 lysogeny Deleted DEFINITION The incorporation of a bacteriophage genome into the genome of its bacterial host organism.
2008-05-12 GO:0004622 lysophospholipase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2-lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O = glycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate.
2008-05-12 GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane Deleted DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding the lysosome and separating its contents from the cell cytoplasm.
2008-05-12 GO:0008245 lysosomal membrane hydrogen-transporting ATPase Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0004188 serine-type Pro-X carboxypeptidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage of a Pro-Xaa bond by a serine-type peptidase mechanism to release a C-terminal amino acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0005764 lysosome Deleted DEFINITION Any of a group of related cytoplasmic, membrane bound organelles that are found in most animal cells and that contain a variety of hydrolases, most of which have their maximal activities in the pH range 5-6. The contained enzymes display latency if properly isolated. About 40 different lysosomal hydrolases are known and lysosomes have a great variety of morphologies and functions.
2008-05-12 GO:0007040 lysosome organization Deleted DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of lysosomes.
2008-05-12 GO:0001619 lysosphingolipid and lysophosphatidic acid receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION Combining with lysosphingolipid or lysophosphatidic acid to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0003796 lysozyme activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of the 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid in peptidoglycan heteropolymers of the prokaryotes cell walls and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrins.
2008-05-12 GO:0000323 lytic vacuole Deleted DEFINITION A vacuole that is maintained at an acidic pH and which contains degradative enzymes, including a wide variety of acid hydrolases.
2008-05-12 GO:0000327 lytic vacuole within protein storage vacuole Deleted DEFINITION A membrane-bounded compartment containing crystals of phytic acid and proteins characteristic of a lytic vacuole, found within a storage vacuole.
2008-05-12 GO:0030068 lytic viral life cycle Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0019077 lytic viral release Deleted DEFINITION A viral infection and replication that leads to the destruction (lysis) of the infected cell with the release of virions.
2008-05-12 GO:0046200 m-cresol biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of m-cresol (3-hydroxytoluene), the meta-isoform of cresol.
2008-05-12 GO:0042213 m-cresol catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of m-cresol (3-hydroxytoluene), the meta-isoform of cresol.
2008-05-12 GO:0018221 peptidyl-serine palmitoylation Deleted DEFINITION The palmitoylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-palmitoyl-L-threonine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018070 peptidyl-serine phosphopantetheinylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphopantetheinylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phosphopantetheine-L-serine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018105 peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-serine.
2008-05-12 GO:0019126 peptidyl-serine racemization Deleted DEFINITION The racemization of peptidyl-serine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018178 peptidyl-threonine adenylylation Deleted DEFINITION The adenylylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-(phospho-5'-adenosine)-L-threonine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018220 peptidyl-threonine palmitoylation Deleted DEFINITION The palmitoylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-palmitoyl-L-threonine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018107 peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-threonine.
2008-05-12 GO:0019879 peptidyl-thyronine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-tyrosine Deleted DEFINITION The formation of peptidyl-thyronine from peptidyl-tyrosine in thyroglobulin by phenyl transfer coupled with the formation of peptidyl-dehydroalanine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018078 peptidyl-thyronine iodination Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine, formed from tyrosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018408 peptidyl-thyronine iodination to form 3',3'',5',5''-tetraiodo-L-thyronine Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine to form peptidyl-3',3'',5',5''-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (L-thyroxine).
2008-05-12 GO:0018407 peptidyl-thyronine iodination to form 3',3'',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine to form peptidyl-3',3'',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine (triiodothyronine).
2008-05-12 GO:0018080 peptidyl-tryptophan bromination Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-tryptophan, to form peptidyl-L-6'-bromotryptophan.
2008-05-12 GO:0045325 peptidyl-tryptophan hydroxylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational hydroxylation of peptidyl-tryptophan, to form peptidyl-L-3-hydroxytryptophan.
2008-05-12 GO:0019926 peptidyl-tryptophan oxidation to tryptophyl quinone Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational oxidation of peptidyl-tryptophan to form tryptophan-6,7-dione, otherwise known as tryptophyl quinone, which is further modified by cross-linking to either tryptophan or cysteine.
2008-05-12 GO:0019128 peptidyl-tryptophan racemization Deleted DEFINITION The racemization of peptidyl-tryptophan.
2008-05-12 GO:0018062 peptidyl-tryptophan succinylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of an N-terminal peptidyl-tryptophan residue to form peptidyl-N2-succinyl-L-tryptophan.
2008-05-12 GO:0018254 peptidyl-tyrosine adenylylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational adenylylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-O4'-(phospho-5'-adenosine)-L-tyrosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018251 peptidyl-tyrosine dehydrogenation Deleted DEFINITION The oxidation of the C alpha-C beta bond of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-dehydrotyrosine coupled with cyclization of neighboring residues.
2008-05-12 GO:0018336 peptidyl-tyrosine hydroxylation Deleted DEFINITION The hydroxylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-dihydroxyphenylalanine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018108 peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-O4'-phospho-L-tyrosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0006478 peptidyl-tyrosine sulfation Deleted DEFINITION The posttranslational sulfation of peptidyl-tyrosine residues to form peptidyl-O4'-sulfo-L-tyrosine.
2008-05-12 GO:0018165 peptidyl-tyrosine uridylylation Deleted DEFINITION The uridylylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-O4'-(phospho-5'-uridine)-L-tyrosine, found in glutamine synthetase.
2008-05-12 GO:0004598 peptidylamidoglycolate lyase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptidylamidoglycolate = peptidyl amide + glyoxylate.
2008-05-12 GO:0000048 peptidyltransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptidyl-tRNA(1) + aminoacyl-tRNA(2) = tRNA(1) + peptidylaminoacyl-tRNA(2).
2008-05-12 GO:0009724 detection of abscisic acid stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which an abscisic acid stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0009721 detection of auxin stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which an auxin stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0042494 detection of bacterial lipoprotein Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which a bacterial lipoprotein stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. Bacterial lipoproteins are lipoproteins characterized by the presence of conserved sequence motifs called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
2008-05-12 GO:0009729 detection of brassinosteroid stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which a brassinosteroid stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0009730 detection of carbohydrate stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which a carbohydrate stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0009722 detection of cytokinin stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which a cytokinin stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0001553 luteinization Deleted DEFINITION Differentiation of theca and granulosa cells into luteal cells. Also other processes involved in the formation of a corpus luteum after ovulation.
2008-05-12 GO:0001554 luteolysis Deleted DEFINITION Regression of ovarian corpora lutea.
2008-05-12 GO:0015465 lysin activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An agent that can lyse cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0000279 M phase Deleted DEFINITION Progression through M phase, the part of the cell cycle comprising nuclear division.
2008-05-12 GO:0000087 mitotic M phase Deleted DEFINITION Progression through M phase, the part of the mitotic cell cycle during which mitosis takes place.
2008-05-12 GO:0000032 cell wall mannoprotein biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cell wall mannoproteins, any cell wall protein that contains covalently bound mannose residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0042545 cell wall modification Deleted DEFINITION The series of events leading to chemical and structural alterations of an existing cell wall that can result in loosening, increased extensibility or disassembly.
2008-05-12 GO:0009827 plant-type cell wall modification Deleted DEFINITION The series of events leading to chemical and structural alterations of an existing cellulose and pectin-containing cell wall that can result in loosening, increased extensibility or disassembly. As in, but not restricted to, the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:3398).
2008-05-12 GO:0009830 cell wall modification involved in abscission Deleted DEFINITION The series of events that occur during abscission that result in chemical and structural alterations of existing cell walls.
2008-05-12 GO:0042547 cell wall modification involved in multidimensional cell growth Deleted DEFINITION The series of events that occur during cell growth that result in chemical or structural changes to existing cell walls.
2008-05-12 GO:0009831 plant-type cell wall modification involved in multidimensional cell growth Deleted DEFINITION The series of events that occur during cell growth that result in chemical or structural changes to existing cell walls of the type composed chiefly of cellulose and pectin.
2008-05-12 GO:0009829 cell wall modification involved in fruit ripening Deleted DEFINITION The series of events that occur during ripening that result in chemical or structural alterations of existing cell walls.
2008-05-12 GO:0007047 cellular cell wall organization Deleted DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the cell wall, the rigid or semi-rigid envelope lying outside the cell membrane of plant, fungal and most prokaryotic cells, maintaining their shape and protecting them from osmotic lysis.
2008-05-12 GO:0045168 cell-cell signaling involved in cell fate commitment Deleted DEFINITION Signaling at long or short range between cells that results in the commitment of a cell to a certain fate.
2008-05-12 GO:0045123 cellular extravasation Deleted DEFINITION The migration of leukocytes from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissue.
2008-05-12 GO:0000902 cell morphogenesis Deleted DEFINITION Any process that modulates the size or shape of a cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0000904 cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation Deleted DEFINITION The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs when relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history.
2008-05-12 GO:0000903 regulation of cell shape during vegetative growth phase Deleted DEFINITION The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs during the development of a cell as it progresses through a mitotic cell cycle when it is not undergoing terminal differentiation.
2008-05-12 GO:0045333 cellular respiration Deleted DEFINITION The enzymatic release of energy from organic compounds (especially carbohydrates and fats) which either requires oxygen (aerobic respiration) or does not (anaerobic respiration).
2008-05-12 GO:0000022 mitotic spindle elongation Deleted DEFINITION Lengthening of the distance between poles of the mitotic spindle.
2008-05-12 GO:0003674 molecular_function Deleted DEFINITION Elemental activities, such as catalysis or binding, describing the actions of a gene product at the molecular level. A given gene product may exhibit one or more molecular functions.
2008-05-12 GO:0015412 molybdate transmembrane-transporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + molybdate(out) = ADP + phosphate + molybdate(in).
2008-05-12 GO:0006777 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the Mo-molybdopterin cofactor, essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum (Mo) ion coordinated by one or two molybdopterin ligands.
2008-05-12 GO:0015407 monosaccharide-transporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + monosaccharide(out) = ADP + phosphate + monosaccharide(in). Ribose, xylose, arabinose, galactose and methylgalactoside are imported.
2008-05-12 GO:0016098 monoterpenoid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving monoterpenoid compounds, terpenoids having a C10 skeleton.
2008-05-12 GO:0006406 mRNA export from nucleus Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
2008-05-12 GO:0030049 muscle filament sliding Deleted DEFINITION The sliding of actin thin filaments and myosin thick filaments past each other in muscle contraction. This involves a process of interaction of myosin located on a thick filament with actin located on a thin filament. During this process ATP is split and forces are generated.
2008-05-12 GO:0005863 striated muscle myosin thick filament Deleted DEFINITION Bipolar filaments formed of polymers of a muscle-specific myosin II isoform, found in the middle of sarcomeres in myofibrils.
2008-05-12 GO:0005865 striated muscle thin filament Deleted DEFINITION Filaments formed of actin and associated proteins; attached to Z discs at either end of sarcomeres in myofibrils.
2008-05-12 GO:0005862 muscle thin filament tropomyosin Deleted DEFINITION A form of the tropomyosin dimer found associated with actin and the troponin complex in muscle thin filaments.
2008-05-12 GO:0006021 inositol biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
2008-05-12 GO:0006020 inositol metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
2008-05-12 GO:0008934 inositol monophosphate 1-phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: myo-inositol 1-phosphate + H2O = myo-inositol + phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0030016 myofibril Deleted DEFINITION The contractile element of skeletal and cardiac muscle; a long, highly organized bundle of actin, myosin, and other proteins that contracts by a sliding filament mechanism.
2008-05-12 GO:0016459 myosin complex Deleted DEFINITION A protein complex, formed of one or more myosin heavy chains plus associated light chains and other proteins, that functions as a molecular motor; uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move actin filaments or to move vesicles or other cargo on fixed actin filaments; has magnesium-ATPase activity and binds actin. Myosin classes are distinguished based on sequence features of the motor, or head, domain, but also have distinct tail regions that are believed to bind specific cargoes.
2008-05-12 GO:0042496 detection of diacyl bacterial lipopeptide Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which a diacylated bacterial lipoprotein stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. Diacylated bacterial lipoproteins are diacylated lipoproteins characterized by the presence of conserved sequence motifs called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
2008-05-12 GO:0009726 detection of endogenous stimulus Deleted DEFINITION The series of events in which an endogenous stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-05-12 GO:0005632 inner layer of spore wall Deleted DEFINITION Either of the two innermost layers of the spore wall, as described in Saccharomyces.
2008-05-12 GO:0005822 inner plaque of spindle pole body Deleted DEFINITION One of three laminate structures that form the spindle pole body; the inner plaque is in the nucleus.
2008-05-12 GO:0016312 inositol bisphosphate phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of one of the two phosphate groups of an inositol bisphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004446 inositol-hexakisphosphate phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: myo-inositol hexakisphosphate + H2O = myo-inositol pentakisphosphate (mixed isomers) + phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004441 inositol-1,4-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate + H2O = 1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate + phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004444 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 1-phosphatase Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-1 position of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004445 inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate + H2O = myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate + phosphate, and 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate + H2O = 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate + phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0016313 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate phosphatase Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The removal of one of the phosphate groups from an inositol triphosphate to produce an inositol bisphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0016316 phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate 4-phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1-phosphatidyl-myo-inositol 3,4-bisphosphate + H2O = 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate + phosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0004428 inositol or phosphatidylinositol kinase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the phosphorylation of myo-inositol (1,2,3,5/4,6-cyclohexanehexol) or a phosphatidylinositol.
2008-05-12 GO:0004437 inositol or phosphatidylinositol phosphatase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of a phosphate group from phosphorylated myo-inositol (1,2,3,5/4,6-cyclohexanehexol) or a phosphatidylinositol.
2008-05-12 GO:0005626 insoluble fraction Deleted DEFINITION That fraction of cells, prepared by disruptive biochemical methods, that is not soluble in water.
2008-05-12 GO:0030070 insulin processing Deleted DEFINITION The formation of mature insulin by proteolysis of the precursor preproinsulin. The signal sequence is first cleaved from preproinsulin to form proinsulin; proinsulin is then cleaved to release the C peptide, leaving the A and B chains of mature insulin linked by disulfide bridges.
2008-05-12 GO:0016021 integral component of membrane Deleted DEFINITION Penetrating at least one phospholipid bilayer of a membrane. May also refer to the state of being buried in the bilayer with no exposure outside the bilayer. When used to describe a protein, indicates that all or part of the peptide sequence is embedded in the membrane.
2008-05-12 GO:0016541 intein Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Intervening protein sequence excised from a protein precursor in protein splicing; inteins catalyze their own excision and many also possess endonuclease activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0005911 cell-cell junction Deleted DEFINITION A specialized region of connection between two cells including but not limited to gap junctions, desmosomes, and tight junctions, but excluding direct cytoplasmic junctions such as ring canals.
2008-05-12 GO:0016517 interleukin-12 receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION Combining with interleukin-12 to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0016515 interleukin-13 receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION Combining with interleukin-13 to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0005898 interleukin-13 receptor complex Deleted DEFINITION A complex that binds interleukin-13; consists of two chains, interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain and interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain.
2008-05-12 GO:0016516 interleukin-4 receptor complex Deleted DEFINITION Complexes that bind interleukin-4; consist of alpha, beta, and gamma chains and exist in three forms, one containing extracellular transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, one lacking the cytoplasmic domain and a third that is secreted.
2008-05-12 GO:0005821 intermediate layer of spindle pole body Deleted DEFINITION Structure between the central and outer plaques of the spindle pole body.
2008-05-12 GO:0001560 regulation of cell growth by extracellular stimulus Deleted DEFINITION Any process whereby external signals modulate the frequency, rate or extent of cell growth, the irreversible increase in size of a cell over time.
2008-05-12 GO:0001559 regulation of cell growth by detection of nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio Deleted DEFINITION Any process whereby the size of the nucleus with respect to the cytoplasm modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell growth, the irreversible increase in size of a cell over time.
2008-05-12 GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of proteins in a cell, including the movement of proteins between specific compartments or structures within a cell, such as organelles of a eukaryotic cell.
2008-05-12 GO:0006873 cellular ion homeostasis Deleted DEFINITION The regulation of the levels, transport, and metabolism of ions within a cell or between a cell and its external environment.
2008-05-12 GO:0008042 iron-sulfur electron transfer carrier Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An iron-sulfur protein that serves as an electron acceptor and electron donor in an electron transport system.
2008-05-12 GO:0004452 isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the isomerization of isopentenyl diphosphate into dimethylallyl diphosphate.
2008-05-12 GO:0045436 lycopene beta cyclase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cyclization of beta rings at one or both ends of the lycopene molecule (psi, psi-carotene) to form gamma-carotene or the bicyclic beta-carotene (beta, beta-carotene), respectively.
2008-05-12 GO:0045435 lycopene epsilon cyclase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the cyclization of an epsilon ring at one end of the lycopene molecule (psi, psi-carotene) to form delta-carotene (epsilon, psi-carotene).
2008-05-12 GO:0046649 lymphocyte activation Deleted DEFINITION A change in morphology and behavior of a lymphocyte resulting from exposure to a specific antigen, mitogen, cytokine, chemokine, cellular ligand, or soluble factor.
2008-05-12 GO:0005557 lymphocyte antigen Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0046651 lymphocyte proliferation Deleted DEFINITION The expansion of a lymphocyte population by cell division.
2008-05-12 GO:0030098 lymphocyte differentiation Deleted DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized precursor cell acquires specialized features of B cells, T cells, or natural killer cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0004184 lysine carboxypeptidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptidyl-L-lysine (or peptidyl-L-arginine) + H2O = peptide + L-lysine (or L-arginine). Release of a C-terminal basic amino acid, preferentially lysine; inactivates bradykinin and anaphylatoxins in blood plasma.
2008-05-12 GO:0004468 lysine N-acetyltransferase activity, acting on acetyl phosphate as donor Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl phosphate + L-lysine = phosphate + N6-acetyl-L-lysine.
2008-05-12 GO:0009085 lysine biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0009089 lysine biosynthetic process via diaminopimelate Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lysine, via the intermediate diaminopimelate.
2008-05-12 GO:0019878 lysine biosynthetic process via aminoadipic acid Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lysine by the aminoadipic pathway.
2008-05-12 GO:0006554 lysine catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0008923 lysine decarboxylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-lysine = cadaverine + CO2.
2008-05-12 GO:0006553 lysine metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0030631 pyrrolysine incorporation Deleted DEFINITION The incorporation of a lysine methylamine methyltransferase cofactor adduct into a peptide; uses a special tRNA that recognizes the UAG codon as a modified lysine, rather than as a termination codon. The lysine methylamine methyltransferase cofactor adduct is synthesized from a lysine charged tRNA before its incorporation; it is not a posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine; this modification is found in several Methanosarcina methylamine methyltransferases.
2008-05-12 GO:0018113 lysine racemase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-lysine = D-lysine.
2008-05-12 GO:0015819 lysine transport Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid, into, out of, within or between cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0015189 L-lysine transmembrane transporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of L-lysine from one side of a membrane to the other. L-lysine is 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0004824 lysine-tRNA ligase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + L-lysine + tRNA(Lys) = AMP + diphosphate + L-lysyl-tRNA(Lys).
2008-05-12 GO:0000075 cell cycle checkpoint Deleted DEFINITION A point in the eukaryotic cell cycle where progress through the cycle can be halted until conditions are suitable for the cell to proceed to the next stage.
2008-05-12 GO:0030037 actin filament reorganization involved in cell cycle Deleted DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby rearrangement of the spatial distribution of actin filaments and associated proteins occurs.
2008-05-12 GO:0000267 cell fraction Deleted DEFINITION A generic term for parts of cells prepared by disruptive biochemical techniques.
2008-05-12 GO:0016049 cell growth Deleted DEFINITION The process by which a cell irreversibly increases in size over time by accretion and biosynthetic production of matter similar to that already present.
2008-05-12 GO:0030054 cell junction Deleted DEFINITION A specialized region of connection between two cells or between a cell and the extracellular matrix.
2008-05-12 GO:0016043 cellular component organization Deleted DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cellular component; includes the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope.
2008-05-12 GO:0009504 cell plate Deleted DEFINITION The nascent cell membrane and cell wall structure that forms between two daughter nuclei near the center of a dividing plant cell. It develops at the equitorial region of the phragmoplast. It grows outwards to join with the lateral walls and form two daughter cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0008283 cell proliferation Deleted DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.
2008-05-12 GO:0030030 cell projection organization Deleted DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.
2008-05-12 GO:0005618 cell wall Deleted DEFINITION The rigid or semi-rigid envelope lying outside the cell membrane of plant, fungal, and most prokaryotic cells, maintaining their shape and protecting them from osmotic lysis. In plants it is made of cellulose and, often, lignin; in fungi it is composed largely of polysaccharides; in bacteria it is composed of peptidoglycan.
2008-05-12 GO:0009505 plant-type cell wall Deleted DEFINITION A more or less rigid stucture enclosing the protoplast of a cell and composed of cellulose and pectin and other organic and inorganic substances. As in, but not restricted to, the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:3398).
2008-05-12 GO:0009279 cell outer membrane Deleted DEFINITION A lipid bilayer that forms the outermost layer of the cell envelope; enriched in polysaccharide and protein; the outer leaflet of the membrane contains specific lipopolysaccharide structures.
2008-05-12 GO:0005913 cell-cell adherens junction Deleted DEFINITION An adherens junction which connects two cells to each other.
2008-05-12 GO:0016337 single organismal cell-cell adhesion Deleted DEFINITION The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules.
2008-05-12 GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling Deleted DEFINITION Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another.
2008-05-12 GO:0007160 cell-matrix adhesion Deleted DEFINITION The binding of a cell to the extracellular matrix via adhesion molecules.
2008-05-12 GO:0030055 cell-substrate junction Deleted DEFINITION A specialized region of connection between a cell and the extracellular matrix.
2008-05-12 GO:0005924 cell-substrate adherens junction Deleted DEFINITION An adherens junction which connects a cell to the extracellular matrix.
2008-05-12 GO:0005575 cellular_component Deleted DEFINITION The part of a cell or its extracellular environment in which a gene product is located. A gene product may be located in one or more parts of a cell and its location may be as specific as a particular macromolecular complex, that is, a stable, persistent association of macromolecules that function together.
2008-05-12 GO:0005823 central plaque of spindle pole body Deleted DEFINITION One of three laminate structures that form the spindle pole body; the central plaque is embedded in the nuclear envelope.
2008-05-12 GO:0019228 neuronal action potential Deleted DEFINITION The process that modulates the membrane potential involved in the propagation of a signal in a neuron.
2008-05-12 GO:0007078 lamin depolymerization Deleted DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby lamin is depolymerized.
2008-05-12 GO:0007551 maintenance of dosage compensation Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0009489 rubredoxin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A low molecular weight mononuclear iron protein involved in electron transfer, with an iron tetrahedrally coordinated by the sulfurs of four conserved cysteine residues.
2008-05-12 GO:0000084 mitotic S phase Deleted DEFINITION Progression through S phase, the part of the mitotic cell cycle during which DNA synthesis takes place.
2008-05-12 GO:0009697 salicylic acid biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid), a derivative of benzoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0009696 salicylic acid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving of salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid), a derivative of benzoic acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0016909 SAP kinase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the phosphorylation of proteins. A family of protein kinases that perform a crucial step in relaying signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Strongly activated by stress signals such as heat or osmotic shock, DNA-damaging agents, inhibitors of protein synthesis and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
2008-05-12 GO:0016134 saponin metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving saponins, glycosides of plants in which the aglycan (sapogenin) moiety is a terpene or steroid and the sugar moiety is a glucose, a galactose, a pentose, a methylpentose or an oligosaccharide. Saponins are powerful surfactant agents and membrane active; they are, hence, toxic to animals on injection.
2008-05-12 GO:0004494 methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-2-methyl-3-oxopropanoyl-CoA = succinyl-CoA.
2008-05-12 GO:0042192 methylmercury biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of methylmercury (MeHg+), a highly toxic organometal.
2008-05-12 GO:0042193 methylmercury catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of methylmercury (MeHg+), a highly toxic organometal.
2008-05-12 GO:0042191 methylmercury metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving methylmercury (MeHg+), a highly toxic organometal which can accumulate in tissues, particularly in fish species.
2008-05-12 GO:0008930 methylthioadenosine nucleosidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: methylthioadenosine + H2O = adenine + 5-methylthio-D-ribose.
2008-05-12 GO:0019727 mevaldate reductase (NAD+) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-mevalonate + NAD+ = mevaldate + NADH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0019726 mevaldate reductase (NADPH) activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-mevalonate + NADP+ = mevaldate + NADPH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0015728 mevalonate transport Deleted DEFINITION The directed movement of mevalonate into, out of, within or between cells.
2008-05-12 GO:0045341 MHC class I biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of major histocompatibility protein class I.
2008-05-12 GO:0030106 MHC class I receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A major histocompatibility complex class I receptor. These display processed antigens from the endocytosed bacteria. MHC class I proteins can form complexes with processed antigen peptides only if the antigen is synthesized in the same cell. As a consequence, T lymphocytes can only bind to class-I-positive cells that are synthesizing the antigen (e.g. virus-infected cells).
2008-05-12 GO:0045342 MHC class II biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of major histocompatibility protein class II.
2008-05-12 GO:0045012 MHC class II receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A major histocompatibility complex class II receptor. These display processed antigens from virally-infected or transformed cells. Class-II-positive cells ('antigen-presenting cells') can take up antigens from outside by endocytosis, degrade them into small peptides, and re-export the peptides (now bound to MHC class II protein) to the cell surface. These peptide-MHC class II complexes can then be recognized by specific CD4+ lymphocytes.
2008-05-12 GO:0003822 MHC-interacting protein Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0009555 pollen development Deleted DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pollen grain over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The process begins with the meiosis of the microsporocyte to form four haploid microspores. The nucleus of each microspore then divides by mitosis to form a two-celled organism, the pollen grain, that contains a tube cell as well as a smaller generative cell. The pollen grain is surrounded by an elaborate cell wall. In some species, the generative cell immediately divides again to give a pair of sperm cells. In most flowering plants, however this division takes place later, in the tube that develops when a pollen grain germinates.
2008-05-12 GO:0020009 microneme Deleted DEFINITION Elongated tubular organelle arranged longitudinally in the apical complex of an apicomplexan parasite.
2008-05-12 GO:0005792 microsome Deleted DEFINITION Any of the small, heterogeneous, artifactual, vesicular particles, 50-150 nm in diameter, that are formed when some eukaryotic cells are homogenized and that sediment on centrifugation at 100000 g.
2008-05-12 GO:0009556 microsporogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The process by which the microsporocyte undergoes meiosis, giving rise to four haploid microspores.
2008-05-12 GO:0001578 microtubule bundle formation Deleted DEFINITION A process that results in a parallel arrangement of microtubules.
2008-05-12 GO:0030496 midbody Deleted DEFINITION A thin cytoplasmic bridge formed between daughter cells at the end of cytokinesis. The midbody forms where the contractile ring constricts, and may persist for some time before finally breaking to complete cytokinesis.
2008-05-12 GO:0042474 middle ear morphogenesis Deleted DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of middle ear are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form. The middle ear is the air-filled cavity within the skull of vertebrates that lies between the outer ear and the inner ear. It is linked to the pharynx (and therefore to outside air) via the Eustachian tube and in mammals contains the three ear ossicles, which transmit auditory vibrations from the outer ear (via the tympanum) to the inner ear (via the oval window).
2008-05-12 GO:0005189 milk protein Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0006705 mineralocorticoid biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of mineralocorticoids, hormonal C21 corticosteroids synthesized from cholesterol.
2008-05-12 GO:0006712 mineralocorticoid catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of mineralocorticoids, hormonal C21 corticosteroids synthesized from cholesterol.
2008-05-12 GO:0008212 mineralocorticoid metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving mineralocorticoids, hormonal C21 corticosteroids synthesized from cholesterol. Mineralocorticoids act primarily on water and electrolyte balance.
2008-05-12 GO:0005689 U12-type spliceosomal complex Deleted DEFINITION The minor (U12-dependent) spliceosome is composed of the snRNPs, U11, U12, U4atac, U6atac, and U5 (which is also a component of the major spliceosome). This minor form of the spliceosome is responsible for the splicing of the majority of introns with atypical AT-AC terminal dinucleotides, as well as other non-canonical introns. The entire splice site signal, not just the terminal dinucleotides, is involved in determining which spliceosome utilizes the site.
2008-05-12 GO:0005558 minor histocompatibility antigen Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0000700 mismatch base pair DNA N-glycosylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of single bases present in mismatches by the cleavage the N-C1' glycosidic bond between the target damaged DNA base and the deoxyribose sugar. The reaction releases a free base and leaves an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site.
2008-05-12 GO:0006298 mismatch repair Deleted DEFINITION A system for the correction of errors introduced during DNA replication when an incorrect base, which cannot form hydrogen bonds with the corresponding base in the parent strand, is incorporated into the daughter strand. The mismatch repair system promotes genomic fidelity by repairing base-base mismatches, insertion-deletion loops and heterologies generated during DNA replication and recombination.
2008-05-12 GO:0045025 mitochondrial degradosome Deleted DEFINITION The mitochondrial degradosome (mtEXO) is a three-protein complex which has a 3' to 5' exoribonuclease activity and participates in intron-independent turnover and processing of mitochondrial transcripts.
2008-05-12 GO:0000002 mitochondrial genome maintenance Deleted DEFINITION The maintenance of the structure and integrity of the mitochondrial genome; includes replication and segregation of the mitochondrial chromosome.
2008-05-12 GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane Deleted DEFINITION The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial envelope. It is highly folded to form cristae.
2008-05-12 GO:0007091 metaphase/anaphase transition of mitotic cell cycle Deleted DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a cell progresses from metaphase to anaphase during mitosis, triggered by the destruction of mitotic cyclins.
2008-05-12 GO:0000236 mitotic prometaphase Deleted DEFINITION Progression through prometaphase, the stage following prophase in mitosis (in higher eukaryotes) during which the nuclear envelope is disrupted and breaks into membrane vesicles, and the spindle microtubules enter the nuclear region. Kinetochores mature on each centromere and attach to some of the spindle microtubules. Kinetochore microtubules begin the process of aligning chromosomes in one plane halfway between the poles.
2008-05-12 GO:0000088 mitotic prophase Deleted DEFINITION Progression through prophase, the initial stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes are condensed but are not yet attached to a mitotic spindle.
2008-05-12 GO:0007052 mitotic spindle organization Deleted DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the microtubule spindle during a mitotic cell cycle.
2008-05-12 GO:0009190 cyclic nucleotide biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue.
2008-05-12 GO:0009214 cyclic nucleotide catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue.
2008-05-12 GO:0009187 cyclic nucleotide metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue.
2008-05-12 GO:0009778 cyclic photosynthetic phosphorylation Deleted DEFINITION ATP synthesis is driven by a proton gradient generated across the thylakoid membrane. Involves only photosystem I.
2008-05-12 GO:0019935 cyclic-nucleotide-mediated signaling Deleted DEFINITION A series of molecular signals in which a cell uses a cyclic nucleotide to convert an extracellular signal into a response.
2008-05-12 GO:0008054 negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase by cyclin degradation Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of cyclins, proteins whose levels in a cell varies markedly during the cell cycle, and which play key roles in regulating cell cycle phase transitions.
2008-05-12 GO:0000307 cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex Deleted DEFINITION Cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) are heterodimeric enzymes that contain a kinase catalytic subunit associated with a regulatory cyclin partner.
2008-05-12 GO:0000308 cytoplasmic cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex Deleted DEFINITION Cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) complex found in the cytoplasm.
2008-05-12 GO:0019908 nuclear cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex Deleted DEFINITION Cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) complex found in the nucleus.
2008-05-12 GO:0019801 cyclization of asparagine involved in intein-mediated protein splicing Deleted DEFINITION The cyclization of asparagine to yield an L-aspartimide (otherwise known as alpha-aminosuccinimide) residue at the C-terminus of an excised intein during protein splicing.
2008-05-12 GO:0019802 cyclization of glutamine involved in intein-mediated protein splicing Deleted DEFINITION The cyclization of glutamine to yield an L-glutamimide residue at the C-terminus of an excised intein during protein splicing.
2008-05-12 GO:0016871 cycloartenol synthase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (S)-2,3-epoxysqualene = cycloartenol.
2008-05-12 GO:0008162 cyclodiene resistance Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0016354 cyclodiene susceptibility/resistance Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2008-05-12 GO:0018811 cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA hydratase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA + H2O = 2-hydroxycyclohexane-1-carboxyl-CoA.
2008-05-12 GO:0018823 cyclohexa-1,5-dienecarbonyl-CoA hydratase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cyclohex-1,5-dienecarbonyl-CoA + H2O = 6-hydroxycyclohex-1-ene-1-carbonyl-CoA.
2008-05-12 GO:0018460 cyclohexanol dehydrogenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cyclohexanol + NAD+ = cyclohexanone + NADH + H+.
2008-05-12 GO:0018891 cyclohexanol metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cyclohexanol, the monohydroxy derivative of cyclohexane. It is used as a solvent and blending agent.
2008-05-12 GO:0018667 cyclohexanone monooxygenase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cyclohexanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 6-hexanolide + NADP+ + H2O.
2008-05-12 GO:0018527 cyclohexylamine oxidase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cyclohexylamine + O2 + H2O = cyclohexanone + NH3 + H2O2.
2008-05-12 GO:0018892 cyclohexylsulfamate metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cyclohexylsulfamate, also known as cyclamic acid. Sodium cyclohexylsulfamate (CHS-Na) was a widely used sweetening agent but was banned because of the suspicion of carcinogenicity and metabolic conversion to cyclohexylamine (CHA), a toxic substance. It is now used as a fungicide.
2008-05-12 GO:0008825 cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + phospholipid olefinic fatty acid = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + phospholipid cyclopropane fatty acid.
2008-05-12 GO:0016018 cyclosporin A binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with cyclosporin A, a cyclic undecapeptide that contains several N-methylated and unusual amino acids.
2008-05-12 GO:0008570 myosin ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate. The hydrolysis of ATP by myosin that provides the energy for actomyosin contraction.
2008-05-12 GO:0016460 myosin II complex Deleted DEFINITION A myosin complex containing two class II myosin heavy chains, two myosin essential light chains and two myosin regulatory light chains. Also known as classical myosin or conventional myosin, the myosin II class includes the major muscle myosin of vertebrate and invertebrate muscle, and is characterized by alpha-helical coiled coil tails that self assemble to form a variety of filament structures.
2008-05-12 GO:0001517 N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-sulfate.
2008-05-12 GO:0000225 N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol deacetylase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: N-acetyl-D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol + H2O = D-glucosaminylphosphatidylinositol + acetate. The second step enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), used to anchor various eukaryotic proteins to the cell-surface membrane. Catalyzes the N-deacetylation of GlcNAc-PI to GlcN-PI.
2008-05-12 GO:0016258 N-glycan diversification Deleted DEFINITION The generation, in the Golgi apparatus, of side chain diversity from high mannose Man5GlcNAc2-Asn N-glycans by specific glycosyltransferases and glycosidases.
2008-05-12 GO:0008581 ubiquitin-specific protease 5 activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of the Gly76-Lys48 isopeptide bond of polyubiquitin.
2008-05-12 GO:0000151 ubiquitin ligase complex Deleted DEFINITION A protein complex that includes a ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) and other proteins that may confer substrate specificity on the complex.
2008-05-12 GO:0004221 ubiquitin thiolesterase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ubiquitin C-terminal thiolester + H2O = ubiquitin + a thiol. Hydrolysis of esters, including those formed between thiols such as dithiothreitol or glutathione and the C-terminal glycine residue of the polypeptide ubiquitin, and AMP-ubiquitin.
2008-05-12 GO:0004842 ubiquitin-protein transferase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + ubiquitin + protein lysine = AMP + diphosphate + protein N-ubiquityllysine.
2008-05-12 GO:0004843 ubiquitin-specific protease activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various forms of polymeric ubiquitin sequences. Will remove ubiquitin from larger leaving groups.
2008-05-12 GO:0016461 unconventional myosin complex Deleted DEFINITION A portmanteau term for myosins other than myosin II.
2008-05-12 GO:0015292 uniporter activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transport of a single molecular species across a membrane; transport is independent of the movement of any other molecular species.
2008-05-12 GO:0000050 urea cycle Deleted DEFINITION A cyclic metabolic pathway that converts waste nitrogen in the form of ammonium to urea.
2008-05-12 GO:0015065 uridine nucleotide receptor activity Deleted DEFINITION Combining with UTP or UDP to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-05-12 GO:0017131 uridine-rich cytoplasmic polyadenylylation element binding Deleted DEFINITION Interacting selectively with U-rich sequence in the 3'-end of mRNAs; required for cytoplasmic polyadenylylation.
2008-05-12 GO:0009411 response to UV Deleted DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an ultraviolet radiation (UV light) stimulus. Ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength in the range of 10 to 380 nanometers.
2008-05-12 GO:0015064 UV-sensitive opsin Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An opsin with maximal absorption below 400 nm.
2008-05-12 GO:0030050 vesicle transport along actin filament Deleted DEFINITION Movement of a vesicle along an actin filament, mediated by motor proteins.
2008-05-12 GO:0008576 vesicle-fusing ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O = ADP + phosphate. The hydrolysis of ATP by an AAA-ATPase, involved in the heterotypic fusion of membrane vesicles with target membranes and the homotypic fusion of various membrane compartments.
2008-05-12 GO:0016032 viral process Deleted DEFINITION The process by which a virus reproduces. Usually, this is by infection of a host cell, replication of the viral genome, and assembly of progeny virus particles. In some cases the viral genetic material may integrate into the host genome and only subsequently, under particular circumstances, 'complete' its life cycle.
2008-05-12 GO:0007601 visual perception Deleted DEFINITION The series of events required for an organism to receive a visual stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Visual stimuli are detected in the form of photons and are processed to form an image.
2008-05-12 GO:0015420 cobalamin-transporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + cobalamin(out) = ADP + phosphate + cobalamin(in). Cobalamin = vitamin B12.
2008-05-12 GO:0001518 voltage-gated sodium channel complex Deleted DEFINITION A sodium channel in a cell membrane whose opening is governed by the membrane potential.
2008-05-12 GO:0016122 xanthophyll metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xanthophylls, oxygen-containing carotenoids.
2008-05-12 GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a xenobiotic compound, a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e.g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2008-05-12 GO:0008559 xenobiotic-transporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + xenobiotic(in) = ADP + phosphate + xenobiotic(out).
2008-05-12 GO:0005999 xylulose biosynthetic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of xylulose, the ketopentose threo-2-pentulose.
2008-05-12 GO:0005998 xylulose catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of xylulose, the ketopentose threo-2-pentulose.
2008-05-12 GO:0005997 xylulose metabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xylulose, the ketopentose threo-2-pentulose.
2008-05-12 GO:0030018 Z disc Deleted DEFINITION Platelike region of a muscle sarcomere to which the plus ends of actin filaments are attached.
2008-05-12 GO:0016035 zeta DNA polymerase complex Deleted DEFINITION A heterodimeric DNA polymerase complex that catalyzes error-prone DNA synthesis in contexts such as translesion synthesis and double-stranded break repair. First characterized in Saccharomyces, in which the subunits are Rev3p and Rev7p; a third protein, Rev1p, is often associated with the polymerase dimer.
2008-05-12 GO:0016463 zinc-exporting ATPase activity Deleted DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: ATP + H2O + Zn2+(in) = ADP + phosphate + Zn2+(out).
2008-05-12 GO:0009056 catabolic process Deleted DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances, including the breakdown of carbon compounds with the liberation of energy for use by the cell or organism.
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