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GO Term History: Displaying 358 audit records for all terms for the date 2008-04-27

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This page displays the differences recorded in the full Gene Ontology OBO v1.2 file as audited by the UniProt-GOA database during its daily update cycle.
If there is any delay in uploading the current OBO file, the changes displayed and the date recorded for these changes may not correspond to when the changes to the OBO file were committed.

All changes

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2008-04-27 GO:0034339 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter by nuclear hormone receptor Added DEFINITION Any process by which a ligand-bound hormone receptor acts in the nucleus to modulate the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
2008-04-27 GO:0034395 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to iron Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter in response to an iron stimulus.
2008-04-27 GO:0032479 regulation of type I interferon production Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of interferon type I production. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0034344 regulation of type III interferon production Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of type III interferon production. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0055119 relaxation of cardiac muscle Added DEFINITION The process whereby the extent of cardiac muscle contraction is reduced.
2008-04-27 GO:0003014 renal system process Updated DEFINITION A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of the renal system. The renal system is responsible for fluid volume regulation and detoxification in an organism.
2008-04-27 GO:0034299 reproductive blastospore formation Added DEFINITION The formation of a spore following the marked enlargement of part of a cell before separation by a septum. Blastospores are a type of asexual spore found in some fungi, most notably the class Glomeromycota.
2008-04-27 GO:0055116 entry into reproductive diapause Added DEFINITION A form of diapause where the organism itself will remain fully active, including feeding and other routine activities, but the reproductive organs experience a tissue-specific reduction in metabolism, with characteristic triggering and releasing stimuli.
2008-04-27 GO:0034281 ent-isokaurene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ent-copalyl diphosphate = ent-isokaurene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034282 ent-pimara-8(14),15-diene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ent-copalyl diphosphate = ent- pimara-8(14),15-diene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034280 ent-sandaracopimaradiene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ent-copalyl diphosphate = ent-sandaracopimaradiene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034401 regulation of transcription by chromatin organization Added DEFINITION The specification, formation and maintenance of the physical structure of eukaryotic chromatin during transcription.
2008-04-27 GO:0001769 establishment of B cell polarity Updated DEFINITION The directed orientation of B cell signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient of a contact point with an antigen displaying cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0005926 connecting hemi-adherens junction Updated DEFINITION A hemiadherens junction (HAJ) that forms one of a pair of HAJs in opposing cells that are separated by only 30-40nm, with a thin line of extracellular electron-dense material in between; found where muscles attach to epidermal cells directly (in insects).
2008-04-27 GO:0034376 conversion of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particle to spherical high-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION The process by which a discoidal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle acquires additional lipid or protein molecules, and cholesterol in the particle is converted to tightly bound cholesterol esters by the action of phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase (lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; LCAT), resulting in the formation of a spherical HDL particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0051109 crotonobetaine-CoA ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CoA + crotono-betaine + ATP = AMP + diphosphate + crotonobetainyl-CoA.
2008-04-27 GO:0016023 cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded vesicle found in the cytoplasm of the cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0060205 cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle lumen Updated DEFINITION The volume enclosed by the membrane of a cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034354 'de novo' NAD biosynthetic process from tryptophan Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), beginning with the synthesis of tryptophan from simpler precursors; biosynthesis may be of either the oxidized form, NAD, or the reduced form, NADH.
2008-04-27 GO:0000290 deadenylation-dependent decapping of nuclear-transcribed mRNA Updated DEFINITION Cleavage of the 5'-cap of a nuclear mRNA triggered by shortening of the poly(A) tail to below a minimum functional length.
2008-04-27 GO:0031087 deadenylation-independent decapping of nuclear-transcribed mRNA Updated DEFINITION Cleavage of the 5'-cap of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA that is independent of poly(A) tail shortening.
2008-04-27 GO:0034328 decanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a decanoyl (CH3-[CH2]8-CO-) group to an acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0060232 delamination Added DEFINITION The negative regulation of cell adhesion process by which a cell or sheet of cells splits off of an existing epithelial sheet.
2008-04-27 GO:0034288 detection of disaccharide stimulus Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a stimulus from a disaccharide is received and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-04-27 GO:0009732 detection of hexose stimulus Updated DEFINITION The series of events in which a stimulus from a hexose is received and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-04-27 GO:0034289 detection of maltose stimulus Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a maltose stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-04-27 GO:0034287 detection of monosaccharide stimulus Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a stimulus from a monosaccharide is received and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-04-27 GO:0051606 detection of stimulus Updated DEFINITION The series of events in which a stimulus is received by a cell or organism and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-04-27 GO:0055115 entry into diapause Added DEFINITION A neurohormonally mediated, dynamic state of low metabolic activity. Associated characteristics of this form of dormancy include reduced morphogenesis, increased resistance to environmental extremes, and altered or reduced behavioral activity. Full expression develops in a species-specific manner, usually in response to a number of environmental stimuli that precede unfavorable conditions. Once diapause has begun, metabolic activity is suppressed even if conditions favorable for development prevail. Once initiated, only certain stimuli are capable of releasing the organism from this state, and this characteristic is essential in distinguishing diapause from hibernation.
2008-04-27 GO:0047859 dihydroxyphenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine = trans-caffeate + NH3.
2008-04-27 GO:0034312 diol biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a diol, any alcohol containing two hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0034313 diol catabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a diol, any alcohol containing two hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0034311 diol metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a diol, any alcohol containing two hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0034365 discoidal high-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A newly formed high-density lipoprotein particle; consists of a phospholipid bilayer surrounded by two or more APOA1 molecules. The discoidal HDL particle is formed when lipid-free or lipid-poor APOA1 acquires phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol from either cell membranes or triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (undergoing lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase).
2008-04-27 GO:0034335 DNA supercoiling activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the formation of positive or negative supercoils in a DNA molecule or region thereof; may be associated with a geometric or topological change in the DNA molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0042714 dosage compensation complex assembly Updated DEFINITION The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of proteins on DNA or RNA to form the complex that mediates dosage compensation on one or more X chromosomes.
2008-04-27 GO:0006118 electron transport Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The transport of electrons from an electron donor to an electron acceptor.
2008-04-27 GO:0022900 electron transport chain Added DEFINITION A process whereby a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors to any of several different terminal electron acceptors to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
2008-04-27 GO:0032456 endocytic recycling Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of membrane-bounded vesicles from recycling endosomes back to the plasma membrane where they are recycled for further rounds of transport.
2008-04-27 GO:0042627 chylomicron Updated DEFINITION A large lipoprotein particle (diameter 75-1200 nm) composed of a central core of triglycerides and cholesterol surrounded by a protein-phospholipid coating. The proteins include one molecule of apolipoprotein B-48 and may include a variety of apolipoproteins, including APOAs, APOCs and APOE. Chylomicrons are found in blood or lymph and carry lipids from the intestines into other body tissues.
2008-04-27 GO:0034378 chylomicron assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and arrangement of proteins and lipids in the intestine to form a chylomicron.
2008-04-27 GO:0044440 endosomal part Updated DEFINITION Any constituent part of an endosome, a membrane-bounded organelle that carries materials newly ingested by endocytosis. It passes many of the materials to lysosomes for degradation.
2008-04-27 GO:0005768 endosome Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded organelle that carries materials newly ingested by endocytosis. It passes many of the materials to lysosomes for degradation.
2008-04-27 GO:0016197 endosomal transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of substances into, out of or mediated by an endosome, a membrane-bounded organelle that carries materials newly ingested by endocytosis. It passes many of the materials to lysosomes for degradation.
2008-04-27 GO:0034301 endospore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which a cell gives rise to an endospore, a dormant, highly resistant spore with a thick wall that forms within the mother cell. Endospores are produced by some low G+C Gram-positive bacteria in response to harsh conditions.
2008-04-27 GO:0034277 ent-cassa-12,15-diene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ent-copalyl diphosphate = ent-cassa-12,15-diene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0010564 regulation of cell cycle process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates a cellular process that is involved in the progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events.
2008-04-27 GO:0008360 regulation of cell shape Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the surface configuration of a cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0016476 regulation of embryonic cell shape Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the surface configuration of an embryonic cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0051036 regulation of endosome size Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the volume of an endosome, a membrane-bounded organelle that carries materials newly ingested by endocytosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0034350 regulation of glial cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of glial cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0032649 regulation of interferon-gamma production Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of interferon-gamma production. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0019646 aerobic electron transport chain Updated DEFINITION A process whereby a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors such as NADH and FADH2 to oxygen to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
2008-04-27 GO:0034302 akinete formation Added DEFINITION The process by which an akinete, a thick-walled (encysted) dormant cell derived from the enlargement of a vegetative cell, is formed. Akinetes typically have granular cytoplasm, are more resistant to environmental extremes than vegetative cells, and are characteristic of several groups of Cyanobacteria.
2008-04-27 GO:0034360 chylomicron remnant Added DEFINITION A lipoprotein particle that is derived from a mature chylomicron particle by the removal of triglycerides from the chylomicron core by lipoprotein lipase and the subsequent loss of surface components. It characteristically contains apolipoprotein E (APOE) and is cleared from the blood by the liver.
2008-04-27 GO:0034382 chylomicron remnant clearance Added DEFINITION The process by which a chylomicron remnant is removed from the blood via receptor-mediated endocytosis into liver cells and its constituent parts degraded.
2008-04-27 GO:0034371 chylomicron remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a chylomicron, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by lipoprotein lipase and the subsequent loss of free fatty acid.
2008-04-27 GO:0003013 circulatory system process Updated DEFINITION A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of the circulatory system. The circulatory system is an organ system that moves extracellular fluids to and from tissue within a multicellular organism.
2008-04-27 GO:0048268 clathrin coat assembly Updated DEFINITION The process by which clathrin triskelia are assembled into the ordered structure known as a clathrin cage.
2008-04-27 GO:0033758 clavaminate synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: deoxyamidinoproclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = amidinoproclavaminate + succinate + CO2 + H2O and proclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = dihydroclavaminate + succinate + CO2 + 2 H2O and dihydroclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = clavaminate + succinate + CO2 + 2 H2O.
2008-04-27 GO:0034340 response to type I interferon Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a type I interferon stimulus. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0034342 response to type III interferon Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a type III interferon stimulus. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0034337 RNA folding Added DEFINITION The process of assisting in the covalent and noncovalent assembly of single or multimeric RNAs into the correct tertiary structure.
2008-04-27 GO:0034353 RNA pyrophosphohydrolase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of a 5' terminal pyrophosphate from the 5'-triphosphate end of an RNA, leaving a 5'-monophosphate end.
2008-04-27 GO:0033805 sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine + N,N-dimethylglycine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + betaine.
2008-04-27 GO:0014834 skeletal muscle satellite cell maintenance involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Updated DEFINITION The process essential to mantain a ready source of satellite cells. It consists of the return of activated satellite cells to a quiescent state after proliferation to replenish the satellite cell pool. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2008-04-27 GO:0045045 secretory pathway Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The pathway along which proteins and other substances are moved around and out of the cell. After synthesis on the ribosomes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), completed polypeptide chains are moved to the Golgi complex and subsequently sorted to various destinations. Proteins synthesized and sorted in the secretory pathway include not only those that are secreted from the cell but also enzymes and other resident proteins in the lumen of the ER, Golgi, and lysosomes as well as integral proteins in the membranes of these organelles and the plasma membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0034294 sexual spore wall assembly Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the specialized envelope lying outside the cell membrane of a spore derived from a product of meiosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0034293 sexual sporulation Added DEFINITION The formation of spores derived from the products of meiosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0034338 short-chain carboxylesterase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a carboxylic ester + H2O = an alcohol + a carboxylic anion, where the carboxylic chain has 8 or fewer carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0032458 slow endocytic recycling Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of membrane-bounded vesicles from deep (non-peripheral) compartments endocytic compartments back to the plasma membrane where they are recycled for further rounds of transport.
2008-04-27 GO:0019787 small conjugating protein ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of ATP-dependent isopeptide bond formation between the carboxy-terminal residues of a small conjugating protein such as ubiquitin or a ubiquitin-like protein, and a substrate lysine residue. This function may be performed alone or in conjunction with an E3, ubiquitin-like protein ligase.
2008-04-27 GO:0034390 smooth muscle cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION The process of apoptosis in smooth muscle cells. Smooth muscle consists of non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cell found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels.
2008-04-27 GO:0034366 spherical high-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A mature high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle, converted from discoidal HDL particles following the esterification of cholesterol in the particle by phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase (lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; LCAT).
2008-04-27 GO:0034300 sporangiospore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which sporangiospores, a type of asexual spore found in fungi, are formed. Sporangiospores are formed within sac-like structure, the sporangium, following the division of the cytoplasm.
2008-04-27 GO:0030435 sporulation resulting in formation of a cellular spore Updated DEFINITION The process by which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a spore, a cell form that can be used for dissemination, for survival of adverse conditions because of its heat and dessication resistance, and/or for reproduction. Spores are usually unicellular and may develop into vegetative organisms or gametes. They may be produced asexually or sexually and are of many types.
2008-04-27 GO:0034278 stemar-13-ene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (+)-syn-copalyl diphosphate = stemar-13-ene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034279 syn-pimara-7,15-diene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (+)-syn-copalyl diphosphate = (-)-9-beta-pimara-7,15-diene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034283 syn-stemod-13(17)-ene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: syn-copalyl diphosphate = stemod-13(17)-ene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0016079 synaptic vesicle exocytosis Updated DEFINITION Fusion of intracellular membrane-bounded vesicles with the pre-synaptic membrane of the neuronal cell resulting in release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
2008-04-27 GO:0048489 synaptic vesicle transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of substances in synaptic membrane-bounded vesicles within the neuron along the cytoskeleton either toward or away from the neuronal cell body.
2008-04-27 GO:0003008 system process Updated DEFINITION A multicellular organismal process carried out by any of the organs or tissues in an organ system. An organ system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of organs or tissues that work together to carry out a biological objective.
2008-04-27 GO:0033780 taurochenodeoxycholate 6alpha-hydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: taurochenodeoxycholate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = taurohyocholate + NADP+ + H2O and lithocholate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = hyodeoxycholate + NADP+ + H2O.
2008-04-27 GO:0031083 BLOC-1 complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex required for the biogenesis of specialized organelles of the endosomal-lysosomal system, such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules. Many of the protein subunits are conserved between mouse and human; the mouse complex contains the Pallidin, Muted, Cappuccino, Dysbindin, Snapin, BLOS1, BLOS2, AND BLOS3 proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0000950 branched-chain amino acid catabolic process to alcohol via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of branched chain amino acids to produce branched chain alcohols with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When a branched chain family amino acid, leucine, isoleucine, or valine, is used as the substrate, 3-methylbutanol, 2-methylbutanol, or 2-methylpropanol, respectively, is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of alcohols, often collectively referred to as fusel alcohols. Depending on the redox state of the cells, carboxylic acid derivatives may be produced instead of alcohols.
2008-04-27 GO:0000953 branched-chain amino acid catabolic process to carboxylic acid via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce carboxylic acids with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When a branched chain family amino acid, leucine, isoleucine, or valine, is used as the substrate, 3-methylbutanoate, 2-methylbutanoate, or 2-methylpropanoate, respectively, is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of carboxylic acids, sometimes collectively referred to as fusel acids. Depending on the redox state of the cells, alcohol derivatives may be produced instead of carboxylic acids.
2008-04-27 GO:0034326 butanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a butanoyl (CH3-[CH2]2-CO-) group to an acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0034291 canonical holin activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the temporally-regulated formation of a non-specific transmembrane protein hole that allows release of a fully-folded phage-encoded endolysin (murein-degradase) from the cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0034019 capsanthin/capsorubin synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: violaxanthin = capsorubin and antheraxanthin = capsanthin.
2008-04-27 GO:0051108 carnitine-CoA ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: D-carnitine + CoA + ATP = AMP + diphosphate + D-carnitinyl-CoA.
2008-04-27 GO:0034329 cell junction assembly Added DEFINITION A cellular process that results in the assembly of a cell junction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034330 cell junction organization Added DEFINITION The assembly and maintenance of junctions between cells or between a cell and its substrate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034331 cell junction maintenance Added DEFINITION The maintenance of junctions between cells or between a cell and its substrate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034411 cell wall (1->3)-beta-D-glucan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of 1,3-beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0034407 cell wall (1->3)-beta-D-glucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving beta-1,3 glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0034410 cell wall beta-glucan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0034406 cell wall beta-glucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0007044 cell-substrate junction assembly Updated DEFINITION The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a junction between a cell and its substrate.
2008-04-27 GO:0032600 chemokine receptor transport out of membrane raft Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a chemokine receptor out of a membrane raft.
2008-04-27 GO:0045009 chitosome Updated DEFINITION An intracellular membrane-bounded particle found in fungi and containing chitin synthase; it synthesizes chitin microfibrils. Chitin synthase activity exists in chitosomes and they are proposed to act as a reservoir for regulated transport of chitin synthase enzymes to the division septum.
2008-04-27 GO:0001410 chlamydospore formation Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the chlamydospore over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A chlamydospores is a mitotic (asexual) one-celled spore, produced primarily for survival, not dispersal, originating endogenously and singly within part of a pre-existing cell and possessing an inner secondary and often thickened cell wall.
2008-04-27 GO:0033963 cholesterol-5,6-oxide hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 5,6alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholestan-3beta-ol + H2O = cholestane-3beta-5alpha,6beta-triol and 5,6beta-epoxy-5beta-cholestan-3beta-ol + H2O = cholestane-3beta-5alpha,6beta-triol.
2008-04-27 GO:0010567 regulation of ketone catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a ketone, carried out by individual cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0010565 regulation of cellular ketone metabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, CO, and in which the carbonyl group is bonded only to carbon atoms. The general formula for a ketone is RCOR, where R and R are alkyl or aryl groups.
2008-04-27 GO:0010556 regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.
2008-04-27 GO:0051239 regulation of multicellular organismal process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a multicellular organismal process, the processes pertinent to the function of a multicellular organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.
2008-04-27 GO:0060211 regulation of nuclear-transcribed mRNA poly(A) tail shortening Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of poly(A) tail shortening of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA. Poly(A) tail shortening is the decrease in length of the poly(A) tail of an mRNA from full length to an oligo(A) length.
2008-04-27 GO:0032880 regulation of protein localization Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of any process by which a protein is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location.
2008-04-27 GO:0034306 regulation of sexual sporulation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of spore formation from the products of meiosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0034391 regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of smooth muscle cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0000291 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, exonucleolytic Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of the transcript body of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA that occurs when the ends are not protected by the 5'-cap or the 3'-poly(A) tail.
2008-04-27 GO:0000184 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay Updated DEFINITION The nonsense-mediated decay pathway for nuclear-transcribed mRNAs degrades mRNAs in which an amino-acid codon has changed to a nonsense codon; this prevents the translation of such mRNAs into truncated, and potentially harmful, proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0000289 nuclear-transcribed mRNA poly(A) tail shortening Updated DEFINITION Shortening of the poly(A) tail of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA from full length to an oligo(A) length.
2008-04-27 GO:0034404 nucleobase-containing small molecule biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides.
2008-04-27 GO:0034323 O-butanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a butyl group to an oxygen atom on the acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0033716 nucleoside oxidase (hydrogen peroxide-forming) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: adenosine + 2 O2 = 9-riburonosyladenine + 2 H2O2, (1a) adenosine + O2 = 5'-dehydroadenosine + H2O2 and (1b) 5'-dehydroadenosine + O2 = 9-riburonosyladenine + H2O2.
2008-04-27 GO:0033715 nucleoside oxidase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: inosine + O2 = 9-riburonosylhypoxanthine + 2 H2O and (1a) 2 inosine + O2 = 2 5'-dehydroinosine + 2 H2O and (1b) 2 5'-dehydroinosine + O2 = 2 9-riburonosylhypoxanthine + 2 H2O.
2008-04-27 GO:0034325 O-decanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a decyl group to an oxygen atom on the acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0048609 multicellular organismal reproductive process Updated DEFINITION The process, occurring above the cellular level, that is pertinent to the reproductive function of a multicellular organism. This includes the integrated processes at the level of tissues and organs.
2008-04-27 GO:0048622 reproductive sporulation Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The formation of reproductive spores.
2008-04-27 GO:0022904 respiratory electron transport chain Added DEFINITION A process whereby a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors such as NADH and FADH2 to any of several different terminal electron acceptors to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
2008-04-27 GO:0003016 respiratory system process Updated DEFINITION A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of the respiratory system. The respiratory system is an organ system responsible for respiratory gasseous exchange.
2008-04-27 GO:0034059 response to anoxia Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating a decline in oxygen levels to trace amounts, <0.1%.
2008-04-27 GO:0034285 response to disaccharide Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a disaccharide stimulus.
2008-04-27 GO:0034405 response to fluid shear stress Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a fluid shear stress stimulus. Fluid shear stress is the force acting on an object in a system where the fluid is moving across a solid surface.
2008-04-27 GO:0001666 response to hypoxia Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level.
2008-04-27 GO:0034341 response to interferon-gamma Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an interferon-gamma stimulus. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0034286 response to maltose Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a maltose stimulus.
2008-04-27 GO:0034284 response to monosaccharide Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a monosaccharide stimulus.
2008-04-27 GO:0048491 retrograde synaptic vesicle transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of substances in synaptic membrane-bounded vesicles within the neuron, along the cytoskeleton, toward the neuronal cell body.
2008-04-27 GO:0000949 aromatic amino acid family catabolic process to alcohol via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of aromatic amino acids to produce aromatic alcohols with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When an aromatic family amino acid, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan, is used as the substrate, 2-phenylethanol, 4-hydroxyphenylethanol, or tryptophol, respectively, is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of alcohols, often collectively referred to as fusel alcohols. Depending on the redox state of the cells, carboxylic acid derivatives may be produced instead of alcohols.
2008-04-27 GO:0000952 aromatic amino acid family catabolic process to carboxylic acid via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce carboxylic acids with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When an aromatic family amino acid, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan, is used as the substrate, 2-phenylethanoate, 4-hydroxyphenylethanoate, or 2-(Indol-3-yl)-ethanoate, respectively, is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of carboxylic acids, sometimes collectively referred to as fusel acids. Depending on the redox state of the cells, alcohol derivatives may be produced instead of carboxylic acids.
2008-04-27 GO:0034314 Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation Added DEFINITION The initial step in the formation of an actin filament, in which actin monomers combine to form a new filament, mediated by the Arp2/3 protein complex and its interaction with other proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0034298 arthrospore formation Added DEFINITION The formation of conidia by the conversion of a pre-existing hypha. An arthrospore is produced by the last cell on a hypha breaking off and dispersing. Usually the walls thicken and the cell(s) separates before swelling of each spore. Sometimes further septa form in each cell prior to disarticulation.
2008-04-27 GO:0030437 ascospore formation Updated DEFINITION The process by which a diploid cell undergoes meiosis, and the meiotic products acquire the specialized features of ascospores. Ascospores are generally found in clusters of four or eight spores within a single mother cell, the ascus, and are characteristic of the ascomycete fungi (phylum Ascomycota).
2008-04-27 GO:0034413 ascospore wall (1->3)-beta-D-glucan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of 1,3-beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0034409 ascospore wall (1->3)-beta-D-glucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving beta-1,3 glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0030476 ascospore wall assembly Updated DEFINITION The process by which the ascospore nucleus becomes surrounded by a specialized spore wall. Occurs by deposition of spore wall components in the lumenal space between the outer and inner leaflets of the prospore membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0034412 ascospore wall beta-glucan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0034408 ascospore wall beta-glucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0034217 ascospore wall chitin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of ascospore wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0034232 ascospore wall chitin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of ascospore wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0034218 ascospore wall chitin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving ascospore wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0042764 ascospore-type prospore Updated DEFINITION An immature spore, of the type observed in ascopore-forming fungi, undergoing development; usually consists of nucleic acid, prospore membrane(s) that encase the nucleic acid, and ultimately a cell wall that covers the membrane(s).
2008-04-27 GO:0031321 ascospore-type prospore assembly Updated DEFINITION During ascospore formation, the process by which each haploid nucleus becomes encapsulated by a double membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0031322 ascospore-type prospore-specific spindle pole body remodeling Updated DEFINITION Structural modification of the spindle pole body that takes place during the second meiotic division during ascospore formation; includes the recruitment of sporulation-specific proteins to the outer plaque to form the meiotic outer plaque (MOP).
2008-04-27 GO:0042243 asexual spore wall assembly Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the specialized envelope lying outside the cell membrane of a spore derived from a product of mitosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0030436 asexual sporulation Updated DEFINITION The formation of spores derived from the products of mitosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0033793 aureusidin synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone + O2 = aureusidin + H2O and 2',3,4,4',6'-pentahydroxychalcone + 1/2 O2 = aureusidin + H2O.
2008-04-27 GO:0000045 autophagic vacuole assembly Updated DEFINITION The formation of a double membrane-bounded structure, the autophagosome, that occurs when a specialized membrane sac, called the isolation membrane, starts to enclose a portion of the cytoplasm.
2008-04-27 GO:0000046 autophagic vacuole fusion Updated DEFINITION The fusion of an autophagic vacuole with a vacuole (yeast) or lysosome (e.g. mammals and insects). In the case of yeast, inner membrane-bounded structures (autophagic bodies) appear in the vacuole.
2008-04-27 GO:0032597 B cell receptor transport into membrane raft Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a B cell receptor into a membrane raft.
2008-04-27 GO:0034295 basidiospore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which spores form outside a specialized end cell known as a basidium. Basidia are characteristic of the basidiomycete fungi (phylum Basidiomycota), and give rise to spores that each contain a haploid nucleus that is the product of meiosis. The spores are usually attached to the basidium by short spikes called sterigmata (singular: sterigma). In most basidiomycetes there are four sterigmata (and four spores) to a basidium.
2008-04-27 GO:0033792 bile-acid 7alpha-dehydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: deoxycholate + FAD + H2O = cholate + FADH2 and lithocholate + FAD + H2O = chenodeoxycholate + FADH2.
2008-04-27 GO:0031214 biomineral tissue development Updated DEFINITION Formation of hard tissues that consist mainly of inorganic compounds, and also contain a small amounts of organic matrices that are believed to play important roles in their formation.
2008-04-27 GO:0010559 regulation of glycoprotein biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2008-04-27 GO:0010566 regulation of ketone biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a ketone, carried out by individual cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0000164 protein phosphatase type 1 complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex that possesses magnesium-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase (AMD phosphatase) activity, and consists of a catalytic subunit and one or more regulatory subunits that dictates the phosphatase's substrate specificity, function, and activity.
2008-04-27 GO:0006605 protein targeting Updated DEFINITION The process of targeting specific proteins to particular membrane-bounded subcellular organelles. Usually requires an organelle specific protein sequence motif.
2008-04-27 GO:0032596 protein transport into membrane raft Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a protein into a membrane raft.
2008-04-27 GO:0032599 protein transport out of membrane raft Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a protein out of a membrane raft.
2008-04-27 GO:0034368 protein-lipid complex remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a protein-lipid complex.
2008-04-27 GO:0034388 Pwp2p-containing subcomplex of 90S preribosome Added DEFINITION A protein complex that forms a subcomplex of the 90S preribosome and can interact directly with the 5' External Transcribed Spacer (ETS) of the full length pre-rRNA transcript. In S. cerevisiae, it sediments at 25-30 S and is composed of Pwp2p, Dip2p, Utp21p, Utp13p, Utp18p, and Utp6p.
2008-04-27 GO:0033718 pyranose dehydrogenase (acceptor) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: pyranose + acceptor = 2-dehydropyranose (or 3-dehydropyranose or 2,3-didehydropyranose) + reduced acceptor and a pyranoside + acceptor = a 3-dehydropyranoside (or 3,4-didehydropyranoside) + reduced acceptor.
2008-04-27 GO:0033706 quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: L-quinate + NAD(P)+ = 3-dehydroquinate + NAD(P)H + H+ and shikimate + NAD(P)+ = 3-dehydroshikimate + NAD(P)H + H+.
2008-04-27 GO:0030159 receptor signaling complex scaffold activity Updated DEFINITION Functions to provide a physical support for the assembly of a multiprotein receptor signaling complex.
2008-04-27 GO:0034402 recruitment of 3'-end processing factors to RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complex Added DEFINITION The process by which proteins required for 3'-end transcript processing become associated with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complex and the 3' end of a transcript.
2008-04-27 GO:0001508 action potential Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of action potential creation, propagation or termination. An action potential is a spike of membrane depolarization and repolarization that travels along the membrane of a cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0034315 regulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of actin nucleation mediated by the Arp2/3 complex and interacting proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0034307 regulation of ascospore formation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ascospore formation.
2008-04-27 GO:0034223 regulation of ascospore wall chitin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of ascospore wall chitin.
2008-04-27 GO:0034234 regulation of ascospore wall chitin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of ascospore wall chitin.
2008-04-27 GO:0034305 regulation of asexual sporulation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of spore formation from the products of mitosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0055117 regulation of cardiac muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle contraction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034373 intermediate-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within an intermediate-density lipoprotein particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0060235 lens induction in camera-type eye Added DEFINITION Signaling at short range between the head ectoderm and the optic vesicle that results in the head ectoderm forming a lens.
2008-04-27 GO:0034389 lipid particle organization Added DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a lipid particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034381 plasma lipoprotein particle clearance Added DEFINITION The process by which a lipoprotein particle is removed from the blood via receptor-mediated endocytosis and its constituent parts degraded.
2008-04-27 GO:0010495 long-distance posttranscriptional gene silencing Updated DEFINITION A posttranscriptional gene silencing process in which the silencing signal originates in a tissue separate from the tissue in which the silencing takes place.
2008-04-27 GO:0034362 low-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A lipoprotein particle, rich in cholesterol esters and low in triglycerides that is typically composed of APOB100 and APOE and has a density of 1.02-1.06 g/ml and a diameter of between 20-25 nm. LDL particles are formed from VLDL particles (via IDL) by the loss of triacylglycerol and gain of cholesterol ester. They transport endogenous cholesterol (and to some extent triglycerides) from peripheral tissues back to the liver.
2008-04-27 GO:0034383 low-density lipoprotein particle clearance Added DEFINITION The process by which a low-density lipoprotein particle is removed from the blood via receptor-mediated endocytosis and its constituent parts degraded.
2008-04-27 GO:0034374 low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a low-density lipoprotein particle, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by hepatic lipase, with the subsequent loss of free fatty acid, and the transfer of cholesterol esters from LDL to a triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), with the simultaneous transfer of triglyceride to LDL.
2008-04-27 GO:0046165 alcohol biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of alcohols, any of a class of compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to a saturated carbon atom.
2008-04-27 GO:0046164 alcohol catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of alcohols, any of a class of compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to a saturated carbon atom.
2008-04-27 GO:0006066 alcohol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving alcohols, any of a class of compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to a saturated carbon atom.
2008-04-27 GO:0034318 alcohol O-acyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of an acyl group to an oxygen atom on an alcohol acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0034319 alcohol O-butanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: butanoyl-CoA + an alcohol = CoA + a butyl ester.
2008-04-27 GO:0034322 alcohol O-decanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: decanoyl-CoA + an alcohol = CoA + a decyl ester.
2008-04-27 GO:0034320 alcohol O-hexanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: hexanoyl-CoA + an alcohol = CoA + a hexyl ester.
2008-04-27 GO:0034321 alcohol O-octanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: octanoyl-CoA + an alcohol = CoA + an octyl ester.
2008-04-27 GO:0033991 aldos-2-ulose dehydratase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose = 2-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2H-pyran-3(6H)-one + H2O (overall reaction), (1a) 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose = 1,5-anhydro-4-deoxy-D-glycero-hex-3-en-2-ulose + H2O and (1b) 1,5-anhydro-4-deoxy-D-glycero-hex-3-en-2-ulose = 2-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2H-pyran-3(6H)-one.
2008-04-27 GO:0034403 alignment of 3' and 5' splice sites of mRNA Added DEFINITION Recognition of both the 5' and 3'-splice sites and positioning them in the correct alignment with respect to each other so that the second catalytic step of nuclear mRNA splicing can occur.
2008-04-27 GO:0000947 amino acid catabolic process to alcohol via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce alcohols with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of alcohols, often collectively referred to as fusel alcohols. Depending on the redox state of the cells, carboxylic acid derivatives may be produced instead of alcohols.
2008-04-27 GO:0000948 amino acid catabolic process to carboxylic acid via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce carboxylic acids with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of carboxylic acids, sometimes collectively referred to as fusel acids. Depending on the redox state of the cells, alcohol derivatives may be produced instead of carboxylic acids.
2008-04-27 GO:0000955 amino acid catabolic process via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce alcohols or carboxylic acids containing one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of alcohols, often collectively referred to as fusel alcohols. Depending on the redox state of the cells, carboxylic acid derivatives, sometimes referred to as fusel acids, may be produced instead of alcohols.
2008-04-27 GO:0019645 anaerobic electron transport chain Updated DEFINITION A process whereby a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors such as NADH and FADH2 to any of several different terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
2008-04-27 GO:0048490 anterograde synaptic vesicle transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of substances in synaptic membrane-bounded vesicles within the neuron, along the cytoskeleton, away from the neuronal cell body.
2008-04-27 GO:0000044 ascorbate stabilization Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The reduction of the ascorbate free radical to a stable form.
2008-04-27 GO:0045858 positive regulation of molecular function, epigenetic Updated DEFINITION Any heritable epigenetic process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein function by self-perpetuating conformational conversions of normal proteins in healthy cells. This is distinct from, though mechanistically analogous to, disease states associated with prion propagation and amyloidogenesis. A single protein, if it carries a glutamine/asparagine-rich ('prion') domain, can sometimes stably exist in at least two distinct physical states, each associated with a different phenotype; propagation of one of these traits is achieved by a self-perpetuating change in the protein from one form to the other, mediated by conformational changes in the glutamine/asparagine-rich domain. Prion domains are both modular and transferable to other proteins, on which they can confer a heritable epigenetic alteration of function; existing bioinformatics data indicate that they are rare in non-eukarya, but common in eukarya.
2008-04-27 GO:0060213 positive regulation of nuclear-transcribed mRNA poly(A) tail shortening Updated DEFINITION Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of poly(A) tail shortening of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA. Poly(A) tail shortening is the decrease in length of the poly(A) tail of an mRNA from full length to an oligo(A) length.
2008-04-27 GO:0048087 positive regulation of developmental pigmentation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the deposition of coloring matter occurring during development.
2008-04-27 GO:0045678 positive regulation of R7 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of R7 cell differentiation.
2008-04-27 GO:0045681 positive regulation of R8 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of R8 cell differentiation.
2008-04-27 GO:0045748 positive regulation of R8 cell spacing in compound eye Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or enforces the correct R8 cell spacing in a compound eye.
2008-04-27 GO:0034393 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of smooth muscle cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0045885 positive regulation of survival gene product expression Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of survival gene product expression; survival gene products are those that antagonize the apoptotic program. Regulation can be at the transcriptional, translational, or posttranslational level.
2008-04-27 GO:0032481 positive regulation of type I interferon production Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of type I interferon production. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0034346 positive regulation of type III interferon production Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of type III interferon production. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0042735 protein body Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded plant organelle found in the developing endosperm, contains storage proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0034394 protein localization to cell surface Added DEFINITION A process by which a protein is transported to, or maintained in, a location within the external part of the cell wall and/or plasma membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0046174 polyol catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a polyol, any alcohol containing three or more hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0019751 polyol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a polyol, any alcohol containing three or more hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0045760 positive regulation of action potential Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of action potential creation, propagation or termination. An action potential is a spike of membrane depolarization and repolarization that travels along the membrane of a cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0034352 positive regulation of glial cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of glial cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0010560 positive regulation of glycoprotein biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2008-04-27 GO:0032729 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of interferon-gamma production. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0010557 positive regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.
2008-04-27 GO:0010562 positive regulation of phosphorus metabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphorus or compounds containing phosphorus.
2008-04-27 GO:0043898 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl + O2 = 2-hydroxy-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid.
2008-04-27 GO:0033976 2-haloacid dehalogenase (configuration-inverting) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: (S)-2-haloacid + H2O = (R)-2-hydroxyacid + halide and (R)-2-haloacid + H2O = (S)-2-hydroxyacid + halide.
2008-04-27 GO:0033977 2-haloacid dehalogenase (configuration-retaining) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: (S)-2-haloacid + H2O = (S)-2-hydroxyacid + halide and (R)-2-haloacid + H2O = (R)-2-hydroxyacid + halide.
2008-04-27 GO:0003867 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4-aminobutanoate + amino group acceptor = succinate semialdehyde + amino acid.
2008-04-27 GO:0034386 4-aminobutyrate:2-oxoglutarate transaminase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034387 4-aminobutyrate:pyruvate transaminase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4-aminobutanoate + pyruvate = succinate semialdehyde + alanine.
2008-04-27 GO:0006133 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate oxidation Added DEFINITION OBSOLETE.
2008-04-27 GO:0045549 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + a 12'-apo-carotenal and 9-cis-violaxanthin + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + (3S,5R,6S)-5,6-epoxy-3-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-12'-apo-beta-caroten-12'-al and 9'-cis-neoxanthin + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + (3S,5R,6R)-5,6-dihydroxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6-dihydro-12'-apo-beta-caroten-12'-al.
2008-04-27 GO:0034304 actinomycete-type spore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which differentiated, resting cells are formed from a substrate mycelium; characteristic of many members of the order Actinomycetales.
2008-04-27 GO:0007171 activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that initiates the activity of the inactive transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity.
2008-04-27 GO:0006588 activation of tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION The process by which the tryptophan 5-monooxygenase enzyme is changed so that it can carry out its enzymatic activity.
2008-04-27 GO:0034333 adherens junction assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an adherens junction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034332 adherens junction organization Added DEFINITION The assembly and maintenance of an adherens junction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034334 adherens junction maintenance Added DEFINITION The maintenance of an adherens junction.
2008-04-27 GO:0050877 neurological system process Updated DEFINITION A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of neurological system.
2008-04-27 GO:0034317 nicotinic acid riboside kinase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + nicotinic acid riboside (NaR) = ADP + nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN).
2008-04-27 GO:0034399 nuclear periphery Added DEFINITION The region of the nucleus adjacent to the nuclear envelope.
2008-04-27 GO:0000288 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay Updated DEFINITION A major pathway of degradation of nuclear-transcribed mRNAs that proceeds through a series of ordered steps: poly(A) tail shortening, deadenylylation-dependent decapping, and decay of the transcript body, and that can regulate mRNA stability.
2008-04-27 GO:0031086 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-independent decay Updated DEFINITION A pathway of degradation of nuclear-transcribed mRNAs that proceeds through a series of steps that is independent of deadenylation, but requires decapping followed by transcript decay, and that can regulate mRNA stability.
2008-04-27 GO:0000294 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, endonucleolytic cleavage-dependent decay Updated DEFINITION A minor degradation pathway nuclear-transcribed mRNAs that begins with an endonucleolytic cleavage to generate unprotected ends.
2008-04-27 GO:0034370 triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by lipoprotein lipase, with the subsequent loss of free fatty acid, and the transfer of cholesterol esters to a triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), with the simultaneous transfer of triglyceride from a triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0042779 tRNA 3'-trailer cleavage Updated DEFINITION Cleavage of the 3'-end of the pre-tRNA as part of the process of generating the mature 3'-end of the tRNA; may involve endonucleolytic or exonucleolytic cleavage, or both.
2008-04-27 GO:0019962 type I interferon binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a type I interferon. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, epsilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0045351 type I interferon biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of any type I interferon. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0032606 type I interferon production Updated DEFINITION The appearance of type I interferon due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0004905 type I interferon receptor activity Added DEFINITION Combining with a type I interferon to initiate a change in cell activity. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, epsilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0034347 type III interferon binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a type III interferon. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0034343 type III interferon production Added DEFINITION The appearance of type III interferon due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0034348 type III interferon receptor activity Added DEFINITION Combining with a type III interferon to initiate a change in cell activity. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0000324 fungal-type vacuole Updated DEFINITION The vacuole is a large, membrane-bounded organelle that functions as a reservoir for the storage of small molecules (including polyphosphate, amino acids, several divalent cations (e.g. calcium), other ions, and other small molecules) as well as being the primary compartment for degradation. It is an acidic compartment, containing an ensemble of acid hydrolases. At least in S. cerevisiae, there are indications that the morphology of the vacuole is variable and correlated with the cell cycle, with logarithmically growing cells having a multilobed, reticulated vacuole, while stationary phase cells contain a single large structure.
2008-04-27 GO:0034361 very-low-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle that is typically composed of APOB100, APOE and APOCs and has a density of about 1.006 g/ml and a diameter of between 20-80 nm. It is found in blood and transports endogenous products (newly synthesized cholesterol and triglycerides) from the liver.
2008-04-27 GO:0034379 very-low-density lipoprotein particle assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and arrangement of proteins and lipids in the liver to form a very-low-density lipoprotein particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034372 very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a very-low-density lipoprotein particle, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by hepatic lipase or lipoprotein lipase and the subsequent loss of free fatty acid.
2008-04-27 GO:0034324 O-hexanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a hexyl group to an oxygen atom on the acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0060233 oenocyte delamination Added DEFINITION The negative regulation of cell adhesion process by which an oenocyte splits off of an existing epithelial sheet.
2008-04-27 GO:0034297 oidium formation Added DEFINITION The process by which oidia, a type of asexual spore found in fungi, are formed. Oidia are borne a few at a time on very simple hyphae that protrude a short distance into the substrate, and are usually presumed not to constitute the main reproductive strategy of the fungus.
2008-04-27 GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process Added DEFINITION The process of removal or addition of one or more electrons with or without the concomitant removal or addition of a proton or protons.
2008-04-27 GO:0033675 pericanalicular vesicle Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded vesicle found near the apical, or pericanalicular, membrane of a hepatocyte; contains proteins involved in bile salt transport and other fluid and solute transport processes.
2008-04-27 GO:0009502 photosynthetic electron transport chain Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A series of membrane-linked oxidation-reduction reactions in which electrons are transferred from an initial electron donor through a series of intermediates to a final electron acceptor (usually oxygen).
2008-04-27 GO:0009767 photosynthetic electron transport chain Updated DEFINITION A process, occuring as part of photosynthesis, whereby light provides the energy for a series of electron carriers to operate together to transfer electrons and generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
2008-04-27 GO:0034357 photosynthetic membrane Added DEFINITION A membrane enriched in complexes formed of reaction centers, accessory pigments and electron carriers, in which photosynthetic reactions take place.
2008-04-27 GO:0009521 photosystem Updated DEFINITION A complex located in a photosynthetic membrane that consists of a photoreaction center associated with accessory pigments and electron carriers.
2008-04-27 GO:0009522 photosystem I Updated DEFINITION A photosystem that contains an iron-sulfur reaction center associated with accessory pigments and electron carriers. In cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, photosystem I functions as a light-dependent plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from plastocyanin to ferredoxin; in photosynthetic bacteria that have only a single type I photosystem, such as the green sulfur bacteria, electrons can go either to ferredoxin (Fd) -> NAD+ or to menaquinone (MK) -> Cytb/FeS -> Cytc555 -> photosystem I (cyclic photophosphorylation).
2008-04-27 GO:0009523 photosystem II Updated DEFINITION A photosystem that contains a pheophytin-quinone reaction center with associated accessory pigments and electron carriers. In cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, in the presence of light, PSII functions as a water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from water to plastoquinone, whereas other photosynthetic bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis and oxidize other compounds to re-reduce the photoreaction center.
2008-04-27 GO:0048770 pigment granule Updated DEFINITION A small, subcellular membrane-bounded vesicle containing pigment and/or pigment precursor molecules. Pigment granule biogenesis is poorly understood, as pigment granules are derived from multiple sources including the endoplasmic reticulum, coated vesicles, lysosomes, and endosomes.
2008-04-27 GO:0034292 pinholin activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the temporally-regulated formation of a transmembrane protein hole that allows the passage of ions, causing a lethal, irreversible depolarization of the cell membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0034358 plasma lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A spherical particle with a hydrophobic core of triglycerides and/or cholesterol esters, surrounded by an amphipathic monolayer of phospholipids, cholesterol and apolipoproteins. Plasma lipoprotein particles transport lipids, which are non-covalently associated with the particles, in the blood or lymph.
2008-04-27 GO:0034377 plasma lipoprotein particle assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and arrangement of proteins and lipids to form a plasma lipoprotein particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034369 plasma lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a plasma lipoprotein particle, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by hepatic lipase, with the subsequent loss of free fatty acid, and the esterification of cholesterol by phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase (lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; LCAT).
2008-04-27 GO:0046173 polyol biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a polyol, any alcohol containing three or more hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0045759 negative regulation of action potential Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of action potential creation, propagation or termination. An action potential is a spike of membrane depolarization and repolarization that travels along the membrane of a cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0034316 negative regulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of actin nucleation mediated by the Arp2/3 complex and interacting proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0055118 negative regulation of cardiac muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle contraction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034351 negative regulation of glial cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of glial cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0010561 negative regulation of glycoprotein biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2008-04-27 GO:0032689 negative regulation of interferon-gamma production Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of interferon-gamma production. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0010558 negative regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.
2008-04-27 GO:0045857 negative regulation of molecular function, epigenetic Updated DEFINITION Any heritable epigenetic process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein function by self-perpetuating conformational conversions of normal proteins in healthy cells. This is distinct from, though mechanistically analogous to, disease states associated with prion propagation and amyloidogenesis. A single protein, if it carries a glutamine/asparagine-rich ('prion') domain, can sometimes stably exist in at least two distinct physical states, each associated with a different phenotype; propagation of one of these traits is achieved by a self-perpetuating change in the protein from one form to the other, mediated by conformational changes in the glutamine/asparagine-rich domain. Prion domains are both modular and transferable to other proteins, on which they can confer a heritable epigenetic alteration of function; existing bioinformatics data indicate that they are rare in non-eukarya, but common in eukarya.
2008-04-27 GO:0060212 negative regulation of nuclear-transcribed mRNA poly(A) tail shortening Updated DEFINITION Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of poly(A) tail shortening of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA. Poly(A) tail shortening is the decrease in length of the poly(A) tail of an mRNA from full length to an oligo(A) length.
2008-04-27 GO:0010563 negative regulation of phosphorus metabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphorus or compounds containing phosphorus.
2008-04-27 GO:0048086 negative regulation of developmental pigmentation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the deposition of coloring matter occurring during development.
2008-04-27 GO:0045677 negative regulation of R7 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of R7cell differentiation.
2008-04-27 GO:0045680 negative regulation of R8 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of R8 cell differentiation.
2008-04-27 GO:0045469 negative regulation of R8 cell spacing in compound eye Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops or prevents the correct R8 cell spacing pattern in a compound eye.
2008-04-27 GO:0034392 negative regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of smooth muscle cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0008634 negative regulation of survival gene product expression Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of survival gene product expression; survival gene products are those that antagonize the apoptotic program. Regulation can be at the transcriptional, translational, or posttranslational level.
2008-04-27 GO:0034396 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to iron Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter in response to an iron stimulus.
2008-04-27 GO:0032480 negative regulation of type I interferon production Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of type I interferon production. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0034345 negative regulation of type III interferon production Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of type III interferon production. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0060234 neuroblast delamination Added DEFINITION The negative regulation of cell adhesion process by which a neuroblast slits off of a neurectodermal sheet.
2008-04-27 GO:0007405 neuroblast proliferation Updated DEFINITION The expansion of a neuroblast population by cell division. A neuroblast is any cell that will divide and give rise to a neuron.
2008-04-27 GO:0033761 mugineic-acid 3-dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: mugineic acid + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = 3-epihydroxymugineic acid + succinate + CO2 and 2'-deoxymugineic acid + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = 3-epihydroxy-2'-deoxymugineic acid + succinate + CO2.
2008-04-27 GO:0007275 multicellular organismal development Updated DEFINITION The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a multicellular organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2008-04-27 GO:0050879 multicellular organismal movement Updated DEFINITION Physiological processes involved in changing the position of a multicellular organism or an anatomical part of a multicellular organism.
2008-04-27 GO:0032501 multicellular organismal process Updated DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of a multicellular organism, pertinent to its function.
2008-04-27 GO:0017018 myosin phosphatase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: phosphomyosin + H2O = myosin + phosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034303 myxospore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which differentiated, resting cells are formed, usually within a fruiting body by Myxobacteria. The myxospore is more resistant to high temperature, dessication, and UV than vegetative myxobacteria.
2008-04-27 GO:0050659 N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + dermatan = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + dermatan 6'-sulfate and 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + chondroitin = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + chondroitin 6'-sulfate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034356 NAD biosynthesis via nicotinamide riboside salvage pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) from the vitamin precursor nicotinamide riboside.
2008-04-27 GO:0034355 NAD salvage Added DEFINITION Any process that generates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) from derivatives of it, without de novo synthesis; salvage is usually from the degradation products nicotinic acid (Na) and nicotinamide (Nam).
2008-04-27 GO:0032047 mitosome Updated DEFINITION A double-membrane-bounded organelle that functions in iron-sulfur protein maturation; evolutionarily derived from mitochondria.
2008-04-27 GO:0034309 primary alcohol biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of monohydric alcohols, any of a class of alkyl compounds containing a single hydroxyl group.
2008-04-27 GO:0034310 primary alcohol catabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of monohydric alcohols, any of a class of compounds containing a single hydroxyl group attached to a saturated carbon atom.
2008-04-27 GO:0034308 primary alcohol metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving alcohols, any of a class of compounds containing one hydroxyl group attached to a saturated carbon atom.
2008-04-27 GO:0034296 zygospore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which zygospores are formed. Zygospores are characteristic of the zygomycete fungi (phylum Zygomycota) thick-walled and darkly colored, and usually heavily ornamented as well, with many spines or ridges. It is formed between two specialized organs called suspensors, which are themselves usually heavily ornamented, one from each mating partner. The zygospore forms between them and then breaks away.
2008-04-27 GO:0042588 zymogen granule Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded, cytoplasmic secretory granule found in enzyme-secreting cells and visible by light microscopy. Contain zymogen, an inactive enzyme precursor, often of a digestive enzyme.
2008-04-27 GO:0001767 establishment of lymphocyte polarity Updated DEFINITION The directed orientation of lymphocyte signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient or a contact point with an appropriate activating cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0001770 establishment of natural killer cell polarity Updated DEFINITION The directed orientation of natural killer cell signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient or a contact point with a cell displaying natural killer cell activating ligands.
2008-04-27 GO:0001768 establishment of T cell polarity Updated DEFINITION The directed orientation of T cell signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient or a contact point with antigen presenting cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0000327 lytic vacuole within protein storage vacuole Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded compartment containing crystals of phytic acid and proteins characteristic of a lytic vacuole, found within a storage vacuole.
2008-04-27 GO:0034367 macromolecular complex remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss, or modification of molecules within a complex. The remodeling process begins with an existing complex, and ends with an altered complex.
2008-04-27 GO:0048232 male gamete generation Updated DEFINITION Generation of the male gamete; specialised haploid cells produced by meiosis and along with a female gamete takes part in sexual reproduction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034359 mature chylomicron Added DEFINITION A chylomicron that contains apolipoprotein C2 (APOC2), a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and has a mean diameter of 500 nm and density of 0.95g/ml. Mature chylomicron particles transport exogenous (dietary) lipids from the intestines to other body tissues, via the blood and lymph.
2008-04-27 GO:0045121 membrane raft Updated DEFINITION Any of the small (10-200 nm), heterogeneous, highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane domains that compartmentalize cellular processes. Small rafts can sometimes be stabilized to form larger platforms through protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions.
2008-04-27 GO:0031580 membrane raft distribution Updated DEFINITION The process that establishes the spatial arrangement of membrane rafts within a cellular membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0001765 membrane raft assembly Updated DEFINITION Formation of a membrane raft, a small (10-200 nm), heterogeneous, highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane domains that compartmentalizes cellular processes.
2008-04-27 GO:0051665 membrane raft localization Updated DEFINITION The processes by which membrane rafts are transported to, or maintained in, a specific location. Membrane rafts are small (10-200 nm), heterogeneous, highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane domains that compartmentalize cellular processes.
2008-04-27 GO:0031579 membrane raft organization Updated DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of membrane rafts, small (10-200 nm), heterogeneous, highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane domains that compartmentalize cellular processes.
2008-04-27 GO:0001766 membrane raft polarization Updated DEFINITION The clustering and aggregation of membrane rafts at a single cellular pole during activation of particular cell types, such as lymphocytes.
2008-04-27 GO:0060231 mesenchymal to epithelial transition Added DEFINITION A transition where a mesenchymal cell establishes apical/basolateral polarity,forms intercellular adhesive junctions, synthesizes basement membrane components and becomes an epithelial cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0000954 methionine catabolic process to 3-methylthiopropanoate Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce carboxylic acids with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When methionine is used as the substrate, 3-methylthiopropanoate is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of carboxylic acids, sometimes collectively referred to as fusel acids. Depending on the redox state of the cells, alcohol derivatives may be produced instead of carboxylic acids.
2008-04-27 GO:0000951 methionine catabolic process to 3-methylthiopropanol Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of branched chain amino acids to produce branched chain alcohols with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When methionine is used as the substrate, 3-methylthiopropanol is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of alcohols, often collectively referred to as fusel alcohols. Depending on the redox state of the cells, carboxylic acid derivatives may be produced instead of alcohols.
2008-04-27 GO:0032046 micropexophagy-specific membrane apparatus Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded flattened sac that is formed during micropexophagy between the membrane tips of an engulfing vacuole, completing the engulfment and sequestration of peroxisomes from the cytosol, and forming a micropexophagic body within the lumen of the vacuole.
2008-04-27 GO:0034336 misfolded RNA binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with an RNA molecule that has assumed an incorrect conformation.
2008-04-27 GO:0060082 eye blink reflex Updated DEFINITION The reflex process by which a mechanical stimulus applied to the eye elicits a response of the eyelid closing.
2008-04-27 GO:0032457 fast endocytic recycling Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of membrane-bounded vesicles from peripheral endocytic compartments back to the plasma membrane where they are recycled for further rounds of transport.
2008-04-27 GO:0007292 female gamete generation Updated DEFINITION Generation of the female gamete; specialised haploid cells produced by meiosis and along with a male gamete takes part in sexual reproduction.
2008-04-27 GO:0033772 flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: a flavanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = a 3'-hydroxyflavanone + NADP+ + H2O and a 3'-hydroxyflavanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = a 3',5'-dihydroxyflavanone + NADP+ + H2O.
2008-04-27 GO:0001771 immunological synapse formation Updated DEFINITION The formation of an area of close contact between a lymphocyte (T-, B-, or natural killer cell) and a target cell through the clustering of particular signaling and adhesion molecules and their associated membrane rafts on both the lymphocyte and target cell, which facilitates activation of the lymphocyte, transfer of membrane from the target cell to the lymphocyte, and in some situations killing of the target cell through release of secretory granules and/or death-pathway ligand-receptor interaction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034004 germacradienol synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 2-trans,6-trans-farnesyl diphosphate + H2O = (1E,4S,5E,7R)-germacra-1(10),5-dien-11-ol + diphosphate and 2-trans,6-trans-farnesyl diphosphate = (-)-(7S)-germacrene D + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034400 gerontoplast Added DEFINITION A plastid found in senescing, formerly green tissues that is derived from a chloroplast that undergoes an organized developmental program of senescence.
2008-04-27 GO:0034349 glial cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION The process of apoptosis in glial cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0033804 glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine.
2008-04-27 GO:0020015 glycosome Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded organelle found in organisms from the order Kinetoplastida that houses the enzymes of glycolysis.
2008-04-27 GO:0055107 Golgi to secretory granule transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of proteins from the Golgi to a secretory granule. The secretory granule is a membrane-bounded particle, usually protein, formed in the granular endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex.
2008-04-27 GO:0003015 heart process Updated DEFINITION A circulatory system process carried out by the heart. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.
2008-04-27 GO:0034327 hexanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a hexanoyl (CH3-[CH2]4-CO-) group to an acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0034364 high-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A lipoprotein particle with a high density (typically 1.063-1.21 g/ml) and a diameter of 5-10 nm that contains APOAs and may contain APOCs and APOE; found in blood and carries lipids from body tissues to the liver as part of the reverse cholesterol transport process.
2008-04-27 GO:0034380 high-density lipoprotein particle assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and arrangement of proteins and lipids to form a high-density lipoprotein particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034384 high-density lipoprotein particle clearance Added DEFINITION The process by which a high-density lipoprotein particle is removed from the blood via receptor-mediated endocytosis and its constituent parts degraded.
2008-04-27 GO:0034375 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a high-density lipoprotein particle, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by hepatic lipase, with the subsequent loss of free fatty acid, and the transfer of cholesterol esters from LDL to a triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), with the simultaneous transfer of triglyceride to LDL.
2008-04-27 GO:0034290 holin activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the temporally-regulated formation of a transmembrane protein hole that directly or indirectly allows murein hydrolyases to access their cell wall substrate.
2008-04-27 GO:0033740 hydroxylamine oxidoreductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: hydroxylamine + NH3 = hydrazine + H2O and hydrazine + acceptor = N2 + reduced acceptor.
2008-04-27 GO:0001772 immunological synapse Updated DEFINITION An area of close contact between a lymphocyte (T-, B-, or natural killer cell) and a target cell formed through the clustering of particular signaling and adhesion molecules and their associated membrane rafts on both the lymphocyte and the target cell and facilitating activation of the lymphocyte, transfer of membrane from the target cell to the lymphocyte, and in some situations killing of the target cell through release of secretory granules and/or death-pathway ligand-receptor interaction.
2008-04-27 GO:0008262 importin-alpha export receptor activity Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with importin-alpha to mediate its transfer through the nuclear pore to the cytoplasm.
2008-04-27 GO:0002771 inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor signaling pathway Updated DEFINITION A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to a inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor capable of inhibiting an immune effector process contributing to an immune response.
2008-04-27 GO:0019964 interferon-gamma binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with interferon-gamma. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0032609 interferon-gamma production Updated DEFINITION The appearance of interferon-gamma due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0004906 interferon-gamma receptor activity Updated DEFINITION Combining with interferon-gamma to initiate a change in cell activity. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0002113 interleukin-33 binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with interleukin-33.
2008-04-27 GO:0002114 interleukin-33 receptor activity Added DEFINITION Combining with interleukin-33 to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-04-27 GO:0002112 interleukin-33 receptor binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with the interleukin-33 receptor.
2008-04-27 GO:0034363 intermediate-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle that typically contains APOB100, APOE and APOCs and has a density of 1.006-1.019 g/ml and a diameter of between 25-30 nm. IDL particles are found in blood and are formed by the delipidation of very-low-density lipoprotein particles (VLDL). IDL particles are removed from blood by the liver, following binding to the APOE receptor, or are converted to low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
2008-04-27 GO:0034397 telomere localization Added DEFINITION The processes by which a telomere is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location.
2008-04-27 GO:0034398 telomere tethering at nuclear periphery Added DEFINITION The process by which a telomere is maintained in a specific location at the nuclear periphery.
2008-04-27 GO:0006125 thioredoxin pathway Added DEFINITION OBSOLETE.
2008-04-27 GO:0009579 thylakoid Updated DEFINITION A membraneous cellular structure that bears the photosynthetic pigments in photosynthetic organisms. In cyanobacteria thylakoids are of various shapes and are attached to, or continuous with, the plasma membrane. In eukaryotes they are flattened, membrane-bounded disk-like structures located in the chloroplasts; in the chloroplasts of higher plants the thylakoids form dense stacks called grana. Isolated thylakoid preparations can carry out photosynthetic electron transport and the associated phosphorylation.
2008-04-27 GO:0006099 tricarboxylic acid cycle Updated DEFINITION A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which undergoes successive transformations to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, succinate, fumarate, malate, and oxaloacetate again, thus completing the cycle. In eukaryotes the tricarboxylic acid is confined to the mitochondria. See also glyoxylate cycle.
2008-04-27 GO:0006100 tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The chemical reactions and pathways involving intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034385 triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A plasma lipoprotein particle that has a hydrophobic core enriched in triglycerides surrounded by an amphipathic monolayer of phospholipids, cholesterol and apolipoproteins. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteinparticles transport lipids, which are non-covalently associated with the particles, in the blood.

Definition/synonyms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2008-04-27 GO:0034339 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter by nuclear hormone receptor Added DEFINITION Any process by which a ligand-bound hormone receptor acts in the nucleus to modulate the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
2008-04-27 GO:0034395 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to iron Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter in response to an iron stimulus.
2008-04-27 GO:0032479 regulation of type I interferon production Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of interferon type I production. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0034344 regulation of type III interferon production Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of type III interferon production. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0055119 relaxation of cardiac muscle Added DEFINITION The process whereby the extent of cardiac muscle contraction is reduced.
2008-04-27 GO:0003014 renal system process Updated DEFINITION A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of the renal system. The renal system is responsible for fluid volume regulation and detoxification in an organism.
2008-04-27 GO:0034299 reproductive blastospore formation Added DEFINITION The formation of a spore following the marked enlargement of part of a cell before separation by a septum. Blastospores are a type of asexual spore found in some fungi, most notably the class Glomeromycota.
2008-04-27 GO:0055116 entry into reproductive diapause Added DEFINITION A form of diapause where the organism itself will remain fully active, including feeding and other routine activities, but the reproductive organs experience a tissue-specific reduction in metabolism, with characteristic triggering and releasing stimuli.
2008-04-27 GO:0034281 ent-isokaurene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ent-copalyl diphosphate = ent-isokaurene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034282 ent-pimara-8(14),15-diene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ent-copalyl diphosphate = ent- pimara-8(14),15-diene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034280 ent-sandaracopimaradiene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ent-copalyl diphosphate = ent-sandaracopimaradiene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034401 regulation of transcription by chromatin organization Added DEFINITION The specification, formation and maintenance of the physical structure of eukaryotic chromatin during transcription.
2008-04-27 GO:0001769 establishment of B cell polarity Updated DEFINITION The directed orientation of B cell signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient of a contact point with an antigen displaying cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0005926 connecting hemi-adherens junction Updated DEFINITION A hemiadherens junction (HAJ) that forms one of a pair of HAJs in opposing cells that are separated by only 30-40nm, with a thin line of extracellular electron-dense material in between; found where muscles attach to epidermal cells directly (in insects).
2008-04-27 GO:0034376 conversion of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particle to spherical high-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION The process by which a discoidal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle acquires additional lipid or protein molecules, and cholesterol in the particle is converted to tightly bound cholesterol esters by the action of phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase (lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; LCAT), resulting in the formation of a spherical HDL particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0051109 crotonobetaine-CoA ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CoA + crotono-betaine + ATP = AMP + diphosphate + crotonobetainyl-CoA.
2008-04-27 GO:0016023 cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded vesicle found in the cytoplasm of the cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0060205 cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle lumen Updated DEFINITION The volume enclosed by the membrane of a cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034354 'de novo' NAD biosynthetic process from tryptophan Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), beginning with the synthesis of tryptophan from simpler precursors; biosynthesis may be of either the oxidized form, NAD, or the reduced form, NADH.
2008-04-27 GO:0000290 deadenylation-dependent decapping of nuclear-transcribed mRNA Updated DEFINITION Cleavage of the 5'-cap of a nuclear mRNA triggered by shortening of the poly(A) tail to below a minimum functional length.
2008-04-27 GO:0031087 deadenylation-independent decapping of nuclear-transcribed mRNA Updated DEFINITION Cleavage of the 5'-cap of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA that is independent of poly(A) tail shortening.
2008-04-27 GO:0034328 decanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a decanoyl (CH3-[CH2]8-CO-) group to an acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0060232 delamination Added DEFINITION The negative regulation of cell adhesion process by which a cell or sheet of cells splits off of an existing epithelial sheet.
2008-04-27 GO:0034288 detection of disaccharide stimulus Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a stimulus from a disaccharide is received and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-04-27 GO:0009732 detection of hexose stimulus Updated DEFINITION The series of events in which a stimulus from a hexose is received and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-04-27 GO:0034289 detection of maltose stimulus Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a maltose stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-04-27 GO:0034287 detection of monosaccharide stimulus Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a stimulus from a monosaccharide is received and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-04-27 GO:0051606 detection of stimulus Updated DEFINITION The series of events in which a stimulus is received by a cell or organism and converted into a molecular signal.
2008-04-27 GO:0055115 entry into diapause Added DEFINITION A neurohormonally mediated, dynamic state of low metabolic activity. Associated characteristics of this form of dormancy include reduced morphogenesis, increased resistance to environmental extremes, and altered or reduced behavioral activity. Full expression develops in a species-specific manner, usually in response to a number of environmental stimuli that precede unfavorable conditions. Once diapause has begun, metabolic activity is suppressed even if conditions favorable for development prevail. Once initiated, only certain stimuli are capable of releasing the organism from this state, and this characteristic is essential in distinguishing diapause from hibernation.
2008-04-27 GO:0047859 dihydroxyphenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Catalysis of the reaction: 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine = trans-caffeate + NH3.
2008-04-27 GO:0034312 diol biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a diol, any alcohol containing two hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0034313 diol catabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a diol, any alcohol containing two hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0034311 diol metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a diol, any alcohol containing two hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0034365 discoidal high-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A newly formed high-density lipoprotein particle; consists of a phospholipid bilayer surrounded by two or more APOA1 molecules. The discoidal HDL particle is formed when lipid-free or lipid-poor APOA1 acquires phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol from either cell membranes or triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (undergoing lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase).
2008-04-27 GO:0034335 DNA supercoiling activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the formation of positive or negative supercoils in a DNA molecule or region thereof; may be associated with a geometric or topological change in the DNA molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0042714 dosage compensation complex assembly Updated DEFINITION The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of proteins on DNA or RNA to form the complex that mediates dosage compensation on one or more X chromosomes.
2008-04-27 GO:0006118 electron transport Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The transport of electrons from an electron donor to an electron acceptor.
2008-04-27 GO:0022900 electron transport chain Added DEFINITION A process whereby a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors to any of several different terminal electron acceptors to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
2008-04-27 GO:0032456 endocytic recycling Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of membrane-bounded vesicles from recycling endosomes back to the plasma membrane where they are recycled for further rounds of transport.
2008-04-27 GO:0042627 chylomicron Updated DEFINITION A large lipoprotein particle (diameter 75-1200 nm) composed of a central core of triglycerides and cholesterol surrounded by a protein-phospholipid coating. The proteins include one molecule of apolipoprotein B-48 and may include a variety of apolipoproteins, including APOAs, APOCs and APOE. Chylomicrons are found in blood or lymph and carry lipids from the intestines into other body tissues.
2008-04-27 GO:0034378 chylomicron assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and arrangement of proteins and lipids in the intestine to form a chylomicron.
2008-04-27 GO:0044440 endosomal part Updated DEFINITION Any constituent part of an endosome, a membrane-bounded organelle that carries materials newly ingested by endocytosis. It passes many of the materials to lysosomes for degradation.
2008-04-27 GO:0005768 endosome Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded organelle that carries materials newly ingested by endocytosis. It passes many of the materials to lysosomes for degradation.
2008-04-27 GO:0016197 endosomal transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of substances into, out of or mediated by an endosome, a membrane-bounded organelle that carries materials newly ingested by endocytosis. It passes many of the materials to lysosomes for degradation.
2008-04-27 GO:0034301 endospore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which a cell gives rise to an endospore, a dormant, highly resistant spore with a thick wall that forms within the mother cell. Endospores are produced by some low G+C Gram-positive bacteria in response to harsh conditions.
2008-04-27 GO:0034277 ent-cassa-12,15-diene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ent-copalyl diphosphate = ent-cassa-12,15-diene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0010564 regulation of cell cycle process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates a cellular process that is involved in the progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events.
2008-04-27 GO:0008360 regulation of cell shape Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the surface configuration of a cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0016476 regulation of embryonic cell shape Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the surface configuration of an embryonic cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0051036 regulation of endosome size Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the volume of an endosome, a membrane-bounded organelle that carries materials newly ingested by endocytosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0034350 regulation of glial cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of glial cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0032649 regulation of interferon-gamma production Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of interferon-gamma production. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0019646 aerobic electron transport chain Updated DEFINITION A process whereby a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors such as NADH and FADH2 to oxygen to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
2008-04-27 GO:0034302 akinete formation Added DEFINITION The process by which an akinete, a thick-walled (encysted) dormant cell derived from the enlargement of a vegetative cell, is formed. Akinetes typically have granular cytoplasm, are more resistant to environmental extremes than vegetative cells, and are characteristic of several groups of Cyanobacteria.
2008-04-27 GO:0034360 chylomicron remnant Added DEFINITION A lipoprotein particle that is derived from a mature chylomicron particle by the removal of triglycerides from the chylomicron core by lipoprotein lipase and the subsequent loss of surface components. It characteristically contains apolipoprotein E (APOE) and is cleared from the blood by the liver.
2008-04-27 GO:0034382 chylomicron remnant clearance Added DEFINITION The process by which a chylomicron remnant is removed from the blood via receptor-mediated endocytosis into liver cells and its constituent parts degraded.
2008-04-27 GO:0034371 chylomicron remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a chylomicron, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by lipoprotein lipase and the subsequent loss of free fatty acid.
2008-04-27 GO:0003013 circulatory system process Updated DEFINITION A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of the circulatory system. The circulatory system is an organ system that moves extracellular fluids to and from tissue within a multicellular organism.
2008-04-27 GO:0048268 clathrin coat assembly Updated DEFINITION The process by which clathrin triskelia are assembled into the ordered structure known as a clathrin cage.
2008-04-27 GO:0033758 clavaminate synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: deoxyamidinoproclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = amidinoproclavaminate + succinate + CO2 + H2O and proclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = dihydroclavaminate + succinate + CO2 + 2 H2O and dihydroclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = clavaminate + succinate + CO2 + 2 H2O.
2008-04-27 GO:0034340 response to type I interferon Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a type I interferon stimulus. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0034342 response to type III interferon Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a type III interferon stimulus. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0034337 RNA folding Added DEFINITION The process of assisting in the covalent and noncovalent assembly of single or multimeric RNAs into the correct tertiary structure.
2008-04-27 GO:0034353 RNA pyrophosphohydrolase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of a 5' terminal pyrophosphate from the 5'-triphosphate end of an RNA, leaving a 5'-monophosphate end.
2008-04-27 GO:0033805 sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine + N,N-dimethylglycine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + betaine.
2008-04-27 GO:0014834 skeletal muscle satellite cell maintenance involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Updated DEFINITION The process essential to mantain a ready source of satellite cells. It consists of the return of activated satellite cells to a quiescent state after proliferation to replenish the satellite cell pool. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2008-04-27 GO:0045045 secretory pathway Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The pathway along which proteins and other substances are moved around and out of the cell. After synthesis on the ribosomes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), completed polypeptide chains are moved to the Golgi complex and subsequently sorted to various destinations. Proteins synthesized and sorted in the secretory pathway include not only those that are secreted from the cell but also enzymes and other resident proteins in the lumen of the ER, Golgi, and lysosomes as well as integral proteins in the membranes of these organelles and the plasma membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0034294 sexual spore wall assembly Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the specialized envelope lying outside the cell membrane of a spore derived from a product of meiosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0034293 sexual sporulation Added DEFINITION The formation of spores derived from the products of meiosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0034338 short-chain carboxylesterase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a carboxylic ester + H2O = an alcohol + a carboxylic anion, where the carboxylic chain has 8 or fewer carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0032458 slow endocytic recycling Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of membrane-bounded vesicles from deep (non-peripheral) compartments endocytic compartments back to the plasma membrane where they are recycled for further rounds of transport.
2008-04-27 GO:0019787 small conjugating protein ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of ATP-dependent isopeptide bond formation between the carboxy-terminal residues of a small conjugating protein such as ubiquitin or a ubiquitin-like protein, and a substrate lysine residue. This function may be performed alone or in conjunction with an E3, ubiquitin-like protein ligase.
2008-04-27 GO:0034390 smooth muscle cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION The process of apoptosis in smooth muscle cells. Smooth muscle consists of non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cell found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels.
2008-04-27 GO:0034366 spherical high-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A mature high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle, converted from discoidal HDL particles following the esterification of cholesterol in the particle by phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase (lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; LCAT).
2008-04-27 GO:0034300 sporangiospore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which sporangiospores, a type of asexual spore found in fungi, are formed. Sporangiospores are formed within sac-like structure, the sporangium, following the division of the cytoplasm.
2008-04-27 GO:0030435 sporulation resulting in formation of a cellular spore Updated DEFINITION The process by which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a spore, a cell form that can be used for dissemination, for survival of adverse conditions because of its heat and dessication resistance, and/or for reproduction. Spores are usually unicellular and may develop into vegetative organisms or gametes. They may be produced asexually or sexually and are of many types.
2008-04-27 GO:0034278 stemar-13-ene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (+)-syn-copalyl diphosphate = stemar-13-ene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034279 syn-pimara-7,15-diene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (+)-syn-copalyl diphosphate = (-)-9-beta-pimara-7,15-diene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034283 syn-stemod-13(17)-ene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: syn-copalyl diphosphate = stemod-13(17)-ene + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0016079 synaptic vesicle exocytosis Updated DEFINITION Fusion of intracellular membrane-bounded vesicles with the pre-synaptic membrane of the neuronal cell resulting in release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
2008-04-27 GO:0048489 synaptic vesicle transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of substances in synaptic membrane-bounded vesicles within the neuron along the cytoskeleton either toward or away from the neuronal cell body.
2008-04-27 GO:0003008 system process Updated DEFINITION A multicellular organismal process carried out by any of the organs or tissues in an organ system. An organ system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of organs or tissues that work together to carry out a biological objective.
2008-04-27 GO:0033780 taurochenodeoxycholate 6alpha-hydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: taurochenodeoxycholate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = taurohyocholate + NADP+ + H2O and lithocholate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = hyodeoxycholate + NADP+ + H2O.
2008-04-27 GO:0031083 BLOC-1 complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex required for the biogenesis of specialized organelles of the endosomal-lysosomal system, such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules. Many of the protein subunits are conserved between mouse and human; the mouse complex contains the Pallidin, Muted, Cappuccino, Dysbindin, Snapin, BLOS1, BLOS2, AND BLOS3 proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0000950 branched-chain amino acid catabolic process to alcohol via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of branched chain amino acids to produce branched chain alcohols with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When a branched chain family amino acid, leucine, isoleucine, or valine, is used as the substrate, 3-methylbutanol, 2-methylbutanol, or 2-methylpropanol, respectively, is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of alcohols, often collectively referred to as fusel alcohols. Depending on the redox state of the cells, carboxylic acid derivatives may be produced instead of alcohols.
2008-04-27 GO:0000953 branched-chain amino acid catabolic process to carboxylic acid via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce carboxylic acids with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When a branched chain family amino acid, leucine, isoleucine, or valine, is used as the substrate, 3-methylbutanoate, 2-methylbutanoate, or 2-methylpropanoate, respectively, is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of carboxylic acids, sometimes collectively referred to as fusel acids. Depending on the redox state of the cells, alcohol derivatives may be produced instead of carboxylic acids.
2008-04-27 GO:0034326 butanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a butanoyl (CH3-[CH2]2-CO-) group to an acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0034291 canonical holin activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the temporally-regulated formation of a non-specific transmembrane protein hole that allows release of a fully-folded phage-encoded endolysin (murein-degradase) from the cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0034019 capsanthin/capsorubin synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: violaxanthin = capsorubin and antheraxanthin = capsanthin.
2008-04-27 GO:0051108 carnitine-CoA ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: D-carnitine + CoA + ATP = AMP + diphosphate + D-carnitinyl-CoA.
2008-04-27 GO:0034329 cell junction assembly Added DEFINITION A cellular process that results in the assembly of a cell junction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034330 cell junction organization Added DEFINITION The assembly and maintenance of junctions between cells or between a cell and its substrate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034331 cell junction maintenance Added DEFINITION The maintenance of junctions between cells or between a cell and its substrate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034411 cell wall (1->3)-beta-D-glucan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of 1,3-beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0034407 cell wall (1->3)-beta-D-glucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving beta-1,3 glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0034410 cell wall beta-glucan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0034406 cell wall beta-glucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0007044 cell-substrate junction assembly Updated DEFINITION The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a junction between a cell and its substrate.
2008-04-27 GO:0032600 chemokine receptor transport out of membrane raft Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a chemokine receptor out of a membrane raft.
2008-04-27 GO:0045009 chitosome Updated DEFINITION An intracellular membrane-bounded particle found in fungi and containing chitin synthase; it synthesizes chitin microfibrils. Chitin synthase activity exists in chitosomes and they are proposed to act as a reservoir for regulated transport of chitin synthase enzymes to the division septum.
2008-04-27 GO:0001410 chlamydospore formation Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the chlamydospore over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A chlamydospores is a mitotic (asexual) one-celled spore, produced primarily for survival, not dispersal, originating endogenously and singly within part of a pre-existing cell and possessing an inner secondary and often thickened cell wall.
2008-04-27 GO:0033963 cholesterol-5,6-oxide hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 5,6alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholestan-3beta-ol + H2O = cholestane-3beta-5alpha,6beta-triol and 5,6beta-epoxy-5beta-cholestan-3beta-ol + H2O = cholestane-3beta-5alpha,6beta-triol.
2008-04-27 GO:0010567 regulation of ketone catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a ketone, carried out by individual cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0010565 regulation of cellular ketone metabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, CO, and in which the carbonyl group is bonded only to carbon atoms. The general formula for a ketone is RCOR, where R and R are alkyl or aryl groups.
2008-04-27 GO:0010556 regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.
2008-04-27 GO:0051239 regulation of multicellular organismal process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a multicellular organismal process, the processes pertinent to the function of a multicellular organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.
2008-04-27 GO:0060211 regulation of nuclear-transcribed mRNA poly(A) tail shortening Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of poly(A) tail shortening of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA. Poly(A) tail shortening is the decrease in length of the poly(A) tail of an mRNA from full length to an oligo(A) length.
2008-04-27 GO:0032880 regulation of protein localization Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of any process by which a protein is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location.
2008-04-27 GO:0034306 regulation of sexual sporulation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of spore formation from the products of meiosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0034391 regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of smooth muscle cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0000291 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, exonucleolytic Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of the transcript body of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA that occurs when the ends are not protected by the 5'-cap or the 3'-poly(A) tail.
2008-04-27 GO:0000184 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay Updated DEFINITION The nonsense-mediated decay pathway for nuclear-transcribed mRNAs degrades mRNAs in which an amino-acid codon has changed to a nonsense codon; this prevents the translation of such mRNAs into truncated, and potentially harmful, proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0000289 nuclear-transcribed mRNA poly(A) tail shortening Updated DEFINITION Shortening of the poly(A) tail of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA from full length to an oligo(A) length.
2008-04-27 GO:0034404 nucleobase-containing small molecule biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides.
2008-04-27 GO:0034323 O-butanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a butyl group to an oxygen atom on the acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0033716 nucleoside oxidase (hydrogen peroxide-forming) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: adenosine + 2 O2 = 9-riburonosyladenine + 2 H2O2, (1a) adenosine + O2 = 5'-dehydroadenosine + H2O2 and (1b) 5'-dehydroadenosine + O2 = 9-riburonosyladenine + H2O2.
2008-04-27 GO:0033715 nucleoside oxidase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: inosine + O2 = 9-riburonosylhypoxanthine + 2 H2O and (1a) 2 inosine + O2 = 2 5'-dehydroinosine + 2 H2O and (1b) 2 5'-dehydroinosine + O2 = 2 9-riburonosylhypoxanthine + 2 H2O.
2008-04-27 GO:0034325 O-decanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a decyl group to an oxygen atom on the acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0048609 multicellular organismal reproductive process Updated DEFINITION The process, occurring above the cellular level, that is pertinent to the reproductive function of a multicellular organism. This includes the integrated processes at the level of tissues and organs.
2008-04-27 GO:0048622 reproductive sporulation Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The formation of reproductive spores.
2008-04-27 GO:0022904 respiratory electron transport chain Added DEFINITION A process whereby a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors such as NADH and FADH2 to any of several different terminal electron acceptors to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
2008-04-27 GO:0003016 respiratory system process Updated DEFINITION A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of the respiratory system. The respiratory system is an organ system responsible for respiratory gasseous exchange.
2008-04-27 GO:0034059 response to anoxia Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating a decline in oxygen levels to trace amounts, <0.1%.
2008-04-27 GO:0034285 response to disaccharide Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a disaccharide stimulus.
2008-04-27 GO:0034405 response to fluid shear stress Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a fluid shear stress stimulus. Fluid shear stress is the force acting on an object in a system where the fluid is moving across a solid surface.
2008-04-27 GO:0001666 response to hypoxia Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level.
2008-04-27 GO:0034341 response to interferon-gamma Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an interferon-gamma stimulus. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0034286 response to maltose Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a maltose stimulus.
2008-04-27 GO:0034284 response to monosaccharide Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a monosaccharide stimulus.
2008-04-27 GO:0048491 retrograde synaptic vesicle transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of substances in synaptic membrane-bounded vesicles within the neuron, along the cytoskeleton, toward the neuronal cell body.
2008-04-27 GO:0000949 aromatic amino acid family catabolic process to alcohol via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of aromatic amino acids to produce aromatic alcohols with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When an aromatic family amino acid, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan, is used as the substrate, 2-phenylethanol, 4-hydroxyphenylethanol, or tryptophol, respectively, is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of alcohols, often collectively referred to as fusel alcohols. Depending on the redox state of the cells, carboxylic acid derivatives may be produced instead of alcohols.
2008-04-27 GO:0000952 aromatic amino acid family catabolic process to carboxylic acid via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce carboxylic acids with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When an aromatic family amino acid, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan, is used as the substrate, 2-phenylethanoate, 4-hydroxyphenylethanoate, or 2-(Indol-3-yl)-ethanoate, respectively, is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of carboxylic acids, sometimes collectively referred to as fusel acids. Depending on the redox state of the cells, alcohol derivatives may be produced instead of carboxylic acids.
2008-04-27 GO:0034314 Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation Added DEFINITION The initial step in the formation of an actin filament, in which actin monomers combine to form a new filament, mediated by the Arp2/3 protein complex and its interaction with other proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0034298 arthrospore formation Added DEFINITION The formation of conidia by the conversion of a pre-existing hypha. An arthrospore is produced by the last cell on a hypha breaking off and dispersing. Usually the walls thicken and the cell(s) separates before swelling of each spore. Sometimes further septa form in each cell prior to disarticulation.
2008-04-27 GO:0030437 ascospore formation Updated DEFINITION The process by which a diploid cell undergoes meiosis, and the meiotic products acquire the specialized features of ascospores. Ascospores are generally found in clusters of four or eight spores within a single mother cell, the ascus, and are characteristic of the ascomycete fungi (phylum Ascomycota).
2008-04-27 GO:0034413 ascospore wall (1->3)-beta-D-glucan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of 1,3-beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0034409 ascospore wall (1->3)-beta-D-glucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving beta-1,3 glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0030476 ascospore wall assembly Updated DEFINITION The process by which the ascospore nucleus becomes surrounded by a specialized spore wall. Occurs by deposition of spore wall components in the lumenal space between the outer and inner leaflets of the prospore membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0034412 ascospore wall beta-glucan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0034408 ascospore wall beta-glucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving beta-glucans, compounds composed of glucose residues linked by beta-D-glucosidic bonds, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0034217 ascospore wall chitin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of ascospore wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0034232 ascospore wall chitin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of ascospore wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0034218 ascospore wall chitin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving ascospore wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of ascospores.
2008-04-27 GO:0042764 ascospore-type prospore Updated DEFINITION An immature spore, of the type observed in ascopore-forming fungi, undergoing development; usually consists of nucleic acid, prospore membrane(s) that encase the nucleic acid, and ultimately a cell wall that covers the membrane(s).
2008-04-27 GO:0031321 ascospore-type prospore assembly Updated DEFINITION During ascospore formation, the process by which each haploid nucleus becomes encapsulated by a double membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0031322 ascospore-type prospore-specific spindle pole body remodeling Updated DEFINITION Structural modification of the spindle pole body that takes place during the second meiotic division during ascospore formation; includes the recruitment of sporulation-specific proteins to the outer plaque to form the meiotic outer plaque (MOP).
2008-04-27 GO:0042243 asexual spore wall assembly Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the specialized envelope lying outside the cell membrane of a spore derived from a product of mitosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0030436 asexual sporulation Updated DEFINITION The formation of spores derived from the products of mitosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0033793 aureusidin synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone + O2 = aureusidin + H2O and 2',3,4,4',6'-pentahydroxychalcone + 1/2 O2 = aureusidin + H2O.
2008-04-27 GO:0000045 autophagic vacuole assembly Updated DEFINITION The formation of a double membrane-bounded structure, the autophagosome, that occurs when a specialized membrane sac, called the isolation membrane, starts to enclose a portion of the cytoplasm.
2008-04-27 GO:0000046 autophagic vacuole fusion Updated DEFINITION The fusion of an autophagic vacuole with a vacuole (yeast) or lysosome (e.g. mammals and insects). In the case of yeast, inner membrane-bounded structures (autophagic bodies) appear in the vacuole.
2008-04-27 GO:0032597 B cell receptor transport into membrane raft Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a B cell receptor into a membrane raft.
2008-04-27 GO:0034295 basidiospore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which spores form outside a specialized end cell known as a basidium. Basidia are characteristic of the basidiomycete fungi (phylum Basidiomycota), and give rise to spores that each contain a haploid nucleus that is the product of meiosis. The spores are usually attached to the basidium by short spikes called sterigmata (singular: sterigma). In most basidiomycetes there are four sterigmata (and four spores) to a basidium.
2008-04-27 GO:0033792 bile-acid 7alpha-dehydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: deoxycholate + FAD + H2O = cholate + FADH2 and lithocholate + FAD + H2O = chenodeoxycholate + FADH2.
2008-04-27 GO:0031214 biomineral tissue development Updated DEFINITION Formation of hard tissues that consist mainly of inorganic compounds, and also contain a small amounts of organic matrices that are believed to play important roles in their formation.
2008-04-27 GO:0010559 regulation of glycoprotein biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2008-04-27 GO:0010566 regulation of ketone biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a ketone, carried out by individual cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0000164 protein phosphatase type 1 complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex that possesses magnesium-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase (AMD phosphatase) activity, and consists of a catalytic subunit and one or more regulatory subunits that dictates the phosphatase's substrate specificity, function, and activity.
2008-04-27 GO:0006605 protein targeting Updated DEFINITION The process of targeting specific proteins to particular membrane-bounded subcellular organelles. Usually requires an organelle specific protein sequence motif.
2008-04-27 GO:0032596 protein transport into membrane raft Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a protein into a membrane raft.
2008-04-27 GO:0032599 protein transport out of membrane raft Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a protein out of a membrane raft.
2008-04-27 GO:0034368 protein-lipid complex remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a protein-lipid complex.
2008-04-27 GO:0034388 Pwp2p-containing subcomplex of 90S preribosome Added DEFINITION A protein complex that forms a subcomplex of the 90S preribosome and can interact directly with the 5' External Transcribed Spacer (ETS) of the full length pre-rRNA transcript. In S. cerevisiae, it sediments at 25-30 S and is composed of Pwp2p, Dip2p, Utp21p, Utp13p, Utp18p, and Utp6p.
2008-04-27 GO:0033718 pyranose dehydrogenase (acceptor) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: pyranose + acceptor = 2-dehydropyranose (or 3-dehydropyranose or 2,3-didehydropyranose) + reduced acceptor and a pyranoside + acceptor = a 3-dehydropyranoside (or 3,4-didehydropyranoside) + reduced acceptor.
2008-04-27 GO:0033706 quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: L-quinate + NAD(P)+ = 3-dehydroquinate + NAD(P)H + H+ and shikimate + NAD(P)+ = 3-dehydroshikimate + NAD(P)H + H+.
2008-04-27 GO:0030159 receptor signaling complex scaffold activity Updated DEFINITION Functions to provide a physical support for the assembly of a multiprotein receptor signaling complex.
2008-04-27 GO:0034402 recruitment of 3'-end processing factors to RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complex Added DEFINITION The process by which proteins required for 3'-end transcript processing become associated with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complex and the 3' end of a transcript.
2008-04-27 GO:0001508 action potential Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of action potential creation, propagation or termination. An action potential is a spike of membrane depolarization and repolarization that travels along the membrane of a cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0034315 regulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of actin nucleation mediated by the Arp2/3 complex and interacting proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0034307 regulation of ascospore formation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ascospore formation.
2008-04-27 GO:0034223 regulation of ascospore wall chitin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of ascospore wall chitin.
2008-04-27 GO:0034234 regulation of ascospore wall chitin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of ascospore wall chitin.
2008-04-27 GO:0034305 regulation of asexual sporulation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of spore formation from the products of mitosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0055117 regulation of cardiac muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle contraction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034373 intermediate-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within an intermediate-density lipoprotein particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0060235 lens induction in camera-type eye Added DEFINITION Signaling at short range between the head ectoderm and the optic vesicle that results in the head ectoderm forming a lens.
2008-04-27 GO:0034389 lipid particle organization Added DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a lipid particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034381 plasma lipoprotein particle clearance Added DEFINITION The process by which a lipoprotein particle is removed from the blood via receptor-mediated endocytosis and its constituent parts degraded.
2008-04-27 GO:0010495 long-distance posttranscriptional gene silencing Updated DEFINITION A posttranscriptional gene silencing process in which the silencing signal originates in a tissue separate from the tissue in which the silencing takes place.
2008-04-27 GO:0034362 low-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A lipoprotein particle, rich in cholesterol esters and low in triglycerides that is typically composed of APOB100 and APOE and has a density of 1.02-1.06 g/ml and a diameter of between 20-25 nm. LDL particles are formed from VLDL particles (via IDL) by the loss of triacylglycerol and gain of cholesterol ester. They transport endogenous cholesterol (and to some extent triglycerides) from peripheral tissues back to the liver.
2008-04-27 GO:0034383 low-density lipoprotein particle clearance Added DEFINITION The process by which a low-density lipoprotein particle is removed from the blood via receptor-mediated endocytosis and its constituent parts degraded.
2008-04-27 GO:0034374 low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a low-density lipoprotein particle, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by hepatic lipase, with the subsequent loss of free fatty acid, and the transfer of cholesterol esters from LDL to a triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), with the simultaneous transfer of triglyceride to LDL.
2008-04-27 GO:0046165 alcohol biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of alcohols, any of a class of compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to a saturated carbon atom.
2008-04-27 GO:0046164 alcohol catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of alcohols, any of a class of compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to a saturated carbon atom.
2008-04-27 GO:0006066 alcohol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving alcohols, any of a class of compounds containing one or more hydroxyl groups attached to a saturated carbon atom.
2008-04-27 GO:0034318 alcohol O-acyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of an acyl group to an oxygen atom on an alcohol acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0034319 alcohol O-butanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: butanoyl-CoA + an alcohol = CoA + a butyl ester.
2008-04-27 GO:0034322 alcohol O-decanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: decanoyl-CoA + an alcohol = CoA + a decyl ester.
2008-04-27 GO:0034320 alcohol O-hexanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: hexanoyl-CoA + an alcohol = CoA + a hexyl ester.
2008-04-27 GO:0034321 alcohol O-octanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: octanoyl-CoA + an alcohol = CoA + an octyl ester.
2008-04-27 GO:0033991 aldos-2-ulose dehydratase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose = 2-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2H-pyran-3(6H)-one + H2O (overall reaction), (1a) 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose = 1,5-anhydro-4-deoxy-D-glycero-hex-3-en-2-ulose + H2O and (1b) 1,5-anhydro-4-deoxy-D-glycero-hex-3-en-2-ulose = 2-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2H-pyran-3(6H)-one.
2008-04-27 GO:0034403 alignment of 3' and 5' splice sites of mRNA Added DEFINITION Recognition of both the 5' and 3'-splice sites and positioning them in the correct alignment with respect to each other so that the second catalytic step of nuclear mRNA splicing can occur.
2008-04-27 GO:0000947 amino acid catabolic process to alcohol via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce alcohols with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of alcohols, often collectively referred to as fusel alcohols. Depending on the redox state of the cells, carboxylic acid derivatives may be produced instead of alcohols.
2008-04-27 GO:0000948 amino acid catabolic process to carboxylic acid via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce carboxylic acids with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of carboxylic acids, sometimes collectively referred to as fusel acids. Depending on the redox state of the cells, alcohol derivatives may be produced instead of carboxylic acids.
2008-04-27 GO:0000955 amino acid catabolic process via Ehrlich pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce alcohols or carboxylic acids containing one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of alcohols, often collectively referred to as fusel alcohols. Depending on the redox state of the cells, carboxylic acid derivatives, sometimes referred to as fusel acids, may be produced instead of alcohols.
2008-04-27 GO:0019645 anaerobic electron transport chain Updated DEFINITION A process whereby a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors such as NADH and FADH2 to any of several different terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
2008-04-27 GO:0048490 anterograde synaptic vesicle transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of substances in synaptic membrane-bounded vesicles within the neuron, along the cytoskeleton, away from the neuronal cell body.
2008-04-27 GO:0000044 ascorbate stabilization Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The reduction of the ascorbate free radical to a stable form.
2008-04-27 GO:0045858 positive regulation of molecular function, epigenetic Updated DEFINITION Any heritable epigenetic process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein function by self-perpetuating conformational conversions of normal proteins in healthy cells. This is distinct from, though mechanistically analogous to, disease states associated with prion propagation and amyloidogenesis. A single protein, if it carries a glutamine/asparagine-rich ('prion') domain, can sometimes stably exist in at least two distinct physical states, each associated with a different phenotype; propagation of one of these traits is achieved by a self-perpetuating change in the protein from one form to the other, mediated by conformational changes in the glutamine/asparagine-rich domain. Prion domains are both modular and transferable to other proteins, on which they can confer a heritable epigenetic alteration of function; existing bioinformatics data indicate that they are rare in non-eukarya, but common in eukarya.
2008-04-27 GO:0060213 positive regulation of nuclear-transcribed mRNA poly(A) tail shortening Updated DEFINITION Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of poly(A) tail shortening of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA. Poly(A) tail shortening is the decrease in length of the poly(A) tail of an mRNA from full length to an oligo(A) length.
2008-04-27 GO:0048087 positive regulation of developmental pigmentation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the deposition of coloring matter occurring during development.
2008-04-27 GO:0045678 positive regulation of R7 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of R7 cell differentiation.
2008-04-27 GO:0045681 positive regulation of R8 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of R8 cell differentiation.
2008-04-27 GO:0045748 positive regulation of R8 cell spacing in compound eye Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or enforces the correct R8 cell spacing in a compound eye.
2008-04-27 GO:0034393 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of smooth muscle cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0045885 positive regulation of survival gene product expression Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of survival gene product expression; survival gene products are those that antagonize the apoptotic program. Regulation can be at the transcriptional, translational, or posttranslational level.
2008-04-27 GO:0032481 positive regulation of type I interferon production Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of type I interferon production. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0034346 positive regulation of type III interferon production Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of type III interferon production. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0042735 protein body Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded plant organelle found in the developing endosperm, contains storage proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0034394 protein localization to cell surface Added DEFINITION A process by which a protein is transported to, or maintained in, a location within the external part of the cell wall and/or plasma membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0046174 polyol catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a polyol, any alcohol containing three or more hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0019751 polyol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a polyol, any alcohol containing three or more hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0045760 positive regulation of action potential Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of action potential creation, propagation or termination. An action potential is a spike of membrane depolarization and repolarization that travels along the membrane of a cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0034352 positive regulation of glial cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of glial cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0010560 positive regulation of glycoprotein biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2008-04-27 GO:0032729 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of interferon-gamma production. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0010557 positive regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.
2008-04-27 GO:0010562 positive regulation of phosphorus metabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphorus or compounds containing phosphorus.
2008-04-27 GO:0043898 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl + O2 = 2-hydroxy-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid.
2008-04-27 GO:0033976 2-haloacid dehalogenase (configuration-inverting) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: (S)-2-haloacid + H2O = (R)-2-hydroxyacid + halide and (R)-2-haloacid + H2O = (S)-2-hydroxyacid + halide.
2008-04-27 GO:0033977 2-haloacid dehalogenase (configuration-retaining) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: (S)-2-haloacid + H2O = (S)-2-hydroxyacid + halide and (R)-2-haloacid + H2O = (R)-2-hydroxyacid + halide.
2008-04-27 GO:0003867 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4-aminobutanoate + amino group acceptor = succinate semialdehyde + amino acid.
2008-04-27 GO:0034386 4-aminobutyrate:2-oxoglutarate transaminase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034387 4-aminobutyrate:pyruvate transaminase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4-aminobutanoate + pyruvate = succinate semialdehyde + alanine.
2008-04-27 GO:0006133 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate oxidation Added DEFINITION OBSOLETE.
2008-04-27 GO:0045549 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + a 12'-apo-carotenal and 9-cis-violaxanthin + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + (3S,5R,6S)-5,6-epoxy-3-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-12'-apo-beta-caroten-12'-al and 9'-cis-neoxanthin + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + (3S,5R,6R)-5,6-dihydroxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6-dihydro-12'-apo-beta-caroten-12'-al.
2008-04-27 GO:0034304 actinomycete-type spore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which differentiated, resting cells are formed from a substrate mycelium; characteristic of many members of the order Actinomycetales.
2008-04-27 GO:0007171 activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that initiates the activity of the inactive transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity.
2008-04-27 GO:0006588 activation of tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION The process by which the tryptophan 5-monooxygenase enzyme is changed so that it can carry out its enzymatic activity.
2008-04-27 GO:0034333 adherens junction assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an adherens junction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034332 adherens junction organization Added DEFINITION The assembly and maintenance of an adherens junction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034334 adherens junction maintenance Added DEFINITION The maintenance of an adherens junction.
2008-04-27 GO:0050877 neurological system process Updated DEFINITION A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of neurological system.
2008-04-27 GO:0034317 nicotinic acid riboside kinase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + nicotinic acid riboside (NaR) = ADP + nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN).
2008-04-27 GO:0034399 nuclear periphery Added DEFINITION The region of the nucleus adjacent to the nuclear envelope.
2008-04-27 GO:0000288 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay Updated DEFINITION A major pathway of degradation of nuclear-transcribed mRNAs that proceeds through a series of ordered steps: poly(A) tail shortening, deadenylylation-dependent decapping, and decay of the transcript body, and that can regulate mRNA stability.
2008-04-27 GO:0031086 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-independent decay Updated DEFINITION A pathway of degradation of nuclear-transcribed mRNAs that proceeds through a series of steps that is independent of deadenylation, but requires decapping followed by transcript decay, and that can regulate mRNA stability.
2008-04-27 GO:0000294 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, endonucleolytic cleavage-dependent decay Updated DEFINITION A minor degradation pathway nuclear-transcribed mRNAs that begins with an endonucleolytic cleavage to generate unprotected ends.
2008-04-27 GO:0034370 triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by lipoprotein lipase, with the subsequent loss of free fatty acid, and the transfer of cholesterol esters to a triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), with the simultaneous transfer of triglyceride from a triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0042779 tRNA 3'-trailer cleavage Updated DEFINITION Cleavage of the 3'-end of the pre-tRNA as part of the process of generating the mature 3'-end of the tRNA; may involve endonucleolytic or exonucleolytic cleavage, or both.
2008-04-27 GO:0019962 type I interferon binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a type I interferon. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, epsilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0045351 type I interferon biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of any type I interferon. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0032606 type I interferon production Updated DEFINITION The appearance of type I interferon due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0004905 type I interferon receptor activity Added DEFINITION Combining with a type I interferon to initiate a change in cell activity. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, epsilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0034347 type III interferon binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a type III interferon. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0034343 type III interferon production Added DEFINITION The appearance of type III interferon due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0034348 type III interferon receptor activity Added DEFINITION Combining with a type III interferon to initiate a change in cell activity. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0000324 fungal-type vacuole Updated DEFINITION The vacuole is a large, membrane-bounded organelle that functions as a reservoir for the storage of small molecules (including polyphosphate, amino acids, several divalent cations (e.g. calcium), other ions, and other small molecules) as well as being the primary compartment for degradation. It is an acidic compartment, containing an ensemble of acid hydrolases. At least in S. cerevisiae, there are indications that the morphology of the vacuole is variable and correlated with the cell cycle, with logarithmically growing cells having a multilobed, reticulated vacuole, while stationary phase cells contain a single large structure.
2008-04-27 GO:0034361 very-low-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle that is typically composed of APOB100, APOE and APOCs and has a density of about 1.006 g/ml and a diameter of between 20-80 nm. It is found in blood and transports endogenous products (newly synthesized cholesterol and triglycerides) from the liver.
2008-04-27 GO:0034379 very-low-density lipoprotein particle assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and arrangement of proteins and lipids in the liver to form a very-low-density lipoprotein particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034372 very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a very-low-density lipoprotein particle, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by hepatic lipase or lipoprotein lipase and the subsequent loss of free fatty acid.
2008-04-27 GO:0034324 O-hexanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a hexyl group to an oxygen atom on the acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0060233 oenocyte delamination Added DEFINITION The negative regulation of cell adhesion process by which an oenocyte splits off of an existing epithelial sheet.
2008-04-27 GO:0034297 oidium formation Added DEFINITION The process by which oidia, a type of asexual spore found in fungi, are formed. Oidia are borne a few at a time on very simple hyphae that protrude a short distance into the substrate, and are usually presumed not to constitute the main reproductive strategy of the fungus.
2008-04-27 GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process Added DEFINITION The process of removal or addition of one or more electrons with or without the concomitant removal or addition of a proton or protons.
2008-04-27 GO:0033675 pericanalicular vesicle Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded vesicle found near the apical, or pericanalicular, membrane of a hepatocyte; contains proteins involved in bile salt transport and other fluid and solute transport processes.
2008-04-27 GO:0009502 photosynthetic electron transport chain Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A series of membrane-linked oxidation-reduction reactions in which electrons are transferred from an initial electron donor through a series of intermediates to a final electron acceptor (usually oxygen).
2008-04-27 GO:0009767 photosynthetic electron transport chain Updated DEFINITION A process, occuring as part of photosynthesis, whereby light provides the energy for a series of electron carriers to operate together to transfer electrons and generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
2008-04-27 GO:0034357 photosynthetic membrane Added DEFINITION A membrane enriched in complexes formed of reaction centers, accessory pigments and electron carriers, in which photosynthetic reactions take place.
2008-04-27 GO:0009521 photosystem Updated DEFINITION A complex located in a photosynthetic membrane that consists of a photoreaction center associated with accessory pigments and electron carriers.
2008-04-27 GO:0009522 photosystem I Updated DEFINITION A photosystem that contains an iron-sulfur reaction center associated with accessory pigments and electron carriers. In cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, photosystem I functions as a light-dependent plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from plastocyanin to ferredoxin; in photosynthetic bacteria that have only a single type I photosystem, such as the green sulfur bacteria, electrons can go either to ferredoxin (Fd) -> NAD+ or to menaquinone (MK) -> Cytb/FeS -> Cytc555 -> photosystem I (cyclic photophosphorylation).
2008-04-27 GO:0009523 photosystem II Updated DEFINITION A photosystem that contains a pheophytin-quinone reaction center with associated accessory pigments and electron carriers. In cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, in the presence of light, PSII functions as a water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from water to plastoquinone, whereas other photosynthetic bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis and oxidize other compounds to re-reduce the photoreaction center.
2008-04-27 GO:0048770 pigment granule Updated DEFINITION A small, subcellular membrane-bounded vesicle containing pigment and/or pigment precursor molecules. Pigment granule biogenesis is poorly understood, as pigment granules are derived from multiple sources including the endoplasmic reticulum, coated vesicles, lysosomes, and endosomes.
2008-04-27 GO:0034292 pinholin activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the temporally-regulated formation of a transmembrane protein hole that allows the passage of ions, causing a lethal, irreversible depolarization of the cell membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0034358 plasma lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A spherical particle with a hydrophobic core of triglycerides and/or cholesterol esters, surrounded by an amphipathic monolayer of phospholipids, cholesterol and apolipoproteins. Plasma lipoprotein particles transport lipids, which are non-covalently associated with the particles, in the blood or lymph.
2008-04-27 GO:0034377 plasma lipoprotein particle assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and arrangement of proteins and lipids to form a plasma lipoprotein particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034369 plasma lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a plasma lipoprotein particle, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by hepatic lipase, with the subsequent loss of free fatty acid, and the esterification of cholesterol by phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase (lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; LCAT).
2008-04-27 GO:0046173 polyol biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a polyol, any alcohol containing three or more hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
2008-04-27 GO:0045759 negative regulation of action potential Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of action potential creation, propagation or termination. An action potential is a spike of membrane depolarization and repolarization that travels along the membrane of a cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0034316 negative regulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of actin nucleation mediated by the Arp2/3 complex and interacting proteins.
2008-04-27 GO:0055118 negative regulation of cardiac muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle contraction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034351 negative regulation of glial cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of glial cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0010561 negative regulation of glycoprotein biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2008-04-27 GO:0032689 negative regulation of interferon-gamma production Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of interferon-gamma production. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0010558 negative regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.
2008-04-27 GO:0045857 negative regulation of molecular function, epigenetic Updated DEFINITION Any heritable epigenetic process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein function by self-perpetuating conformational conversions of normal proteins in healthy cells. This is distinct from, though mechanistically analogous to, disease states associated with prion propagation and amyloidogenesis. A single protein, if it carries a glutamine/asparagine-rich ('prion') domain, can sometimes stably exist in at least two distinct physical states, each associated with a different phenotype; propagation of one of these traits is achieved by a self-perpetuating change in the protein from one form to the other, mediated by conformational changes in the glutamine/asparagine-rich domain. Prion domains are both modular and transferable to other proteins, on which they can confer a heritable epigenetic alteration of function; existing bioinformatics data indicate that they are rare in non-eukarya, but common in eukarya.
2008-04-27 GO:0060212 negative regulation of nuclear-transcribed mRNA poly(A) tail shortening Updated DEFINITION Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of poly(A) tail shortening of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA. Poly(A) tail shortening is the decrease in length of the poly(A) tail of an mRNA from full length to an oligo(A) length.
2008-04-27 GO:0010563 negative regulation of phosphorus metabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphorus or compounds containing phosphorus.
2008-04-27 GO:0048086 negative regulation of developmental pigmentation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the deposition of coloring matter occurring during development.
2008-04-27 GO:0045677 negative regulation of R7 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of R7cell differentiation.
2008-04-27 GO:0045680 negative regulation of R8 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of R8 cell differentiation.
2008-04-27 GO:0045469 negative regulation of R8 cell spacing in compound eye Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops or prevents the correct R8 cell spacing pattern in a compound eye.
2008-04-27 GO:0034392 negative regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of smooth muscle cell apoptosis.
2008-04-27 GO:0008634 negative regulation of survival gene product expression Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of survival gene product expression; survival gene products are those that antagonize the apoptotic program. Regulation can be at the transcriptional, translational, or posttranslational level.
2008-04-27 GO:0034396 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to iron Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter in response to an iron stimulus.
2008-04-27 GO:0032480 negative regulation of type I interferon production Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of type I interferon production. Type I interferons include the interferon-alpha, beta, delta, episilon, zeta, kappa, tau, and omega gene families.
2008-04-27 GO:0034345 negative regulation of type III interferon production Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of type III interferon production. Type III interferons are members of the interferon-lambda gene family.
2008-04-27 GO:0060234 neuroblast delamination Added DEFINITION The negative regulation of cell adhesion process by which a neuroblast slits off of a neurectodermal sheet.
2008-04-27 GO:0007405 neuroblast proliferation Updated DEFINITION The expansion of a neuroblast population by cell division. A neuroblast is any cell that will divide and give rise to a neuron.
2008-04-27 GO:0033761 mugineic-acid 3-dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: mugineic acid + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = 3-epihydroxymugineic acid + succinate + CO2 and 2'-deoxymugineic acid + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = 3-epihydroxy-2'-deoxymugineic acid + succinate + CO2.
2008-04-27 GO:0007275 multicellular organismal development Updated DEFINITION The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a multicellular organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2008-04-27 GO:0050879 multicellular organismal movement Updated DEFINITION Physiological processes involved in changing the position of a multicellular organism or an anatomical part of a multicellular organism.
2008-04-27 GO:0032501 multicellular organismal process Updated DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of a multicellular organism, pertinent to its function.
2008-04-27 GO:0017018 myosin phosphatase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: phosphomyosin + H2O = myosin + phosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034303 myxospore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which differentiated, resting cells are formed, usually within a fruiting body by Myxobacteria. The myxospore is more resistant to high temperature, dessication, and UV than vegetative myxobacteria.
2008-04-27 GO:0050659 N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + dermatan = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + dermatan 6'-sulfate and 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + chondroitin = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + chondroitin 6'-sulfate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034356 NAD biosynthesis via nicotinamide riboside salvage pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) from the vitamin precursor nicotinamide riboside.
2008-04-27 GO:0034355 NAD salvage Added DEFINITION Any process that generates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) from derivatives of it, without de novo synthesis; salvage is usually from the degradation products nicotinic acid (Na) and nicotinamide (Nam).
2008-04-27 GO:0032047 mitosome Updated DEFINITION A double-membrane-bounded organelle that functions in iron-sulfur protein maturation; evolutionarily derived from mitochondria.
2008-04-27 GO:0034309 primary alcohol biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of monohydric alcohols, any of a class of alkyl compounds containing a single hydroxyl group.
2008-04-27 GO:0034310 primary alcohol catabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of monohydric alcohols, any of a class of compounds containing a single hydroxyl group attached to a saturated carbon atom.
2008-04-27 GO:0034308 primary alcohol metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving alcohols, any of a class of compounds containing one hydroxyl group attached to a saturated carbon atom.
2008-04-27 GO:0034296 zygospore formation Added DEFINITION The process by which zygospores are formed. Zygospores are characteristic of the zygomycete fungi (phylum Zygomycota) thick-walled and darkly colored, and usually heavily ornamented as well, with many spines or ridges. It is formed between two specialized organs called suspensors, which are themselves usually heavily ornamented, one from each mating partner. The zygospore forms between them and then breaks away.
2008-04-27 GO:0042588 zymogen granule Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded, cytoplasmic secretory granule found in enzyme-secreting cells and visible by light microscopy. Contain zymogen, an inactive enzyme precursor, often of a digestive enzyme.
2008-04-27 GO:0001767 establishment of lymphocyte polarity Updated DEFINITION The directed orientation of lymphocyte signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient or a contact point with an appropriate activating cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0001770 establishment of natural killer cell polarity Updated DEFINITION The directed orientation of natural killer cell signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient or a contact point with a cell displaying natural killer cell activating ligands.
2008-04-27 GO:0001768 establishment of T cell polarity Updated DEFINITION The directed orientation of T cell signaling molecules and associated membrane rafts towards a chemokine gradient or a contact point with antigen presenting cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0000327 lytic vacuole within protein storage vacuole Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded compartment containing crystals of phytic acid and proteins characteristic of a lytic vacuole, found within a storage vacuole.
2008-04-27 GO:0034367 macromolecular complex remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss, or modification of molecules within a complex. The remodeling process begins with an existing complex, and ends with an altered complex.
2008-04-27 GO:0048232 male gamete generation Updated DEFINITION Generation of the male gamete; specialised haploid cells produced by meiosis and along with a female gamete takes part in sexual reproduction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034359 mature chylomicron Added DEFINITION A chylomicron that contains apolipoprotein C2 (APOC2), a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and has a mean diameter of 500 nm and density of 0.95g/ml. Mature chylomicron particles transport exogenous (dietary) lipids from the intestines to other body tissues, via the blood and lymph.
2008-04-27 GO:0045121 membrane raft Updated DEFINITION Any of the small (10-200 nm), heterogeneous, highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane domains that compartmentalize cellular processes. Small rafts can sometimes be stabilized to form larger platforms through protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions.
2008-04-27 GO:0031580 membrane raft distribution Updated DEFINITION The process that establishes the spatial arrangement of membrane rafts within a cellular membrane.
2008-04-27 GO:0001765 membrane raft assembly Updated DEFINITION Formation of a membrane raft, a small (10-200 nm), heterogeneous, highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane domains that compartmentalizes cellular processes.
2008-04-27 GO:0051665 membrane raft localization Updated DEFINITION The processes by which membrane rafts are transported to, or maintained in, a specific location. Membrane rafts are small (10-200 nm), heterogeneous, highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane domains that compartmentalize cellular processes.
2008-04-27 GO:0031579 membrane raft organization Updated DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of membrane rafts, small (10-200 nm), heterogeneous, highly dynamic, sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane domains that compartmentalize cellular processes.
2008-04-27 GO:0001766 membrane raft polarization Updated DEFINITION The clustering and aggregation of membrane rafts at a single cellular pole during activation of particular cell types, such as lymphocytes.
2008-04-27 GO:0060231 mesenchymal to epithelial transition Added DEFINITION A transition where a mesenchymal cell establishes apical/basolateral polarity,forms intercellular adhesive junctions, synthesizes basement membrane components and becomes an epithelial cell.
2008-04-27 GO:0000954 methionine catabolic process to 3-methylthiopropanoate Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of amino acids to produce carboxylic acids with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When methionine is used as the substrate, 3-methylthiopropanoate is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of carboxylic acids, sometimes collectively referred to as fusel acids. Depending on the redox state of the cells, alcohol derivatives may be produced instead of carboxylic acids.
2008-04-27 GO:0000951 methionine catabolic process to 3-methylthiopropanol Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the catabolism of branched chain amino acids to produce branched chain alcohols with one carbon less than the starting amino acid. In S. cerevisiae, this is known to occur for leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, or tryptophan. When methionine is used as the substrate, 3-methylthiopropanol is produced. Often referred to as the Ehrlich pathway, these reactions generally occur during fermentation to produce a variety of alcohols, often collectively referred to as fusel alcohols. Depending on the redox state of the cells, carboxylic acid derivatives may be produced instead of alcohols.
2008-04-27 GO:0032046 micropexophagy-specific membrane apparatus Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded flattened sac that is formed during micropexophagy between the membrane tips of an engulfing vacuole, completing the engulfment and sequestration of peroxisomes from the cytosol, and forming a micropexophagic body within the lumen of the vacuole.
2008-04-27 GO:0034336 misfolded RNA binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with an RNA molecule that has assumed an incorrect conformation.
2008-04-27 GO:0060082 eye blink reflex Updated DEFINITION The reflex process by which a mechanical stimulus applied to the eye elicits a response of the eyelid closing.
2008-04-27 GO:0032457 fast endocytic recycling Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of membrane-bounded vesicles from peripheral endocytic compartments back to the plasma membrane where they are recycled for further rounds of transport.
2008-04-27 GO:0007292 female gamete generation Updated DEFINITION Generation of the female gamete; specialised haploid cells produced by meiosis and along with a male gamete takes part in sexual reproduction.
2008-04-27 GO:0033772 flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: a flavanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = a 3'-hydroxyflavanone + NADP+ + H2O and a 3'-hydroxyflavanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = a 3',5'-dihydroxyflavanone + NADP+ + H2O.
2008-04-27 GO:0001771 immunological synapse formation Updated DEFINITION The formation of an area of close contact between a lymphocyte (T-, B-, or natural killer cell) and a target cell through the clustering of particular signaling and adhesion molecules and their associated membrane rafts on both the lymphocyte and target cell, which facilitates activation of the lymphocyte, transfer of membrane from the target cell to the lymphocyte, and in some situations killing of the target cell through release of secretory granules and/or death-pathway ligand-receptor interaction.
2008-04-27 GO:0034004 germacradienol synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 2-trans,6-trans-farnesyl diphosphate + H2O = (1E,4S,5E,7R)-germacra-1(10),5-dien-11-ol + diphosphate and 2-trans,6-trans-farnesyl diphosphate = (-)-(7S)-germacrene D + diphosphate.
2008-04-27 GO:0034400 gerontoplast Added DEFINITION A plastid found in senescing, formerly green tissues that is derived from a chloroplast that undergoes an organized developmental program of senescence.
2008-04-27 GO:0034349 glial cell apoptotic process Added DEFINITION The process of apoptosis in glial cells.
2008-04-27 GO:0033804 glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + glycine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + sarcosine and S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine.
2008-04-27 GO:0020015 glycosome Updated DEFINITION A membrane-bounded organelle found in organisms from the order Kinetoplastida that houses the enzymes of glycolysis.
2008-04-27 GO:0055107 Golgi to secretory granule transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of proteins from the Golgi to a secretory granule. The secretory granule is a membrane-bounded particle, usually protein, formed in the granular endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex.
2008-04-27 GO:0003015 heart process Updated DEFINITION A circulatory system process carried out by the heart. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.
2008-04-27 GO:0034327 hexanoyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a hexanoyl (CH3-[CH2]4-CO-) group to an acceptor molecule.
2008-04-27 GO:0034364 high-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A lipoprotein particle with a high density (typically 1.063-1.21 g/ml) and a diameter of 5-10 nm that contains APOAs and may contain APOCs and APOE; found in blood and carries lipids from body tissues to the liver as part of the reverse cholesterol transport process.
2008-04-27 GO:0034380 high-density lipoprotein particle assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and arrangement of proteins and lipids to form a high-density lipoprotein particle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034384 high-density lipoprotein particle clearance Added DEFINITION The process by which a high-density lipoprotein particle is removed from the blood via receptor-mediated endocytosis and its constituent parts degraded.
2008-04-27 GO:0034375 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Added DEFINITION The acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a high-density lipoprotein particle, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by hepatic lipase, with the subsequent loss of free fatty acid, and the transfer of cholesterol esters from LDL to a triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), with the simultaneous transfer of triglyceride to LDL.
2008-04-27 GO:0034290 holin activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the temporally-regulated formation of a transmembrane protein hole that directly or indirectly allows murein hydrolyases to access their cell wall substrate.
2008-04-27 GO:0033740 hydroxylamine oxidoreductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: hydroxylamine + NH3 = hydrazine + H2O and hydrazine + acceptor = N2 + reduced acceptor.
2008-04-27 GO:0001772 immunological synapse Updated DEFINITION An area of close contact between a lymphocyte (T-, B-, or natural killer cell) and a target cell formed through the clustering of particular signaling and adhesion molecules and their associated membrane rafts on both the lymphocyte and the target cell and facilitating activation of the lymphocyte, transfer of membrane from the target cell to the lymphocyte, and in some situations killing of the target cell through release of secretory granules and/or death-pathway ligand-receptor interaction.
2008-04-27 GO:0008262 importin-alpha export receptor activity Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with importin-alpha to mediate its transfer through the nuclear pore to the cytoplasm.
2008-04-27 GO:0002771 inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor signaling pathway Updated DEFINITION A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to a inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor capable of inhibiting an immune effector process contributing to an immune response.
2008-04-27 GO:0019964 interferon-gamma binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with interferon-gamma. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0032609 interferon-gamma production Updated DEFINITION The appearance of interferon-gamma due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0004906 interferon-gamma receptor activity Updated DEFINITION Combining with interferon-gamma to initiate a change in cell activity. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
2008-04-27 GO:0002113 interleukin-33 binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with interleukin-33.
2008-04-27 GO:0002114 interleukin-33 receptor activity Added DEFINITION Combining with interleukin-33 to initiate a change in cell activity.
2008-04-27 GO:0002112 interleukin-33 receptor binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with the interleukin-33 receptor.
2008-04-27 GO:0034363 intermediate-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle that typically contains APOB100, APOE and APOCs and has a density of 1.006-1.019 g/ml and a diameter of between 25-30 nm. IDL particles are found in blood and are formed by the delipidation of very-low-density lipoprotein particles (VLDL). IDL particles are removed from blood by the liver, following binding to the APOE receptor, or are converted to low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
2008-04-27 GO:0034397 telomere localization Added DEFINITION The processes by which a telomere is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location.
2008-04-27 GO:0034398 telomere tethering at nuclear periphery Added DEFINITION The process by which a telomere is maintained in a specific location at the nuclear periphery.
2008-04-27 GO:0006125 thioredoxin pathway Added DEFINITION OBSOLETE.
2008-04-27 GO:0009579 thylakoid Updated DEFINITION A membraneous cellular structure that bears the photosynthetic pigments in photosynthetic organisms. In cyanobacteria thylakoids are of various shapes and are attached to, or continuous with, the plasma membrane. In eukaryotes they are flattened, membrane-bounded disk-like structures located in the chloroplasts; in the chloroplasts of higher plants the thylakoids form dense stacks called grana. Isolated thylakoid preparations can carry out photosynthetic electron transport and the associated phosphorylation.
2008-04-27 GO:0006099 tricarboxylic acid cycle Updated DEFINITION A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which undergoes successive transformations to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, succinate, fumarate, malate, and oxaloacetate again, thus completing the cycle. In eukaryotes the tricarboxylic acid is confined to the mitochondria. See also glyoxylate cycle.
2008-04-27 GO:0006100 tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The chemical reactions and pathways involving intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
2008-04-27 GO:0034385 triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A plasma lipoprotein particle that has a hydrophobic core enriched in triglycerides surrounded by an amphipathic monolayer of phospholipids, cholesterol and apolipoproteins. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteinparticles transport lipids, which are non-covalently associated with the particles, in the blood.
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