spacer

GO Term History: Displaying 500 audit records for all terms for the date 2007-11-27

From (YYYY-MM-DD):
To (YYYY-MM-DD):
Period:
Category:
Terms:
Limit:
Date Specification

You can specify an explicit date range that you are interested in by setting the "From" and "To" parameters; this will limit the data displayed to those changes that were recorded within that (inclusive) date range.

Alternatively, you can use the "Period" parameter to view the GO term changes that occurred over a specific number of Day(s), Week(s), Month(s) or Year(s) before a specified date.

If you do not enter a "To" date, then the period will be relative to the current date. If, however, you do specify a "To" value, then the "Period" value will display records in the timeframe up to and including that specified date.

Category

You can use this field to specify what types of term changes you are interested in seeing.

Terms

You can enter a list of GO Terms in this field to limit the changes displayed. Please note that only changes made to directly listed terms will be displayed, not term descendants.

Limit

The default number of records returned is 500, however you can increase or decrease this limit. In order to prevent possible browser problems, the maximum upper limit is 10,000.

Introduction

This page displays the differences recorded in the full Gene Ontology OBO v1.2 file as audited by the UniProt-GOA database during its daily update cycle.
If there is any delay in uploading the current OBO file, the changes displayed and the date recorded for these changes may not correspond to when the changes to the OBO file were committed.

All changes

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2007-11-27 GO:0014916 regulation of lung blood pressure Added DEFINITION The process that modulates the force with which blood travels through the lungs. The process is controlled by a balance of processes that increase pressure and decrease pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0010464 regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of mesenchymal cell proliferation. A mesenchymal cell is a cell that normally gives rise to other cells that are organized as three-dimensional masses, rather than sheets.
2007-11-27 GO:0032771 regulation of monophenol monooxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the activity of the enzyme monophenol monooxygenase. Monophenol monooxygenase catalyzes the reaction: L-tyrosine + L-DOPA + O2 = L-DOPA + DOPAquinone + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0043502 regulation of muscle adaptation Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0003011 involuntary skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within involuntary skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. Involuntary skeletal muscle is skeletal muscle that is not under conscious control.
2007-11-27 GO:0033708 isocitrate-homoisocitrate dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: isocitrate + NAD+ = 2-oxoglutarate + CO2 + NADH and (1R,2S)-1-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate + NAD+ = 2-oxoadipate + CO2 + NADH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033773 isoflavone 2'-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an isoflavone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = a 2'-hydroxyisoflavone + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014701 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane Added DEFINITION The part of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane that contains calcium release channels, is devoted to calcium release and is juxtaposed to transverse tubule membrane. The junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane consists of the junctional region of the terminal cisterna membrane.
2007-11-27 GO:0015813 L-glutamate transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of L-glutamate, the L enantiomer anion of 2-aminopentanedioic acid, into, out of, within or between cells.
2007-11-27 GO:0033736 L-lysine 6-oxidase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-lysine + O2 + H2O = 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde + H2O2 + NH3.
2007-11-27 GO:0033745 L-methionine-(R)-S-oxide reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = L-methionine (R)-S-oxide + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0033744 L-methionine:thioredoxin-disulfide S-oxidoreductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = L-methionine (S)-S-oxide + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0033788 leucoanthocyanidin reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O = 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033771 licodione synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: liquiritigenin + NADPH + H+ + O2 = licodione + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0055104 ligase inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a ligase.
2007-11-27 GO:0055103 ligase regulator activity Added DEFINITION Modulates the activity of a ligase.
2007-11-27 GO:0010461 light-activated ion channel activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transmembrane transfer of an ion by a channel that opens in response to a light stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0033751 linoleate diol synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: linoleate + O2 = (9Z,12Z)-(7S,8S)-dihydroxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate.
2007-11-27 GO:0055102 lipase inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a lipase, an enzyme that catalyzes of the hydrolysis of a lipid.
2007-11-27 GO:0055088 lipid homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of lipid within an organism or cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0055095 lipoprotein particle mediated signaling Added DEFINITION A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of lipoprotein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033777 lithocholate 6beta-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: lithocholate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 6beta-hydroxylithocholate + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014801 longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum Added DEFINITION The portion of the free sarcoplasmic reticulum consisting of longitudinal tubules that connect terminal cisternae.
2007-11-27 GO:0014803 longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen Added DEFINITION The region between the inner and outer lipid bilayers of the longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum envelope. The longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen is continuous with the lume contained within the terminal cisternae.
2007-11-27 GO:0055096 low-density lipoprotein particle mediated signaling Added DEFINITION A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of low density lipoprotein.
2007-11-27 GO:0003017 lymph circulation Added DEFINITION The flow of lymph through the body of an animal.
2007-11-27 GO:0031430 M band Updated DEFINITION The midline of aligned thick filaments in a sarcomere; location of specific proteins that link thick filaments. Depending on muscle type the M band consists of different numbers of M lines.
2007-11-27 GO:0060179 male mating behavior Added DEFINITION The specific actions or reactions of a male organism that are associated with reproduction.
2007-11-27 GO:0033722 malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 3-oxopropanoate + NAD(P)+ + H2O = malonate + NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0042003 masculinization of hermaphrodite soma Updated DEFINITION Promotion of male sex and sexual phenotypes in the hermaphroditic nematode soma.
2007-11-27 GO:0042006 masculinization of hermaphroditic germ-line Updated DEFINITION The determination of male sex and sexual phenotype in the germ-line of the hermaphrodite.
2007-11-27 GO:0010463 mesenchymal cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a mesenchymal cell population. A mesenchymal cell is a cell that normally gives rise to other cells that are organized as three-dimensional masses, rather than sheets.
2007-11-27 GO:0033738 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (ferredoxin) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate + oxidized ferredoxin = 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + reduced ferredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0003043 vasoconstriction of artery involved in aortic body chemoreceptor response to lowering of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION A process that is triggered by aortic body-vasomotor excitation and results in a decrease in the diameter of an artery during the chemoreceptor response to decreased blood pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0003042 vasoconstriction of artery involved in carotid body chemoreceptor response to lowering of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION A process that is triggered by carotid body-vasomotor excitation and results in a decrease in the diameter of an artery during the chemoreceptor response to decreased blood pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0002014 vasoconstriction of artery involved in ischemic response to lowering of systemic arterial blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The vasoconstriction that is triggered by vasomotor excitation resulting from the detection of high carbon dioxide levels in the vasomotor center of the central nervous system.
2007-11-27 GO:0014826 vein smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the vein. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The vein is a vessel carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
2007-11-27 GO:0055015 ventricular cardiac muscle cell development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an ventricular cardiac muscle cell over time, from its formation to the mature state. Cardiac muscle cells are striated muscle cells that are responsible for heart contraction. The ventricle is the part of the heart that pumps blood away from the organ.
2007-11-27 GO:0033747 versatile peroxidase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: Reactive Black 5 + H2O2 = oxidized Reactive Black 5 + 2 H2O and donor + H2O2 = oxidized donor + 2 H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0046422 violaxanthin de-epoxidase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: violaxanthin + 2 ascorbate = zeaxanthin + 2 dehydroascorbate + 2 H2O; also antheraxanthin + ascorbate = zeaxanthin + dehydroascorbate + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0003010 voluntary skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within voluntary skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. In the voluntary skeletal muscle, the muscle contraction takes advantage of an ordered sarcomeric structure and it is under voluntary control. Voluntary skeletal muscle is skeletal muscle that is under conscious control.
2007-11-27 GO:0040025 vulval development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the egg-laying organ of female and hermaphrodite nematodes over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In nematodes, the vulva is formed from ventral epidermal cells during larval stages to give rise to a fully formed vulva in the adult.
2007-11-27 GO:0022002 negative regulation of anterior neural cell fate commitment of the neural plate by Wnt signaling pathway Updated DEFINITION The series of molecular signals that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency or rate at which a cell adopts an anterior neural cell fate, initiated by binding of Wnt protein to a receptor on the surface of the target cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0009540 zeaxanthin epoxidase [overall] activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: zeaxanthin + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = antheraxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O and antheraxanthin + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = violaxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033740 hydroxylamine oxidoreductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: hydroxylamine + NH3 = hydrazine + H2O.hydrazine + acceptor = N2 + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0031674 I band Updated DEFINITION A region of a sarcomere that appears as a light band on each side of the Z disc, comprising a region of the sarcomere where thin (actin) filaments are not overlapped by thick (myosin) filaments; contains actin, troponin, and tropomyosin; each sarcomere includes half of an I band at each end.
2007-11-27 GO:0033754 indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: tryptophan + O2 = N-formylkynurenine; includes both reactions D-tryptophan + O2 = N-formyl-D-kynurenine and L-tryptophan + O2 = N-formyl-L-kynurenine.
2007-11-27 GO:0014815 initiation of skeletal muscle satellite cell activation by growth factor signalling, involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION Signalling between growth factors and their receptors that results in the activation of satellite cell, where this process is involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0060113 inner ear receptor cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby relatively unspecialized cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features of inner ear receptor cells. Inner ear receptor cells are mechanorecptors found in the inner ear responsible for transducing signals involved in balance and sensory perception of sound.
2007-11-27 GO:0014704 intercalated disc Added DEFINITION Specialised type of cell-cell junction in cardiac muscle, which mediates mechanical and electrochemical integration between the individual cardiomyocytes. Consist of three different kinds of substructures: adherens junctions, desmosomes and gap junctions.
2007-11-27 GO:0014827 intestine smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the intestine. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The intestine is the section of the alimentary canal from the stomach to the anal canal. It includes the large intestine and small intestine.
2007-11-27 GO:0042004 feminization of hermaphrodite soma Updated DEFINITION Promotion of female sex and sexual phenotypes in the hermaphroditic soma.
2007-11-27 GO:0014735 regulation of muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of muscle atrophy.
2007-11-27 GO:0055089 fatty acid homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of fatty acid within an organism or cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0060180 female mating behavior Added DEFINITION The specific actions or reactions of a female organism that are associated with reproduction.
2007-11-27 GO:0060181 female receptivity Added DEFINITION The biological process that controls the willingness or readiness of a female to receive male advances.
2007-11-27 GO:0040022 feminization of hermaphroditic germ-line Updated DEFINITION The determination of female sex and sexual phenotype in the germ-line of the hermaphrodite.
2007-11-27 GO:0022003 negative regulation of anterior neural cell fate commitment of the neural plate by fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway Updated DEFINITION The series of molecular signals that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency or rate at which cell adopts an anterior neural cell fate, generated as a consequence of a fibroblast growth factor receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.
2007-11-27 GO:0033759 flavone synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a flavanone + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = a flavone + succinate + CO2 + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033772 flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: a flavanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = a 3'-hydroxyflavanone + NADP+ + H2O.a 3'-hydroxyflavanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = a 3',5'-dihydroxyflavanone + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033723 fluoroacetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: fluoroacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = fluoroacetate + NADH + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0014702 free sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane Added DEFINITION The part of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane that contains calcium pumps and is devoted to calcium uptake. The free sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane consists of the longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane and the non-junctional region of the terminal cisterna membrane.
2007-11-27 GO:0005921 gap junction Updated DEFINITION Any specialized areas of the plasma membranes of adjacent cells where the membranes are 2-4 nm apart and penetrated by a connexon. This gap junction allows passage of small molecules and electric current. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of connexins, the family of proteins which form the junction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014831 gastro-intestinal system smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the gastro-intestinal system. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The gastro-intestinal system generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the mouth to anus, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (liver, pancreas and biliary tract).
2007-11-27 GO:0033705 GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: GDP-6-deoxy-D-mannose + NAD(P)+ = GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose + NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0010467 gene expression Added DEFINITION The process by which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Some protein processing events may be included when they are required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
2007-11-27 GO:0003094 glomerular filtration Added DEFINITION The process whereby plasma is filtered through the glomerular membrane which consists of capillary endothelial cells, the basement membrane, and epithelial cells. The glomerular filtrate is the same as plasma except it has no significant amount of protein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033717 gluconate 2-dehydrogenase (acceptor) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: D-gluconate + acceptor = 2-dehydro-D-gluconate + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033757 glucoside 3-dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: sucrose + acceptor = 3-dehydro-alpha-D-glucosyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033769 glyceollin synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2-(or 4-)dimethylallyl-(6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan + NADPH + H+ + O2 = glyceollin + NADP+ + 2 H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0055101 glycerophospholipase inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a glycerophospholipase, an enzyme that catalyzes of the hydrolysis of a glycerophospholipid.
2007-11-27 GO:0014843 growth factor dependent regulation of skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of satellite cell proliferation; dependent on specific growth factor activity such as fibroblast growth factors and transforming growth factor beta.
2007-11-27 GO:0003015 heart process Added DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of the heart. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.
2007-11-27 GO:0055097 high density lipoprotein particle mediated signaling Added DEFINITION A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of high density lipoprotein.
2007-11-27 GO:0043133 hindgut contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the hindgut. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The hindgut is the posterior part of the alimentary canal, including the rectum, and the large intestine.
2007-11-27 GO:0033746 histone demethylase activity (H3-R2 specific) Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of a methyl group from arginine at position 2 of the histone H3 protein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033749 histone demethylase activity (H4-R3 specific) Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of a methyl group from arginine at position 3 of the histone H4 protein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033169 histone H3-K9 demethylation Updated DEFINITION The modification of histone H3 by the removal of a methyl group from lysine at position 9 of the histone.
2007-11-27 GO:0003058 hormonal regulation of the force of heart contraction Added DEFINITION The process by which the hormones modulates the force of heart muscle contraction. A hormone is one of a group of substances formed in very small amounts in one specialized organ or group of cells and carried (sometimes in the bloodstream) to another organ or group of cells, in the same organism, upon which they have a specific regulatory action.
2007-11-27 GO:0033748 hydrogenase (acceptor) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: H2 + A = AH2.
2007-11-27 GO:0007462 R1/R6 cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the R1/R6 photoreceptors commit to their cell fate. R1 and R6 are paired photoreceptors which contribute the outer rhabdomeres.
2007-11-27 GO:0007463 R2/R5 cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the R2/R5 photoreceptors commit to their cell fate. R2 and R5 are paired photoreceptors which contribute the outer rhabdomeres.
2007-11-27 GO:0007464 R3/R4 cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the R3/R4 photoreceptors commit to their cell fate. R3 and R4 are paired photoreceptors which contribute the outer rhabdomeres.
2007-11-27 GO:0007465 R7 cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the R7 photoreceptor commits to its cell fate. The R7 receptor contributes the central part of the rhabdomere in the apical parts of the ommatidium.
2007-11-27 GO:0007460 R8 cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the R8 photoreceptor commits to its cell fate. The R8 receptor contributes the central part of the rhabdomere in the basal parts of the ommatidium.
2007-11-27 GO:0060176 regulation of aggregation involved in sorocarp development Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of aggregation during sorocarp development. Aggregation involved in sorocarp development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the aggregate over time, from its formation to the point when a slug is formed. Aggregate development begins in response to starvation and continues by the chemoattractant-mediated movement of cells toward each other. The aggregate is a multicellular structure that gives rise to the slug.
2007-11-27 GO:0060177 regulation of angiotensin metabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving angiotensin.
2007-11-27 GO:0002800 regulation of antifungal peptide secretion Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of antifungal peptide secretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0008217 regulation of blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The process that modulates the force with which blood travels through the circulatory system. The process is controlled by a balance of processes that increase pressure and decrease pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0014711 regulation of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development. Branchiomeric skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the branchiomeric skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
2007-11-27 GO:0010453 regulation of cell fate commitment Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell fate commitment. Cell fate commitment is the commitment of cells to specific cell fates and their capacity to differentiate into particular kinds of cells. Positional information is established through protein signals that emanate from a localized source within a cell (the initial one-cell zygote) or within a developmental field.
2007-11-27 GO:0031991 regulation of actomyosin contractile ring contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of contraction of the actomyosin ring involved in cytokinesis.
2007-11-27 GO:0003074 regulation of diuresis Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the rate of diuresis. Diuresis is the process of renal water excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0014853 regulation of excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential involved in skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process, involved in skeletal muscle contraction, that modulates the establishment or extent of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a temporay increase in postsynaptic potential due to the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell. The flow of ions that causes an EPSP is an excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) and makes it easier for the neuron to fire an action potential.
2007-11-27 GO:0060178 regulation of exocyst localization Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the localization of exocysts. An exocyst is a protein complex peripherally associated with the plasma membrane that determines where secretory vesicles dock and fuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0031454 regulation of extent of heterochromatin assembly Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the extent or location of heterochromatin formation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014725 regulation of extraocular skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of extraocular skeletal muscle development. Extraocular skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the extraocular skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The extraocular muscle is derived from cranial mesoderm and controls eye movements. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0031446 regulation of fast-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of fast-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0045924 regulation of female receptivity Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the willingness or readiness of a female to receive male advances.
2007-11-27 GO:0014915 regulation of muscle filament sliding speed involved in regulation of the velocity of shortening in skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the velocity of muscle filament sliding, and consequently contributes to the regulation of the velocity of shortening of skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0010468 regulation of gene expression Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Some protein processing events may be included when they are required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
2007-11-27 GO:0003093 regulation of glomerular filtration Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration is the processs whereby blood is filtered by the glomerulus into the renal tubule.
2007-11-27 GO:0031445 regulation of heterochromatin assembly Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, extent or location of heterochromatin formation.
2007-11-27 GO:0043134 regulation of hindgut contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of muscle contraction of the hindgut, the posterior part of the alimentary canal, including the rectum, and the large intestine.
2007-11-27 GO:0010462 regulation of light-activated voltage-gated calcium channel activity Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of light-activated voltage-gated calcium channel activity.
2007-11-27 GO:0055106 ubiquitin-protein transferase regulator activity Added DEFINITION Modulates the activity of a ubiquitin-protein ligase, an enzyme that catalyzes the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to lysine in a substrate protein.
2007-11-27 GO:0014849 ureter smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the ureter. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The ureter is one of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the kidney pelvis to the urinary bladder.
2007-11-27 GO:0014832 urinary bladder smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the urinary bladder. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The urinary bladder is a musculomembranous sac along the urinary tract.
2007-11-27 GO:0014848 urinary tract smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the urinary tract. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The urinary tract consists of organs of the body that produce and discharge urine. These include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
2007-11-27 GO:0003018 vascular process in circulatory system Added DEFINITION A circulatory process that occurs at the level of the vasculature.
2007-11-27 GO:0014829 vascular smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in the vascular tissue, whereby actin/myosin complex activity generates force through ATP hydrolysis resulting in a change in smooth muscle geometry. This process is always coupled to chemo-mechanical energy conversion.
2007-11-27 GO:0048743 positive regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of skeletal muscle fiber development. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0031451 positive regulation of slow-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of slow-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014709 positive regulation of somitomeric trunk muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of somitomeric trunk muscle development. The somitomeric trunk muscle is derived from somitomeric mesoderm. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0003084 positive regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION The process that increases the force with which blood travels through the systemic arterial circulatory system.
2007-11-27 GO:0003099 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by chemical signal Added DEFINITION Any process which increases the force of heart muscle contraction mediated by chemical signaling, hormonal, autocrine or paracrine.
2007-11-27 GO:0003088 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by circulating epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of epinephrine into the bloodstream modulates the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003089 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by circulating epinephrine-norepinephrine Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the force with which the cardiac muscles of the heart pump blood through the circulatory system as a result of the presence of epinephrine or norepinephrine in the bloodstream.
2007-11-27 GO:0003109 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by circulating norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of norepinephrine into the bloodstream modulates the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003059 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of epinephrine into the bloodstream or released from nerve endings modulates the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0001997 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by epinephrine-norepinephrine Updated DEFINITION Any process that increases the force with which the cardiac muscles of the heart pump blood through the circulatory system as a result of the presence of epinephrine or norepinephrine in the bloodstream or released from the nerve endings.
2007-11-27 GO:0003087 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by neuronal epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the release of epinephrine from nerve endings modulates the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003090 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by neuronal epinephrine-norepinephrine Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the force with which the cardiac muscles of the heart pump blood through the circulatory system as a result of the presence of epinephrine or norepinephrine released from the nerve endings.
2007-11-27 GO:0003110 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by neuronal norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the release of norepinephrine from nerve endings modulates the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003061 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of norepinephrine into the bloodstream or released from nerve endings modulates the force of heart musclecontraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014747 positive regulation of tonic skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of tonic skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0040026 positive regulation of vulval development Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of development of the vulva. Vulval development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the egg-laying organ of female and hermaphrodite nematodes over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In nematodes, the vulva is formed from ventral epidermal cells during larval stages to give rise to a fully formed vulva in the adult.
2007-11-27 GO:0003095 pressure natriuresis Added DEFINITION The process by which the volume of blood increases renal pressure and results in an increase in natriuresis and diuresis.
2007-11-27 GO:0033763 proline 3-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-proline + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = cis-3-hydroxy-L-proline + succinate + CO2.
2007-11-27 GO:0000060 protein import into nucleus, translocation Updated DEFINITION The vectorial transfer of a protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, through the nuclear pore and across the nuclear envelope.
2007-11-27 GO:0014847 proximal stomach smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the proximal stomach. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The proximal stomach, composed of the fundus and upper body, shows low frequency, sustained tonic contractions that are responsible for generating a basal pressure within the stomach.
2007-11-27 GO:0033718 pyranose dehydrogenase (acceptor) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: pyranose + acceptor = 2-dehydropyranose (or 3-dehydropyranose or 2,3-didehydropyranose) + reduced acceptor.a pyranoside + acceptor = a 3-dehydropyranoside (or 3,4-didehydropyranoside) + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033732 pyrroloquinoline-quinone synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 6-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-7,8-dioxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroquinoline-2,4-dicarboxylate + 3 O2 = 4,5-dioxo-3a,4,5,6,7,8,9,9b-octahydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-f]quinoline-2,7,9-tricarboxylate + 2 H2O2 + 2 H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014885 detection of injury involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION The series of events by which an injury stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. This occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014864 detection of muscle activity Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a muscle activity stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0014875 detection of muscle activity involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION The series of events by which a muscle activity stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. This occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014869 detection of muscle inactivity Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a muscle inactivity stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0014884 detection of muscle inactivity involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a muscle inactivity stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. This occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0003032 detection of oxygen Added DEFINITION The series of events in which an oxygen stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003036 detection of pH by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of hydrogen ions are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in an aortic body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003037 detection of pH by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of hydrogen ions are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in a carotid body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003022 detection of pH by chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of hydrogen ions are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0003038 detection of reduced oxygen by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in an aortic body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003039 detection of reduced oxygen by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in a carotid body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003020 detection of reduced oxygen by chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0014822 detection of wounding Added DEFINITION The series of events by which an injury stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0002086 diaphragm contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within involuntary skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the diaphragm. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The diaphragm is a striated muscle that is necessary for the process of respiratory gaseous exchange.
2007-11-27 GO:0014828 distal stomach smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the distal stomach. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The distal stomach is composed of the lower body and antrum and develops strong peristaltic phasic contractions that increase in amplitude as they propagate toward the pylorus.
2007-11-27 GO:0030146 diuresis Updated DEFINITION The process of renal water excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0033728 divinyl chlorophyllide a 8-vinyl-reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: chlorophyllide a + NADP+ = divinyl chlorophyllide a + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033699 DNA 5'-adenosine monophosphate hydrolase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 5'-AMP-DNA + H2O = AMP + DNA; nucleophilic release of a covalently linked adenylate residue from a DNA strand, leaving a 5' phosphate terminus.
2007-11-27 GO:0003887 DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNA(n) = diphosphate + DNA(n+1); the synthesis of DNA from deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates in the presence of a DNA template and primer.
2007-11-27 GO:0033701 dTDP-galactose 6-dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: dTDP-D-galactose + 2 NADP+ + H2O = dTDP-D-galacturonate + 2 NADPH + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0048001 erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: D-erythrose 4-phosphate + NAD+ + H2O = 4-phosphoerythronate + NADH + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0014846 esophagus smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the esophagus. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The esophagus is the muscular membranous segment between the pharynx and the stomach in the upper gastrointestinal tract.
2007-11-27 GO:0033739 preQ1 synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: queuine + 2 NADP+ = 7-cyano-7-carbaguanine + 2 NADPH + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033706 quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: L-quinate + NAD(P)+ = 3-dehydroquinate + NAD(P)H + H+.shikimate + NAD(P)+ = 3-dehydroshikimate + NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033753 establishment of ribosome localization Added DEFINITION The directed movement of the ribosome to a specific location.
2007-11-27 GO:0018693 ethylbenzene hydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ethylbenzene + H2O + acceptor = (S)-1-phenylethanol + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0003040 excitation of vasomotor center by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which the molecular signal from an aortic body is relayed to the vasomotor center, causing it to signal an increase arterial pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0003041 excitation of vasomotor center by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which the molecular signal from a carotid body is relayed to the vasomotor center, causing it to signal an increase arterial pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0010458 exit from mitosis Added DEFINITION The cell cycle process where a cell leaves M phase. M phase is the part of the mitotic cell cycle during which mitosis and cytokinesis take place.
2007-11-27 GO:0002074 extraocular skeletal muscle development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the extraocular skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The extraocular muscle is derived from cranial mesoderm and controls eye movements. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0005916 fascia adherens Updated DEFINITION An electron dense junctional complex, at the end to end contacts of cardiac muscle cells, that contains gap junctions and desmosomes. Most of the disc is formed of a convoluted fascia adherens type of junction into which the actin filaments of the terminal sarcomeres insert (or in the case of muscle cells, myofibrils), desmosomes are also present. The lateral portion of the stepped disc contains gap junctions that couple the cells electrically and thus coordinate the contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0031443 fast-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within fast-twitch skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The fast-twitch skeletal muscle is characterised by fast time parameters, high force development and fatiguability.
2007-11-27 GO:0003021 detection of increased carbon dioxide by chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of carbon dioxideare received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0014897 striated muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of an organ due to an increase in size of muscle cells without cell division. In the case of striated muscle, this happens due to the additional synthesis of sarcomeric proteins and assembly of myofibrils.
2007-11-27 GO:0033755 sulfur oxygenase/reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4 sulfur + 4 H2O + O2 = 2 hydrogen sulfide + 2 bisulfite + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033796 sulfur reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: reduction of elemental sulfur or polysulfide to hydrogen sulfide.
2007-11-27 GO:0003008 system process Added DEFINITION A biological process, occurring at the level of an organ system pertinent to the function of the organism. An organ system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of organs or tissues that work together to carry out a given biological process.
2007-11-27 GO:0045138 nematode male tail tip morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of the tail tip are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form. The tail tip undergoes morphogenesis to form a copulatory structure. The most posterior hypodermal cells in the tail define a specialized, sexually dimorphic compartment in which cells fuse and retract in the male, changing their shape from a tapered cone to a blunt dome.
2007-11-27 GO:0033780 taurochenodeoxycholate 6alpha-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: taurochenodeoxycholate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = taurohyocholate + NADP+ + H2O.lithocholate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = hyodeoxycholate + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014802 terminal cisterna Added DEFINITION The portion of sarcoplasmic reticulum devoted to calcium ion storage and calcium ion release.
2007-11-27 GO:0014804 terminal cisterna lumen Added DEFINITION The region between the inner and outer lipid bilayers of the terminal cisternae envelope. This space is enriched in calsequestrin.
2007-11-27 GO:0033798 thyroxine 5-deiodinase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 3,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine + iodide + A + H+ = L-thyroxine + AH2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033789 phenylacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: phenylacetyl-CoA + H2O + 2 quinone = phenylglyoxylyl-CoA + 2 quinol.
2007-11-27 GO:0033700 phospholipid efflux Added DEFINITION The directed movement of a phospholipid out of a cell or organelle.
2007-11-27 GO:0055091 phospholipid homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of phospholipid within an organism or cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0030965 plasma membrane electron transport, NADH to quinone Updated DEFINITION The transfer of electrons from NADH to the quinone pool that occurs during oxidative phosphorylation and results in the generation of a proton gradient, mediated by the enzyme known as NADH-quinone oxidoreductase.
2007-11-27 GO:0002802 positive regulation of antifungal peptide secretion Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of antifungal peptide secretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0002225 positive regulation of antimicrobial peptide production Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of antimicrobial peptide production.
2007-11-27 GO:0045777 positive regulation of blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The process by which the force of blood traveling through the circulatory system is increased.
2007-11-27 GO:0014712 positive regulation of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development. Branchiomeric skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the branchiomeric skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
2007-11-27 GO:0010455 positive regulation of cell fate commitment Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency or rate of cell fate commitment. Cell fate commitment is the commitment of cells to specific cell fates and their capacity to differentiate into particular kinds of cells. Positional information is established through protein signals that emanate from a localized source within a cell (the initial one-cell zygote) or within a developmental field.
2007-11-27 GO:0003103 positive regulation of diuresis Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of diuresis. Diuresis is the process of renal water excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0014917 positive regulation of diuresis by pressure natriuresis Added DEFINITION The process by which pressure natriuresis increases the rate of diuresis.
2007-11-27 GO:0033697 positive regulation of extent of heterochromatin assembly Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the extent of heterochromatin formation; increases the size of a chromosomal region converted to heterochromatin.
2007-11-27 GO:0014727 positive regulation of extraocular skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of extraocular skeletal muscle development. Extraocular skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the extraocular skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The extraocular muscle is derived from cranial mesoderm and controls eye movements. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0031448 positive regulation of fast-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of fast-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003104 positive regulation of glomerular filtration Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration is the processs whereby blood is filtered by the glomerulus into the renal tubule.
2007-11-27 GO:0010460 positive regulation of heart rate Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency or rate of heart contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003111 positive regulation of heart rate by circulating epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of epinephrine into the bloodstream increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003114 positive regulation of heart rate by circulating norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of norepinephrine into the bloodstream increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003065 positive regulation of heart rate by epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of epinephrine into the bloodstream or released from nerve endings increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003112 positive regulation of heart rate by neuronal epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of epinephrine from nerve endings increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003113 positive regulation of heart rate by neuronal norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of norepinephrine released from nerve endings increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003066 positive regulation of heart rate by norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of norepinephrine into the bloodstream or released from nerve endings increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0031453 positive regulation of heterochromatin assembly Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of heterochromatin formation.
2007-11-27 GO:0032773 positive regulation of monophenol monooxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the activity of the enzyme monophenol oxygenase. Monophenol monooxygenase catalyzes the reaction: L-tyrosine + L-DOPA + O2 = L-DOPA + DOPAquinone + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014744 positive regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014737 positive regulation of muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle atrophy.
2007-11-27 GO:0014739 positive regulation of muscle hyperplasia Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle hyperplasia.
2007-11-27 GO:0014742 positive regulation of muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle hypertrophy.
2007-11-27 GO:0045663 positive regulation of myoblast differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of myoblast differentiation. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0003079 positive regulation of natriuresis Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of natriuresis.
2007-11-27 GO:0014918 positive regulation of natriuresis by pressure natriuresis Added DEFINITION The process whereby pressure natriuresis increases rate of natriuresis.
2007-11-27 GO:0045872 positive regulation of rhodopsin gene expression Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of rhodopsin gene expression.
2007-11-27 GO:0014718 positive regulation of satellite cell activation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of activation of satellite cell involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. The activation of satellite cell is the process that initiates satellite cell division by causing it to move from quiescence to the G1 stage of the cell cycle. The cell swells and there are a number of other small changes. The cells then start to divide. Following cell division the cells will differentiate.
2007-11-27 GO:0014858 positive regulation of skeletal muscle cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle cell proliferation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014810 positive regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction via the regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion by sarcoplasmic reticulum into cytosol. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the endoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle, specialised for the sequestration of calcium ions that are released upon receipt of a signal relayed by the T tubules from the neuromuscular junction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014911 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of smooth muscle cell migration.
2007-11-27 GO:0003055 circadian regulation of heart rate by the suprachiasmatic nucleus Added DEFINITION The processes by which the suprachiasmatic nucleus modulates heart rate at different values with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
2007-11-27 GO:0003052 circadian regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION The processes by which an organism modulates its blood pressure at different values with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
2007-11-27 GO:0003067 circadian regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by hormone Added DEFINITION The process by which hormones modulate the force with which blood passes through the circulatory system contributing to different values of blood pressure oscillating with a regularity of approximately 24 hours. A hormone is one of a group of substances formed in very small amounts in one specialized organ or group of cells and carried (sometimes in the bloodstream) to another organ or group of cells, in the same organism, upon which they have a specific regulatory action.
2007-11-27 GO:0003054 circadian regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by the suprachiasmatic nucleus Added DEFINITION The processes by which the suprachiasmatic nucleus modulates blood pressure at different values with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
2007-11-27 GO:0003013 circulatory system process Added DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of the circulatory system. The circulatory system is an organ system that moves extracellular fluids to and from tissue within a multicellular organism.
2007-11-27 GO:0033758 clavaminate synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: deoxyamidinoproclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = amidinoproclavaminate + succinate + CO2 + H2O.proclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = dihydroclavaminate + succinate + CO2 + 2 H2O.dihydroclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = clavaminate + succinate + CO2 + 2 H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033698 Rpd3L complex Added DEFINITION A histone deacetylase complex which deacetylates histones across gene coding regions. Composed of a catalytic histone deacetylase subunit, an Sds-3 family protein, a SIN3 family co-repressor, a WD repeat protein, and a zf- PHD finger (Clr6, Sds3, Pst1, Prw1, Png2 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe).
2007-11-27 GO:0014720 tonic skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within tonic skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The tonic skeletal muscle is characterised by long lasting contractile responses and high resistance to fatigue.
2007-11-27 GO:0014820 tonic smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within tonic smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. In the tonic smooth muscle, the muscle contraction occurs without an ordered sarcomeric structure. Tonic smooth muscle contraction occurs as a sustained continuous contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014883 transition between fast and slow fiber Added DEFINITION The process of conversion of fast-contracting muscle fibers to a slower character. This may involve slowing of contractile rate, slow myosin gene induction, increase in oxidative metabolic properties, altered electrophysiology and altered innervation. This process also regulates skeletal muscle adapatation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014886 transition between slow and fast fiber Added DEFINITION The process of conversion of slow-contracting muscle fibers to a faster character. This may involve increasing of contractile rate, fast myosin gene induction, increase in glycolytic metabolic properties, altered electrophysiology and altered innervation. This process also regulates skeletal muscle adapatation.
2007-11-27 GO:0055085 transmembrane transport Added DEFINITION The process whereby a solute is transported from one side of a membrane to the other. This process includes the actual movement of the solute, and any regulation and preparatory steps, such as reduction of the solute.
2007-11-27 GO:0004833 tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-tryptophan + O2 = N-formyl-L-kynurenine.
2007-11-27 GO:0003098 tubuloglomerular feedback Added DEFINITION The process by which blood volume is regulated due to a change in the rate of glomerular filtration. This is accomplished by a feedback mechanism that senses changes in the juxtaglomerular apparatus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014721 twitch skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within twitch skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The twitch skeletal muscle responds to neurostimulations with a contraction followed by a relaxation.
2007-11-27 GO:0055105 ubiquitin-protein transferase inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a ubiquitin-protein ligase.
2007-11-27 GO:0014830 arteriole smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the arteriole. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The arteriole is the smallest division of the artery located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
2007-11-27 GO:0014824 artery smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the artery. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The artery is a vessel carrying blood away from the heart.
2007-11-27 GO:0033735 aspartate dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-aspartate + H2O + NAD(P)+ = oxaloacetate + NH3 + NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033793 aureusidin synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone + O2 = aureusidin + H2O.2',3,4,4',6'-pentahydroxychalcone + 1/2 O2 = aureusidin + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0008088 axon cargo transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of organelles or molecules along microtubules in nerve cell axons.
2007-11-27 GO:0014814 axon regeneration at neuromuscular junction Added DEFINITION The regrowth of axons following their loss or damage at the neuromuscular junction. Motor axons regenerate after injury and they form neuro-muscular junctions with skeletal myofibres similar to normal ones.
2007-11-27 GO:0001981 baroreceptor detection of arterial stretch Updated DEFINITION The series of events by which the change in diameter of an artery is detected and converted to a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003024 baroreceptor detection of decreased arterial stretch Added DEFINITION The series of events by which a decrease in diameter of an artery is detected and converted to a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003023 baroreceptor detection of increased arterial stretch Added DEFINITION The series of events by which an increase in diameter of an artery is detected and converted to a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003025 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by baroreceptor feedback Added DEFINITION The neural regulation of blood pressure in which baroreceptors sense the amount of stretch occurring in vessels and respond to the input via central nervous system control.
2007-11-27 GO:0001982 baroreceptor response to decreased systemic arterial blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The lowering of the number of nerve impulses from baroreceptors as a result of decreased stretch of an artery that results in an increased in sympathetic nerve impulses to peripheral blood vessels.
2007-11-27 GO:0001983 baroreceptor response to increased systemic arterial blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The increase in nerve impulses from baroreceptors as a result of increased pressure on an artery that results in an inhibition of sympathetic nerve impulses to peripheral blood vessels.
2007-11-27 GO:0033795 betaine reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl phosphate + trimethylamine + thioredoxin disulfide = N,N,N-trimethylglycine + phosphate + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0033792 bile-acid 7alpha-dehydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: deoxycholate + FAD + H2O = cholate + FADH2.lithocholate + FAD + H2O = chenodeoxycholate + FADH2.
2007-11-27 GO:0050891 multicellular organismal water homeostasis Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the osmotic activity of the fluid in a tissue, organ or a multicellular organism.
2007-11-27 GO:0014707 branchiomeric skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the branchiomeric skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The branchiomeric muscle is derived from cranial mesoderm and controls facial expression, pharyngeal and laryngeal function, operating the jaw. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle. Branchiomeric muscles of mammals correspond to the gill musculature of fish.
2007-11-27 GO:0014705 C zone Added DEFINITION A region of the A band in which myosin-binding protein C is located and that can be seen by electron microscopy. This is a functional zone that also includes myosin.
2007-11-27 GO:0014887 cardiac muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION The process by which cardiac muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors.
2007-11-27 GO:0014899 cardiac muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in the heart, in which a decrease in cell mass and then in heart size occurs due to shrinking of the individual cells. The shrinkage is caused by protein degradation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014898 cardiac muscle hypertrophy in response to stress Added DEFINITION The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of the heart due to an increase in size (not length) of individual cardiac muscle fibers, without cell division. In the case of cardiac muscle cells this happens due to regular and increasing aerobic exercise.
2007-11-27 GO:0003027 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process that modulates blood pressure by the action of chemoreceptors found in the carotid bodies and their resultant modulation of the vasomotor center. Chemoreceptors respond to oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions.
2007-11-27 GO:0010456 cell proliferation in dorsal spinal cord Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of the dorsal spinal cord cell population.
2007-11-27 GO:0033692 cellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of polysaccharides, polymers of more than 10 monosaccharide residues joined by glycosidic linkages, occurring at the level of an individual cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0003019 central nervous system control of baroreceptor feedback Added DEFINITION The neurological process by which nerve impulses arising in the aorta or the carotid sinuses travel to the medulla and reach the nucleus of tractus solaris.
2007-11-27 GO:0010457 centriole-centriole cohesion Added DEFINITION The process by which the two centrioles within a centrosome remain tightly paired.
2007-11-27 GO:0003062 regulation of heart rate by chemical signal Added DEFINITION The regulation of the rate of heart contraction mediated by chemical signaling, hormonal, autocrine or paracrine.
2007-11-27 GO:0010277 chlorophyllide a oxygenase [overall] activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: chlorophyllide a + O2 + NADPH + H+ = 7-hydroxychlorophyllide a + H2O + NADP+ and 7-hydroxychlorophyllide a + O2 + NADPH + H+ = chlorophyllide b + 2 H2O + NADP+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033781 cholesterol 24-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = (24S)-24-hydroxycholesterol + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0001567 cholesterol 25-hydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + AH2 + O2 = 25-hydroxycholesterol + A + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033713 choline:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: choline + O2 = betaine aldehyde + H2O2.
2007-11-27 GO:0051276 chromosome organization Updated DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level that results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of chromosomes, structures composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins that carries hereditary information.
2007-11-27 GO:0003053 circadian regulation of heart rate Added DEFINITION The processes by which an organism modulates its heart rate at different values with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
2007-11-27 GO:0014860 neurotransmitter secretion involved in regulation of skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION The regulated release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft involved in skeletal muscle contraction. A neurotransmitter is any of a group of substances that are released on excitation from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron of the central or peripheral nervous system and travel across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell. Among the many substances that have the properties of a neurotransmitter are acetylcholine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, glycine, y aminobutyrate, glutamic acid, substance P, enkephalins, endorphins and serotonin.
2007-11-27 GO:0055086 nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides.
2007-11-27 GO:0033716 nucleoside oxidase (hydrogen peroxide-forming) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: adenosine + 2 O2 = 9-riburonosyladenine + 2 H2O2.(1a) adenosine + O2 = 5'-dehydroadenosine + H2O2.(1b) 5'-dehydroadenosine + O2 = 9-riburonosyladenine + H2O2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033715 nucleoside oxidase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: inosine + O2 = 9-riburonosylhypoxanthine + 2 H2O.(1a) 2 inosine + O2 = 2 5'-dehydroinosine + 2 H2O.(1b) 2 5'-dehydroinosine + O2 = 2 9-riburonosylhypoxanthine + 2 H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033756 Oplophorus-luciferin 2-monooxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: Oplophorus luciferin + O2 = oxidized Oplophorus luciferin + CO2 + hnu.
2007-11-27 GO:0014703 oscillatory muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within oscillatory skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The oscillatory muscle contraction occurs in insect wing muscles and it is charactirised by asynchrony between action potential and contraction and by stretch activation.
2007-11-27 GO:0033695 oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH or CH2 groups, quinone or similar compound as acceptor Added DEFINITION Catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in which a CH2 group acts as a hydrogen or electron donor and reduces a quinone or similar acceptor molecule.
2007-11-27 GO:0033694 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-NH group of donors, iron-sulfur protein as acceptor Added DEFINITION Catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in which a CH-NH group acts as a hydrogen or electron donor and reduces an iron-sulfur protein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033743 peptide-methionine (R)-S-oxide reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = peptide-L-methionine (R)-S-oxide + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0014821 phasic smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within phasic smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. In the phasic smooth muscle, the muscle contraction occurs without an ordered sarcomeric structure. Phasic smooth muscle contraction occurs in a series of discrete contractions and relaxations.
2007-11-27 GO:0033776 phenylacetone monooxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: phenylacetone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = benzyl acetate + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0032221 Rpd3S complex Updated DEFINITION A eukaryotically conserved histone deacetylse complex which deacetylates histones preferentially in promoter regions. Composed of a catalytic histone deacetylase subunit, a chromodomain protein, a SIN3 family co-repressor, and a WD repeat protein (Clr6p, Alp13p, Pst2p, and Prw1p respectively in Schizosaccharomyces; homologs thereof in other species).
2007-11-27 GO:0000817 COMA complex Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex in yeast consisting of Ctf19p, Okp1p, Mcm1p, Ame1p. This complex bridges the subunits that are in contact with centromeric DNA and the subunits bound to microtubules during kinetochore assembly.
2007-11-27 GO:0042676 compound eye cone cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the cone cells of the compound eye, the lens-secreting cells in the ommatidia, adopt pathways of differentiation that lead to the establishment of their distinct cell type.
2007-11-27 GO:0043034 costamere Updated DEFINITION Regular periodic sub membranous arrays of vinculin in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells, these arrays link Z-discs to the sarcolemma and are associated with links to extracellular matrix.
2007-11-27 GO:0014868 cross bridge cycling involved in regulation of the velocity of shortening in skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby cross bridges are broken and reformed during filament sliding as part of the regulation of the velocity of shortening in skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014871 cross bridge formation involved in regulation of the velocity of shortening in skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION The process whereby actin and myosin interact, split ATP and generate force during skeletal muscle contraction. This process is one of the components of the regulation of the force of skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0033787 cyanocobalamin reductase (cyanide-eliminating) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cob(I)alamin + cyanide + NADP+ = cyanocob(III)alamin + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033709 D-arabinitol dehydrogenase, D-ribulose forming (NADP+) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: D-arabinitol + NADP+ = D-xylulose + NADPH + H+ and D-arabinitol + NADP+ = D-ribulose + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0045442 deacetoxycephalosporin-C hydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: deacetoxycephalosporin C + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = deacetylcephalosporin C + succinate + CO2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033775 deoxysarpagine hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 10-deoxysarpagine + NADPH + H+ + O2 = sarpagine + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0030057 desmosome Updated DEFINITION A specialised type of cell junction into which intermediate filaments of adjacent cells are inserted. This type of cell junction is characteristic of epithelia. Desmosomes are particularly conspicuous in tissues such as skin that have to withstand mechanical stress.
2007-11-27 GO:0014865 detection of activity Added DEFINITION The series of events in which an activity stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003031 detection of carbon dioxide Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a carbon dioxide stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0014879 detection of electrical stimulus involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION The series of events by which an electrical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. This occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0003030 detection of hydrogen ion Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a hydrogen ion stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003033 detection of hypoxic conditions in blood by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about a lack of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the aortic bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0003029 detection of hypoxic conditions in blood by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about a lack of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0002007 detection of hypoxic conditions in blood by chemoreceptor signaling Updated DEFINITION The process by which information about a lack of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0014863 detection of inactivity Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a inactivity stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003034 detection of increased carbon dioxide by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of carbon dioxideare received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in an aortic body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003035 detection of increased carbon dioxide by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of carbon dioxideare received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in a carotid body.
2007-11-27 GO:0002017 regulation of blood volume by renal aldosterone Updated DEFINITION The process by which the hormone aldosterone decreases the rate of diuresis and natriuresis resulting in increased blood volume.
2007-11-27 GO:0003051 angiotensin-mediated drinking behavior Added DEFINITION The drinking bevavior that is mediated by the action of angiotensin in the brain. Angiotensin stimulates the brain centers that control thirst.
2007-11-27 GO:0003083 negative regulation of renal output by angiotensin Added DEFINITION The process by which angiotensin directly decreases the rate of natriuresis and diuresis in the kidney.
2007-11-27 GO:0003082 positive regulation of renal output by angiotensin Added DEFINITION The process by which angiotensin directly increases the rate of natriuresis and diuresis in the kidney.
2007-11-27 GO:0002019 regulation of renal output by angiotensin Updated DEFINITION The process by which angiotensin directly modulates the rate of urine output by the kidney.
2007-11-27 GO:0003102 positive regulation of diuresis by angiotensin Added DEFINITION Any process mediated by angiotensin that increases the rate of diuresis.
2007-11-27 GO:0003107 positive regulation of natriuresis by angiotensin Added DEFINITION The process by which angiotensin increases the rate of natriuresis indirectly via diuresis. Natriuresis is the process of renal sodium excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0008089 anterograde axon cargo transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of organelles or molecules along microtubules from the cell body toward the cell periphery in nerve cell axons.
2007-11-27 GO:0033729 anthocyanidin reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a flavan-3-ol + 2 NAD(P)+ = an anthocyanidin + 2 NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0003026 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by aortic arch baroreceptor feedback Added DEFINITION Processes that control blood pressure by sensing the amount of stretch occurring in the aortic arch.
2007-11-27 GO:0003028 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process that modulates blood pressure by the action of chemoreceptors found in the aortic bodies and their resultant modulation of the vasomotor center. Chemoreceptors respond to oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions.
2007-11-27 GO:0014805 smooth muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION Processes by which smooth muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors. These adaptive events occur in both muscle fibers and associated structures (motoneurons and capillaries), and they involve alterations in regulatory mechanisms, contractile properties and metabolic capacities.
2007-11-27 GO:0014890 smooth muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in smooth muscle, that is characterized by a decrease in protein content, fibre diameter, force production and fatigue resistance in response to different conditions such as starvation, aging and disuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014909 smooth muscle cell migration Added DEFINITION The orderly movement of smooth muscle cells from one site to another, often during the development of a multicellular organism.
2007-11-27 GO:0006939 smooth muscle contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. Smooth muscle differs from striated muscle in the much higher actin/myosin ratio, the absence of conspicuous sarcomeres and the ability to contract to a much smaller fraction of its resting length.
2007-11-27 GO:0014726 negative regulation of extraocular skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of extraocular skeletal muscle development. Extraocular skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the extraocular skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The extraocular muscle is derived from cranial mesoderm and controls eye movements. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0031447 negative regulation of fast-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of fast-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003105 negative regulation of glomerular filtration Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration is the processs whereby blood is filtered by the glomerulus into the renal tubule.
2007-11-27 GO:0010459 negative regulation of heart rate Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency or rate of heart contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003063 negative regulation of heart rate by acetylcholine Added DEFINITION The process by which acetylcholine released from vagus nerve endings binds to muscarinic receptors on the pacemaker cells and decreases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0031452 negative regulation of heterochromatin assembly Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of heterochromatin formation.
2007-11-27 GO:0032772 negative regulation of monophenol monooxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops or reduces the activity of the enzyme monophenol monooxygenase. Monophenol monooxygenase catalyzes the reaction: L-tyrosine + L-DOPA + O2 = L-DOPA + DOPAquinone + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014745 negative regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014736 negative regulation of muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of muscle atrophy.
2007-11-27 GO:0014740 negative regulation of muscle hyperplasia Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of muscle hyperplasia.
2007-11-27 GO:0014741 negative regulation of muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of muscle hypertrophy.
2007-11-27 GO:0045662 negative regulation of myoblast differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of myoblast differentiation. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0010466 negative regulation of peptidase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that stops or reduces the rate of peptidase activity, the hydrolysis of peptide linkages within proteins.
2007-11-27 GO:0045871 negative regulation of rhodopsin gene expression Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of rhodopsin gene expression.
2007-11-27 GO:0014859 negative regulation of skeletal muscle cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle cell proliferation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014811 negative regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction via the regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion by sarcoplasmic reticulum into cytosol. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the endoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle, specialised for the sequestration of calcium ions that are released upon receipt of a signal relayed by the T tubules from the neuromuscular junction.
2007-11-27 GO:0048744 negative regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle fiber development. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0031450 negative regulation of slow-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of slow-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014912 negative regulation of smooth muscle cell migration Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of smooth muscle cell migration.
2007-11-27 GO:0014710 negative regulation of somitomeric trunk muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of somitomeric trunk muscle development. The somitomeric trunk muscle is derived from somitomeric mesoderm. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0003085 negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION The process that reduces the force with which blood travels through the systemic arterial circulatory system.
2007-11-27 GO:0003060 negative regulation of the force of heart contraction by acetylcholine Added DEFINITION The process by which acetylcholine released from vagus nerve endings binds to muscarinic receptors and decreases the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003108 negative regulation of the force of heart contraction by chemical signal Added DEFINITION Any process which decreases the force of heart muscle contraction mediated by chemical signaling, hormonal, autocrine or paracrine.
2007-11-27 GO:0014748 negative regulation of tonic skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of tonic skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0040027 negative regulation of vulval development Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of development of the vulva. Vulval development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the egg-laying organ of female and hermaphrodite nematodes over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In nematodes, the vulva is formed from ventral epidermal cells during larval stages to give rise to a fully formed vulva in the adult.
2007-11-27 GO:0045812 negative regulation of Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a receptor on the surface of the target cell where activated receptors leads to an increase in intracellular calcium and activation of protein kinase C (PKC).
2007-11-27 GO:0010465 nerve growth factor receptor activity Added DEFINITION Combining with nerve growth factor, to block apoptosis in neurons and promote nerve growth, or to initiate a change in cell activity.
2007-11-27 GO:0033693 neurofilament bundle assembly Added DEFINITION The assembly of neurofilaments into bundles, in which the filaments are longitudinally oriented, with numerous crossbridges between them. Neurofilament bundles may be cross-linked to each other, to membrane-bounded organelles or other cytoskeletal structures such as microtubules.
2007-11-27 GO:0007269 neurotransmitter secretion Updated DEFINITION The regulated release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. A neurotransmitter is any of a group of substances that are released on excitation from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron of the central or peripheral nervous system and travel across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell. Among the many substances that have the properties of a neurotransmitter are acetylcholine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, glycine, y aminobutyrate, glutamic acid, substance P, enkephalins, endorphins and serotonin.
2007-11-27 GO:0008113 peptide-methionine (S)-S-oxide reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = peptide-L-methionine (S)-S-oxide + thioredoxin and L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = L-methionine (S)-S-oxide + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0004859 phospholipase inhibitor activity Updated DEFINITION Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a phospholipase, an enzyme that catalyzes of the hydrolysis of a phospholipid.
2007-11-27 GO:0048746 smooth muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The process whose specific outcome is the progression of smooth muscle fiber over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
2007-11-27 GO:0014806 smooth muscle hyperplasia Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in smooth muscle, in which there is an increase in cell number by cell division, often leading to an increase in the size of an organ.
2007-11-27 GO:0014895 smooth muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of an organ due to an increase in size of its smooth muscle cells without cell division. Physiological hypertrophy is a normal process during development, and can also occur in mature structures on demand. In the uterus, smooth muscle cells undergo hypertrophy during pregnancy.
2007-11-27 GO:0007525 somatic muscle development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the somatic muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. This muscle is found in Nematodes.
2007-11-27 GO:0014731 spectrin-associated cytoskeleton Added DEFINITION The part of the cytoskeleton composed of spectrin, protein 4.1 and ankyrin. Spectrin-associated cytoskeleton is associated with the plasma membrane.
2007-11-27 GO:0000909 sporocarp development involved in sexual reproduction Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a fruiting body organ over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The fruiting body is a spore bearing structure. In fungi, the sporocarp (also known as fruiting body) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne. The fruiting body is part of the sexual phase of a fungal life cycle, with the rest of the life cycle being characterized by vegetative mycelial growth. The sporocarp of a basidiomycete is known as a basidiocarp, while the fruiting body of an ascomycete is known as an ascocarp. A significant range of different shapes and morphologies is found in both basidiocarps and ascocarps; these features play an important role in the identification and taxonomy of fungi.
2007-11-27 GO:0055092 sterol homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of sterol within an organism or cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0014845 stomach body smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the body of stomach. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The body of stomach is the part of the stomach that lies between the fundus above and the pyloric antrum below; its boundaries are poorly defined.
2007-11-27 GO:0014825 stomach fundus smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the fundus of stomach. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The fundus is the portion of the stomach that lies above the cardiac notch.
2007-11-27 GO:0014888 striated muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION Processes by which striated muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors. These adaptive events occur in both muscle fibers and associated structures (motoneurons and capillaries), and they involve alterations in regulatory mechanisms, contractile properties and metabolic capacities.
2007-11-27 GO:0014891 striated muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in striated muscle, that is characterized by a decrease in protein content, fiber diameter, force production and fatigue resistance in response to different conditions such as starvation, aging and disuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014855 striated muscle cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of striated muscle cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of a cell population. Striated muscles contain fibers that are divided by transverse bands into striations, and cardiac and skeletal muscle are types of striated muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0006941 striated muscle contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within striated muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. Striated muscle is a type of muscle in which the repeating units (sarcomeres) of the contractile myofibrils are arranged in registry throughout the cell, resulting in transverse or oblique striations observable at the level of the light microscope.
2007-11-27 GO:0014706 striated muscle tissue development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a striated muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Striated muscle contain fibers that are divided by transverse bands into striations, and cardiac and skeletal muscle are types of striated muscle. Skeletal muscle myoblasts fuse to form myotubes and eventually multinucleated muscle fibers. The fusion of cardiac cells is very rare and can only form binucleate cells.
2007-11-27 GO:0048740 striated muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The process whose specific outcome is the amplification and progression of myoblasts (muscle precursor cells) into terminally differentiated multinucleated muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0005863 striated muscle myosin thick filament Updated DEFINITION Bipolar filaments formed of polymers of a muscle-specific myosin II isoform, found in the middle of sarcomeres in myofibrils.
2007-11-27 GO:0033730 arogenate dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-arogenate + NADP+ = L-tyrosine + NADPH + CO2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033731 arogenate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-arogenate + NAD(P)+ = L-tyrosine + NAD(P)H + CO2.
2007-11-27 GO:0014902 myotube differentiation Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myotube cell. Myotube differentiation starts with myoblast fusion and the appearance of specific cell markers (this is the cell development step). Then individual myotubes can fuse to form bigger myotubes and start to contract. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014908 myotube differentiation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myotube cell. Myotube differentiation starts with myoblast fusion and the appearance of specific cell markers (this is the cell development step). Then individual myotubes can fuse to form bigger myotubes and start to contract. This process occurs as part of the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0030147 natriuresis Updated DEFINITION The process of renal sodium excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0022001 negative regulation of anterior neural cell fate commitment of the neural plate Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency or rate at which a cell adopts an anterior neural cell fate.
2007-11-27 GO:0002801 negative regulation of antifungal peptide secretion Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of antifungal peptide secretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0045776 negative regulation of blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The process by which the force of blood traveling through the circulatory system is decreased.
2007-11-27 GO:0014713 negative regulation of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development. Branchiomeric skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the branchiomeric skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
2007-11-27 GO:0010454 negative regulation of cell fate commitment Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency or rate of cell fate commitment. Cell fate commitment is the commitment of cells to specific cell fates and their capacity to differentiate into particular kinds of cells. Positional information is established through protein signals that emanate from a localized source within a cell (the initial one-cell zygote) or within a developmental field.
2007-11-27 GO:0003077 negative regulation of diuresis Added DEFINITION Any process that reduces the rate of diuresis. Diuresis is the process of renal water excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0033696 negative regulation of extent of heterochromatin assembly Added DEFINITION Any process that reduces the extent of heterochromatin formation; reduces the size of a chromosomal region converted to heterochromatin.
2007-11-27 GO:0014716 skeletal muscle satellite stem cell asymmetric division involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION Satellite cell asymmetric division that occurs during a process in which damaged muscle tissue is being rebuilt. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0014813 skeletal muscle satellite cell commitment Added DEFINITION The process whereby the developmental fate of a cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a satellite cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0014834 skeletal muscle satellite cell maintenance involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process essential to mantain a ready source of satellite cells. It consists in the return of activated satellite cells to a quiescent state after proliferation to replenish the satellite cell pool. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0014816 skeletal muscle satellite cell differentiation Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a satellite cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0014818 skeletal muscle satellite cell fate determination Added DEFINITION The process whereby a cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a satellite cell regardless of its environment; upon determination, the cell fate cannot be reversed.
2007-11-27 GO:0014817 satellite cell fate specification Added DEFINITION The process whereby a cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a satellite cell in an environment that is neutral with respect to the developmental pathway. Upon specification, the cell fate can be reversed.
2007-11-27 GO:0014841 skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of satellite cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of the cell population. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0033714 secondary-alcohol oxidase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a secondary alcohol + O2 = a ketone + H2O2.
2007-11-27 GO:0007379 segment specification Updated DEFINITION The process whereby segments assume individual identities; exemplified in insects by the actions of the products of the homeotic genes.
2007-11-27 GO:0033797 selenate reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: selenite + H2O + acceptor = selenate + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033784 senecionine N-oxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: senecionine + NADPH + H+ + O2 = senecionine N-oxide + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014732 skeletal muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in skeletal muscle, that is characterized by a decrease in protein content, fiber diameter, force production and fatigue resistance in response to different conditions such as starvation, aging and disuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014856 skeletal muscle cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of skeletal muscle cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of a cell population.
2007-11-27 GO:0003009 skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. In the skeletal muscle, the muscle contraction takes advantage of an ordered sarcomeric structure and in most cases it is under voluntary control.
2007-11-27 GO:0007519 skeletal muscle tissue development Updated DEFINITION The developmental sequence of events leading to the formation of adult muscle that occurs in the anima. In vertebrate skeletal muscle the main events are: the fusion of myoblasts to form myotubes that increase in size by further fusion to them of myoblasts, the formation of myofibrils within their cytoplasm and the establishment of functional neuromuscular junctions with motor neurons. At this stage they can be regarded as mature muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0043503 skeletal muscle fiber adaptation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which the skeletal muscle fibers change their phenotypic profiles in response to altered functional demands and a variety of signals. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0048741 skeletal muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the skeletal muscle fiber over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0014734 skeletal muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of an organ due to an increase in size (not length) of individual muscle fibers without cell division. In the case of skeletal muscle cells this happens due to the additional synthesis of sarcomeric proteins and assembly of myofibrils.
2007-11-27 GO:0014730 skeletal muscle regeneration at neuromuscular junction Added DEFINITION The regrowth of muscle tissue to repair injured or damaged muscle fibers in the postnatal stage at the neuromuscular junction. Regeneration of neuromuscular junctions occurs in an orderly way and relies on communication between nerve and muscle. Skeletal myofibres regenerate after injury and they form neuro-muscular junctions with motor axons similar to normal ones. Regenerating myofibres develop within the basal lamina sheaths (satellite cells) of original myofibres.
2007-11-27 GO:0014866 skeletal myofibril assembly Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the skeletal myofibril over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A skeletal myofibril is a myofibril specific to skeletal muscle cells.
2007-11-27 GO:0055087 Ski complex Added DEFINITION A heterotrimeric protein complex that regulates RNA degradation by the exosome complex.
2007-11-27 GO:0031444 slow-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within slow-twitch skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The slow-twitch skeletal muscle is characterised by slow time parameters, low force development and resistance to fatigue.
2007-11-27 GO:0033702 (+)-trans-carveol dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (+)-trans-carveol + NAD+ = (+)-(S)-carvone + NADH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033734 (R)-benzylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-2-benzylsuccinyl-CoA + 2 electron-transferring flavoprotein = (E)-2-benzylidenesuccinyl-CoA + 2 reduced electron-transferring flavoprotein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033720 (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate + acceptor = 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033712 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose reductase (1,5-anhydro-D-mannitol-forming) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1,5-anhydro-D-mannitol + NADP+ = 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033737 1-pyrroline dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1-pyrroline + NAD+ + 2 H2O = 4-aminobutanoate + NADH + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033760 2'-deoxymugineic-acid 2'-dioxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2'-deoxymugineic acid + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = mugineic acid + succinate + CO2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033770 2-hydroxyisoflavanone synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: apigenin + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ + O2 = 2-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrogenistein + 2 NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033766 2-hydroxyquinoline 8-monooxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: quinolin-2-ol + NADH + H+ + O2 = quinolin-2,8-diol + NAD+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033719 2-oxo-acid reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a (2R)-hydroxy-carboxylate + acceptor = a 2-oxo-carboxylate + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033782 24-hydroxycholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (24R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,24-diol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = (24R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,7alpha,24-triol + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033783 25-hydroxycholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: cholest-5-ene-3beta,25-diol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = cholest-5-ene-3beta,7alpha,25-triol + NADP+ + H2O and cholest-5-ene-3beta,27-diol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = cholest-5-ene-3beta,7alpha,27-triol + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033707 3''-deamino-3''-oxonicotianamine reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2'-deoxymugineic acid + NAD(P)+ = 3''-deamino-3''-oxonicotianamine + NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033791 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl-CoA 24-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (25R)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oyl-CoA + H2O + acceptor = (24R,25R)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,24-tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oyl-CoA + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033704 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-steroid dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one + NADP+ = 5alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033703 3beta-hydroxy-5beta-steroid dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 3beta-hydroxy-5beta-pregnane-20-one + NADP+ = 5beta-pregnan-3,20-dione + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033767 4-hydroxyacetophenone monooxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (4-hydroxyphenyl)ethan-1-one + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033711 4-phosphoerythronate dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4-phospho-D-erythronate + NAD+ = (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate + NADH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033779 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha-diol 12alpha-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha-diol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-triol + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033778 7alpha-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one 12alpha-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 7alpha-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 7alpha,12alpha-dihydroxycholest-4-en-3-one + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0045549 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + a 12'-apo-carotenal.9-cis-violaxanthin + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + (3S,5R,6S)-5,6-epoxy-3-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-12'-apo-beta-caroten-12'-al.9'-cis-neoxanthin + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + (3S,5R,6R)-5,6-dihydroxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6-dihydro-12'-apo-beta-caroten-12'-al.
2007-11-27 GO:0010293 abscisic aldehyde oxidase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: abscisic aldehyde + H2O + O2 = abscisate + H2O2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033752 acetylacetone-cleaving enzyme activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: pentane-2,4-dione + O2 = acetate + 2-oxopropanal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003069 vasodilation by acetylcholine involved in regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION The process by which acetylcholine signaling causes vasodilation, resulting in a change in blood pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0055090 acylglycerol homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of acylglycerol within an organism or cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0033741 adenylyl-sulfate reductase (glutathione) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: AMP + sulfite + glutathione disulfide = adenylyl sulfate + 2 glutathione.
2007-11-27 GO:0055100 adiponectin binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with adiponectin, a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism.
2007-11-27 GO:0004025 alcohol dehydrogenase activity, iron-dependent Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an alcohol + NAD+ = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH + H+, requiring the presence of iron.
2007-11-27 GO:0004023 alcohol dehydrogenase activity, metal ion-independent Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an alcohol + NAD+ = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH + H+; can proceed in the absence of a metal ion.
2007-11-27 GO:0004024 alcohol dehydrogenase activity, zinc-dependent Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an alcohol + NAD+ = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH + H+ requiring the presence of zinc.
2007-11-27 GO:0033727 aldehyde dehydrogenase (FAD-independent) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an aldehyde + H2O + acceptor = a carboxylate + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033721 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an aldehyde + NADP+ + H2O = an acid + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033726 aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an aldehyde + H2O + 2 oxidized ferredoxin = an acid + 2 H+ + 2 reduced ferredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0003126 regulation of vasodilation by neuronal norepinephrine Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of increases in the diameter of blood vessels as a result of epinephrine released by nerve endings.
2007-11-27 GO:0014878 response to electrical stimulus involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an electrical stimulus. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0055099 response to high density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a high density lipoprotein stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0055093 response to hyperoxia Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating increased oxygen tension.
2007-11-27 GO:0014854 response to inactivity Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an inactivity stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014876 response to injury involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a injury. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0055094 response to lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lipoprotein stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0055098 response to low-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a low density lipoprotein stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014850 response to muscle activity Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a muscle activity stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014873 response to muscle activity involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a muscle activity stimulus. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014870 response to muscle inactivity Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an muscle inactivity stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014877 response to muscle inactivity involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a muscle inactivity stimulus. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014893 response to rest involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a rest stimulus. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014874 response to stimulus involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. This occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0008090 retrograde axon cargo transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of organelles or molecules along microtubules from the cell periphery toward the cell body in nerve cell axons.
2007-11-27 GO:0033750 ribosome localization Added DEFINITION A process by which a ribosome is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location.
2007-11-27 GO:0016529 sarcoplasmic reticulum Updated DEFINITION A fine reticular network of membrane-limited elements that pervades the sarcoplasm of a muscle fiber; continuous over large portions of the cell and with the nuclear envelope; that part of the endoplasmic reticulum specialized for calcium release, uptake and storage.
2007-11-27 GO:0033794 sarcosine reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl phosphate + methylamine + thioredoxin disulfide = N-methylglycine + phosphate + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0014719 skeletal muscle satellite cell activation Added DEFINITION A change in the morphology or behavior of a satellite cell resulting from exposure to an activating factor such as a cellular or soluble ligand. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0014901 satellite cell activation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process that initiates satellite cell division by causing it to move from quiescence to the G1 stage of the cell cycle. The cell swells and there are a number of other small changes. The cells then start to divide. Following cell division the cells will differentiate. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0014889 muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in the muscle, that is characterized by a decrease in protein content, fibre diameter, force production and fatigue resistance in response to different conditions such as starvation, aging and disuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014812 muscle cell migration Added DEFINITION The orderly movement of muscle cells from one site to another, often during the development of a multicellular organism.
2007-11-27 GO:0006936 muscle contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis.
2007-11-27 GO:0048747 muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the muscle fiber over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0030049 muscle filament sliding Updated DEFINITION The sliding of actin thin filaments and myosin thick filaments past each other in muscle contraction. This involves a process of interaction of myosin located on a thick filament with actin located on a thin filament. During this process ATP is split and forces are generated.
2007-11-27 GO:0014900 muscle hyperplasia Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in muscle, in which there is an increase in cell number by cell division, often leading to an increase in the size of an organ.
2007-11-27 GO:0014896 muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of an organ due to an increase in the size of its muscle cells. Physiological hypertrophy is a normal process during development (it stops in cardiac muscle after adolescence) and can also be brought on in response to demand. In athletes cardiac and skeletal muscles undergo hypertrophy stimulated by increasing muscle activity on exercise. Smooth muscle cells in the uterus undergo hypertrophy during pregnancy.
2007-11-27 GO:0003012 muscle system process Added DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of a muscle. Muscle tissue is composed of contractile cells or fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0005927 muscle tendon junction Updated DEFINITION Terminal anchorage site of skeletal muscle cells to tendons; a specialised type of contact between the cell and the extracellular matrix in skeletal muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0022010 central nervous system myelination Updated DEFINITION The process whereby neuronal axons and dendrites become coated with a segmented lipid-rich sheath (myelin) to enable faster and more energetically efficient conduction of electrical impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Adjacent myelin segments are separated by a non-myelinated stretch of axon called a node of Ranvier.
2007-11-27 GO:0022011 myelination in peripheral nervous system Updated DEFINITION The process whereby neuronal axons and dendrites become coated with a segmented lipid-rich sheath (myelin) to enable faster and more energetically efficient conduction of electrical impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Adjacent myelin segments are separated by a non-myelinated stretch of axon called a node of Ranvier.
2007-11-27 GO:0014835 myoblast differentiation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized satellite cell acquires specialized features of a myoblast cell. This occurs as part of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014872 myoblast division Added DEFINITION The process resulting in the physical partitioning and separation of a myoblast into daughter cells. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0048625 myoblast fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the developmental fate of a cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a myoblast cell. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014714 myoblast fate commitment in head Added DEFINITION The process, taking place in the head, whereby the developmental fate of a cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a myoblast cell. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014715 myoblast fate commitment in trunk Added DEFINITION The process taking place in the trunk whereby the developmental fate of a cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a myoblast cell. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014836 myoblast fate commitment involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby the developmental fate of a satellite cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a myoblast cell. This occurs as part of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0007518 myoblast fate determination Updated DEFINITION Process by which a cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a myoblast cell regardless of its environment; upon determination, the cell fate cannot be reversed. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014837 myoblast fate determination involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby a satellite cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a myoblast cell regardless of its environment; upon determination, the cell fate cannot be reversed. This occurs as part of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0003096 renal sodium ion transport Added DEFINITION The directed movement of sodium ions (Na+) by the kidney.
2007-11-27 GO:0003014 renal system process Added DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of the renal system. The renal system is responsible for fluid volume regulation and detoxification in an organism.
2007-11-27 GO:0003091 renal water homeostasis Added DEFINITION Renal process involved in the maintenance of internal equilibrium of water in the body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003092 renal water retention Added DEFINITION The process whereby renal water excretion is decreased.
2007-11-27 GO:0003097 renal water transport Added DEFINITION The directed movement of water (H2O) by the kidney.
2007-11-27 GO:0002016 regulation of blood volume by renin-angiotensin Updated DEFINITION The process by which the renin-angiotensin system controls the rate of fluid intake and output into the blood.
2007-11-27 GO:0003016 respiratory system process Added DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of the resiratory system. The respiratory system is an organ system responsible for respiratory gasseous exchange.
2007-11-27 GO:0014823 response to activity Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an activity stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014075 response to amine Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an amine stimulus. An amine is a compound formally derived from ammonia by replacing one, two or three hydrogen atoms by hydrocarbyl groups.
2007-11-27 GO:0043200 response to amino acid Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an amino acid stimulus. An amino acid is a carboxylic acids containing one or more amino groups.
2007-11-27 GO:0014894 response to denervation involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a denervation stimulus. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014833 skeletal muscle satellite stem cell asymmetric division Added DEFINITION The asymmetric division of a satellite cell that occurs when a satellite cell divides to produce two daughter cells, one of which is destined to differentiate and the other to be a quiescent cell that restocks the satellite cell pool. Satellite cells are quiescent adult muscle stem cells that become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0048626 myoblast fate specification Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a myoblast cell in an environment that is neutral with respect to the developmental pathway. Upon specification, the cell fate can be reversed. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014838 myoblast fate specification involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby a satellite cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a myoblast cell in an environment that is neutral with respect to the developmental pathway. Upon specification, the cell fate can be reversed. This occurs as part of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014844 myoblast proliferation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of myoblast cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of the cell population. This occurs as part of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0048627 myoblast development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the myoblast over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0045445 myoblast differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myoblast. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0007520 myoblast fusion Updated DEFINITION A process whereby non-proliferating myoblasts fuse to exisiting fibres or to myotubes to form new fibers. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014905 myoblast fusion involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION A process whereby non-proliferating myoblasts, after migrating to the site of injury, fuse into existing damaged fibers or fuse to myotubes to form new fibers, as part of the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0048628 myoblast maturation Updated DEFINITION A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a myoblast to attain its fully functional state. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014914 myoblast maturation involved in muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a myoblast cell to attain its fully functional state involved in muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014839 myoblast migration involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby a myoblast migrates along an entire fiber to the site of injury. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0051450 myoblast proliferation Updated DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of myoblasts, resulting in the rapid expansion of a myoblast cell population. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014904 myotube cell development Added DEFINITION The process aimed at the progression of a myotube cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014906 myotube cell development involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process aimed at the progression of a myotube cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell. This occurs as part of the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014722 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by calcium ion signaling Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction by changing the calcium ion signals that trigger contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014862 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by chemo-mechanical energy conversion Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction by regulating force and velocity of shortening. The force of skeletal muscle contraction is produced by acto-myosin interaction processes through formation of cross bridges. The shortening leads to reduction of length of muscle fiber and sarcomeres.
2007-11-27 GO:0014852 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by neural stimulation via neuromuscular junction Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction by variation of the pattern of stimulation by nervous system.
2007-11-27 GO:0014861 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction via regulation of action potential Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction by depolarization of muscle membrane and ionic fluxes.
2007-11-27 GO:0014723 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by modulation of calcium ion sensitivity of myofibril Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction by changing calcium ion binding affinity of the myofibril.
2007-11-27 GO:0014809 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction via the regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion by sarcoplasmic reticulum into cytosol. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the endoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle, specialised for the sequestration of calcium ions that are released upon receipt of a signal relayed by the T tubules from the neuromuscular junction.
2007-11-27 GO:0048742 regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle fiber development. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0031449 regulation of slow-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of slow-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014910 regulation of smooth muscle cell migration Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of smooth muscle cell migration.
2007-11-27 GO:0014807 regulation of somitogenesis Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of somitogenesis.
2007-11-27 GO:0014708 regulation of somitomeric trunk muscle development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the somitomeric trunk muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The somitomeric trunk muscle is derived from somitomeric mesoderm. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0003073 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION The process that modulates the force with which blood travels through the systemic arterial circulatory system. The process is controlled by a balance of processes that increase pressure and decrease pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0003068 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by acetylcholine Added DEFINITION The regulation of blood pressure mediated by acetylcholine signaling. Acetylcholine is an acetic acid ester of the organic base choline and functions as a neurotransmitter.
2007-11-27 GO:0003050 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by atrial natriuretic peptide Added DEFINITION The regulation of blood pressure mediated by the signaling molecule atrial natriuretic peptide.
2007-11-27 GO:0003049 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by capillary fluid shift Added DEFINITION The intrinsic circulatory process resulting from capillary fluid shift that modulates the force with which blood travels through the systemic arterial circulatory system. Capillary fluid shift is the movement of fluid across the capillary membrane between the blood and the interstitial fluid compartment.
2007-11-27 GO:0003101 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by circulatory epinephrine-norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which epinephrine-norepinephrine modulate the force with which blood passes through the circulatory system.
2007-11-27 GO:0001991 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by circulatory renin-angiotensin Updated DEFINITION The process by which angiotensinogen metabolites in the bloodstream modulate the force with which blood passes through the circulatory system. The process begins when renin is released and cleaves angiotensinogen.

Definition/synonyms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2007-11-27 GO:0014916 regulation of lung blood pressure Added DEFINITION The process that modulates the force with which blood travels through the lungs. The process is controlled by a balance of processes that increase pressure and decrease pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0010464 regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of mesenchymal cell proliferation. A mesenchymal cell is a cell that normally gives rise to other cells that are organized as three-dimensional masses, rather than sheets.
2007-11-27 GO:0032771 regulation of monophenol monooxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the activity of the enzyme monophenol monooxygenase. Monophenol monooxygenase catalyzes the reaction: L-tyrosine + L-DOPA + O2 = L-DOPA + DOPAquinone + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0043502 regulation of muscle adaptation Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0003011 involuntary skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within involuntary skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. Involuntary skeletal muscle is skeletal muscle that is not under conscious control.
2007-11-27 GO:0033708 isocitrate-homoisocitrate dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: isocitrate + NAD+ = 2-oxoglutarate + CO2 + NADH and (1R,2S)-1-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate + NAD+ = 2-oxoadipate + CO2 + NADH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033773 isoflavone 2'-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an isoflavone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = a 2'-hydroxyisoflavone + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014701 junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane Added DEFINITION The part of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane that contains calcium release channels, is devoted to calcium release and is juxtaposed to transverse tubule membrane. The junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane consists of the junctional region of the terminal cisterna membrane.
2007-11-27 GO:0015813 L-glutamate transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of L-glutamate, the L enantiomer anion of 2-aminopentanedioic acid, into, out of, within or between cells.
2007-11-27 GO:0033736 L-lysine 6-oxidase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-lysine + O2 + H2O = 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde + H2O2 + NH3.
2007-11-27 GO:0033745 L-methionine-(R)-S-oxide reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = L-methionine (R)-S-oxide + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0033744 L-methionine:thioredoxin-disulfide S-oxidoreductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = L-methionine (S)-S-oxide + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0033788 leucoanthocyanidin reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O = 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033771 licodione synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: liquiritigenin + NADPH + H+ + O2 = licodione + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0055104 ligase inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a ligase.
2007-11-27 GO:0055103 ligase regulator activity Added DEFINITION Modulates the activity of a ligase.
2007-11-27 GO:0010461 light-activated ion channel activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the transmembrane transfer of an ion by a channel that opens in response to a light stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0033751 linoleate diol synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: linoleate + O2 = (9Z,12Z)-(7S,8S)-dihydroxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate.
2007-11-27 GO:0055102 lipase inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a lipase, an enzyme that catalyzes of the hydrolysis of a lipid.
2007-11-27 GO:0055088 lipid homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of lipid within an organism or cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0055095 lipoprotein particle mediated signaling Added DEFINITION A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of lipoprotein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033777 lithocholate 6beta-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: lithocholate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 6beta-hydroxylithocholate + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014801 longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum Added DEFINITION The portion of the free sarcoplasmic reticulum consisting of longitudinal tubules that connect terminal cisternae.
2007-11-27 GO:0014803 longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen Added DEFINITION The region between the inner and outer lipid bilayers of the longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum envelope. The longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen is continuous with the lume contained within the terminal cisternae.
2007-11-27 GO:0055096 low-density lipoprotein particle mediated signaling Added DEFINITION A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of low density lipoprotein.
2007-11-27 GO:0003017 lymph circulation Added DEFINITION The flow of lymph through the body of an animal.
2007-11-27 GO:0031430 M band Updated DEFINITION The midline of aligned thick filaments in a sarcomere; location of specific proteins that link thick filaments. Depending on muscle type the M band consists of different numbers of M lines.
2007-11-27 GO:0060179 male mating behavior Added DEFINITION The specific actions or reactions of a male organism that are associated with reproduction.
2007-11-27 GO:0033722 malonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 3-oxopropanoate + NAD(P)+ + H2O = malonate + NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0042003 masculinization of hermaphrodite soma Updated DEFINITION Promotion of male sex and sexual phenotypes in the hermaphroditic nematode soma.
2007-11-27 GO:0042006 masculinization of hermaphroditic germ-line Updated DEFINITION The determination of male sex and sexual phenotype in the germ-line of the hermaphrodite.
2007-11-27 GO:0010463 mesenchymal cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a mesenchymal cell population. A mesenchymal cell is a cell that normally gives rise to other cells that are organized as three-dimensional masses, rather than sheets.
2007-11-27 GO:0033738 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (ferredoxin) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate + oxidized ferredoxin = 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + reduced ferredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0003043 vasoconstriction of artery involved in aortic body chemoreceptor response to lowering of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION A process that is triggered by aortic body-vasomotor excitation and results in a decrease in the diameter of an artery during the chemoreceptor response to decreased blood pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0003042 vasoconstriction of artery involved in carotid body chemoreceptor response to lowering of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION A process that is triggered by carotid body-vasomotor excitation and results in a decrease in the diameter of an artery during the chemoreceptor response to decreased blood pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0002014 vasoconstriction of artery involved in ischemic response to lowering of systemic arterial blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The vasoconstriction that is triggered by vasomotor excitation resulting from the detection of high carbon dioxide levels in the vasomotor center of the central nervous system.
2007-11-27 GO:0014826 vein smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the vein. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The vein is a vessel carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
2007-11-27 GO:0055015 ventricular cardiac muscle cell development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an ventricular cardiac muscle cell over time, from its formation to the mature state. Cardiac muscle cells are striated muscle cells that are responsible for heart contraction. The ventricle is the part of the heart that pumps blood away from the organ.
2007-11-27 GO:0033747 versatile peroxidase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: Reactive Black 5 + H2O2 = oxidized Reactive Black 5 + 2 H2O and donor + H2O2 = oxidized donor + 2 H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0046422 violaxanthin de-epoxidase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: violaxanthin + 2 ascorbate = zeaxanthin + 2 dehydroascorbate + 2 H2O; also antheraxanthin + ascorbate = zeaxanthin + dehydroascorbate + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0003010 voluntary skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within voluntary skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. In the voluntary skeletal muscle, the muscle contraction takes advantage of an ordered sarcomeric structure and it is under voluntary control. Voluntary skeletal muscle is skeletal muscle that is under conscious control.
2007-11-27 GO:0040025 vulval development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the egg-laying organ of female and hermaphrodite nematodes over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In nematodes, the vulva is formed from ventral epidermal cells during larval stages to give rise to a fully formed vulva in the adult.
2007-11-27 GO:0022002 negative regulation of anterior neural cell fate commitment of the neural plate by Wnt signaling pathway Updated DEFINITION The series of molecular signals that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency or rate at which a cell adopts an anterior neural cell fate, initiated by binding of Wnt protein to a receptor on the surface of the target cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0009540 zeaxanthin epoxidase [overall] activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: zeaxanthin + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = antheraxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O and antheraxanthin + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = violaxanthin + NAD(P)+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033740 hydroxylamine oxidoreductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: hydroxylamine + NH3 = hydrazine + H2O.hydrazine + acceptor = N2 + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0031674 I band Updated DEFINITION A region of a sarcomere that appears as a light band on each side of the Z disc, comprising a region of the sarcomere where thin (actin) filaments are not overlapped by thick (myosin) filaments; contains actin, troponin, and tropomyosin; each sarcomere includes half of an I band at each end.
2007-11-27 GO:0033754 indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: tryptophan + O2 = N-formylkynurenine; includes both reactions D-tryptophan + O2 = N-formyl-D-kynurenine and L-tryptophan + O2 = N-formyl-L-kynurenine.
2007-11-27 GO:0014815 initiation of skeletal muscle satellite cell activation by growth factor signalling, involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION Signalling between growth factors and their receptors that results in the activation of satellite cell, where this process is involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0060113 inner ear receptor cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby relatively unspecialized cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features of inner ear receptor cells. Inner ear receptor cells are mechanorecptors found in the inner ear responsible for transducing signals involved in balance and sensory perception of sound.
2007-11-27 GO:0014704 intercalated disc Added DEFINITION Specialised type of cell-cell junction in cardiac muscle, which mediates mechanical and electrochemical integration between the individual cardiomyocytes. Consist of three different kinds of substructures: adherens junctions, desmosomes and gap junctions.
2007-11-27 GO:0014827 intestine smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the intestine. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The intestine is the section of the alimentary canal from the stomach to the anal canal. It includes the large intestine and small intestine.
2007-11-27 GO:0042004 feminization of hermaphrodite soma Updated DEFINITION Promotion of female sex and sexual phenotypes in the hermaphroditic soma.
2007-11-27 GO:0014735 regulation of muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of muscle atrophy.
2007-11-27 GO:0055089 fatty acid homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of fatty acid within an organism or cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0060180 female mating behavior Added DEFINITION The specific actions or reactions of a female organism that are associated with reproduction.
2007-11-27 GO:0060181 female receptivity Added DEFINITION The biological process that controls the willingness or readiness of a female to receive male advances.
2007-11-27 GO:0040022 feminization of hermaphroditic germ-line Updated DEFINITION The determination of female sex and sexual phenotype in the germ-line of the hermaphrodite.
2007-11-27 GO:0022003 negative regulation of anterior neural cell fate commitment of the neural plate by fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway Updated DEFINITION The series of molecular signals that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency or rate at which cell adopts an anterior neural cell fate, generated as a consequence of a fibroblast growth factor receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.
2007-11-27 GO:0033759 flavone synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a flavanone + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = a flavone + succinate + CO2 + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033772 flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: a flavanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = a 3'-hydroxyflavanone + NADP+ + H2O.a 3'-hydroxyflavanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = a 3',5'-dihydroxyflavanone + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033723 fluoroacetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: fluoroacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = fluoroacetate + NADH + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0014702 free sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane Added DEFINITION The part of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane that contains calcium pumps and is devoted to calcium uptake. The free sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane consists of the longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane and the non-junctional region of the terminal cisterna membrane.
2007-11-27 GO:0005921 gap junction Updated DEFINITION Any specialized areas of the plasma membranes of adjacent cells where the membranes are 2-4 nm apart and penetrated by a connexon. This gap junction allows passage of small molecules and electric current. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of connexins, the family of proteins which form the junction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014831 gastro-intestinal system smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the gastro-intestinal system. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The gastro-intestinal system generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the mouth to anus, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (liver, pancreas and biliary tract).
2007-11-27 GO:0033705 GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: GDP-6-deoxy-D-mannose + NAD(P)+ = GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose + NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0010467 gene expression Added DEFINITION The process by which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Some protein processing events may be included when they are required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
2007-11-27 GO:0003094 glomerular filtration Added DEFINITION The process whereby plasma is filtered through the glomerular membrane which consists of capillary endothelial cells, the basement membrane, and epithelial cells. The glomerular filtrate is the same as plasma except it has no significant amount of protein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033717 gluconate 2-dehydrogenase (acceptor) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: D-gluconate + acceptor = 2-dehydro-D-gluconate + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033757 glucoside 3-dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: sucrose + acceptor = 3-dehydro-alpha-D-glucosyl-beta-D-fructofuranoside + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033769 glyceollin synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2-(or 4-)dimethylallyl-(6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan + NADPH + H+ + O2 = glyceollin + NADP+ + 2 H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0055101 glycerophospholipase inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a glycerophospholipase, an enzyme that catalyzes of the hydrolysis of a glycerophospholipid.
2007-11-27 GO:0014843 growth factor dependent regulation of skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of satellite cell proliferation; dependent on specific growth factor activity such as fibroblast growth factors and transforming growth factor beta.
2007-11-27 GO:0003015 heart process Added DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of the heart. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.
2007-11-27 GO:0055097 high density lipoprotein particle mediated signaling Added DEFINITION A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of high density lipoprotein.
2007-11-27 GO:0043133 hindgut contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the hindgut. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The hindgut is the posterior part of the alimentary canal, including the rectum, and the large intestine.
2007-11-27 GO:0033746 histone demethylase activity (H3-R2 specific) Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of a methyl group from arginine at position 2 of the histone H3 protein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033749 histone demethylase activity (H4-R3 specific) Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the removal of a methyl group from arginine at position 3 of the histone H4 protein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033169 histone H3-K9 demethylation Updated DEFINITION The modification of histone H3 by the removal of a methyl group from lysine at position 9 of the histone.
2007-11-27 GO:0003058 hormonal regulation of the force of heart contraction Added DEFINITION The process by which the hormones modulates the force of heart muscle contraction. A hormone is one of a group of substances formed in very small amounts in one specialized organ or group of cells and carried (sometimes in the bloodstream) to another organ or group of cells, in the same organism, upon which they have a specific regulatory action.
2007-11-27 GO:0033748 hydrogenase (acceptor) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: H2 + A = AH2.
2007-11-27 GO:0007462 R1/R6 cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the R1/R6 photoreceptors commit to their cell fate. R1 and R6 are paired photoreceptors which contribute the outer rhabdomeres.
2007-11-27 GO:0007463 R2/R5 cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the R2/R5 photoreceptors commit to their cell fate. R2 and R5 are paired photoreceptors which contribute the outer rhabdomeres.
2007-11-27 GO:0007464 R3/R4 cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the R3/R4 photoreceptors commit to their cell fate. R3 and R4 are paired photoreceptors which contribute the outer rhabdomeres.
2007-11-27 GO:0007465 R7 cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the R7 photoreceptor commits to its cell fate. The R7 receptor contributes the central part of the rhabdomere in the apical parts of the ommatidium.
2007-11-27 GO:0007460 R8 cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the R8 photoreceptor commits to its cell fate. The R8 receptor contributes the central part of the rhabdomere in the basal parts of the ommatidium.
2007-11-27 GO:0060176 regulation of aggregation involved in sorocarp development Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of aggregation during sorocarp development. Aggregation involved in sorocarp development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the aggregate over time, from its formation to the point when a slug is formed. Aggregate development begins in response to starvation and continues by the chemoattractant-mediated movement of cells toward each other. The aggregate is a multicellular structure that gives rise to the slug.
2007-11-27 GO:0060177 regulation of angiotensin metabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving angiotensin.
2007-11-27 GO:0002800 regulation of antifungal peptide secretion Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of antifungal peptide secretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0008217 regulation of blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The process that modulates the force with which blood travels through the circulatory system. The process is controlled by a balance of processes that increase pressure and decrease pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0014711 regulation of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development. Branchiomeric skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the branchiomeric skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
2007-11-27 GO:0010453 regulation of cell fate commitment Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell fate commitment. Cell fate commitment is the commitment of cells to specific cell fates and their capacity to differentiate into particular kinds of cells. Positional information is established through protein signals that emanate from a localized source within a cell (the initial one-cell zygote) or within a developmental field.
2007-11-27 GO:0031991 regulation of actomyosin contractile ring contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of contraction of the actomyosin ring involved in cytokinesis.
2007-11-27 GO:0003074 regulation of diuresis Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the rate of diuresis. Diuresis is the process of renal water excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0014853 regulation of excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential involved in skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process, involved in skeletal muscle contraction, that modulates the establishment or extent of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a temporay increase in postsynaptic potential due to the flow of positively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell. The flow of ions that causes an EPSP is an excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) and makes it easier for the neuron to fire an action potential.
2007-11-27 GO:0060178 regulation of exocyst localization Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the localization of exocysts. An exocyst is a protein complex peripherally associated with the plasma membrane that determines where secretory vesicles dock and fuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0031454 regulation of extent of heterochromatin assembly Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the extent or location of heterochromatin formation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014725 regulation of extraocular skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of extraocular skeletal muscle development. Extraocular skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the extraocular skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The extraocular muscle is derived from cranial mesoderm and controls eye movements. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0031446 regulation of fast-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of fast-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0045924 regulation of female receptivity Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the willingness or readiness of a female to receive male advances.
2007-11-27 GO:0014915 regulation of muscle filament sliding speed involved in regulation of the velocity of shortening in skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the velocity of muscle filament sliding, and consequently contributes to the regulation of the velocity of shortening of skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0010468 regulation of gene expression Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene's coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA (for protein-coding genes) and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Some protein processing events may be included when they are required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.
2007-11-27 GO:0003093 regulation of glomerular filtration Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration is the processs whereby blood is filtered by the glomerulus into the renal tubule.
2007-11-27 GO:0031445 regulation of heterochromatin assembly Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, extent or location of heterochromatin formation.
2007-11-27 GO:0043134 regulation of hindgut contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of muscle contraction of the hindgut, the posterior part of the alimentary canal, including the rectum, and the large intestine.
2007-11-27 GO:0010462 regulation of light-activated voltage-gated calcium channel activity Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of light-activated voltage-gated calcium channel activity.
2007-11-27 GO:0055106 ubiquitin-protein transferase regulator activity Added DEFINITION Modulates the activity of a ubiquitin-protein ligase, an enzyme that catalyzes the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to lysine in a substrate protein.
2007-11-27 GO:0014849 ureter smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the ureter. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The ureter is one of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the kidney pelvis to the urinary bladder.
2007-11-27 GO:0014832 urinary bladder smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the urinary bladder. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The urinary bladder is a musculomembranous sac along the urinary tract.
2007-11-27 GO:0014848 urinary tract smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the urinary tract. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The urinary tract consists of organs of the body that produce and discharge urine. These include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
2007-11-27 GO:0003018 vascular process in circulatory system Added DEFINITION A circulatory process that occurs at the level of the vasculature.
2007-11-27 GO:0014829 vascular smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in the vascular tissue, whereby actin/myosin complex activity generates force through ATP hydrolysis resulting in a change in smooth muscle geometry. This process is always coupled to chemo-mechanical energy conversion.
2007-11-27 GO:0048743 positive regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of skeletal muscle fiber development. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0031451 positive regulation of slow-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of slow-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014709 positive regulation of somitomeric trunk muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of somitomeric trunk muscle development. The somitomeric trunk muscle is derived from somitomeric mesoderm. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0003084 positive regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION The process that increases the force with which blood travels through the systemic arterial circulatory system.
2007-11-27 GO:0003099 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by chemical signal Added DEFINITION Any process which increases the force of heart muscle contraction mediated by chemical signaling, hormonal, autocrine or paracrine.
2007-11-27 GO:0003088 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by circulating epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of epinephrine into the bloodstream modulates the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003089 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by circulating epinephrine-norepinephrine Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the force with which the cardiac muscles of the heart pump blood through the circulatory system as a result of the presence of epinephrine or norepinephrine in the bloodstream.
2007-11-27 GO:0003109 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by circulating norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of norepinephrine into the bloodstream modulates the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003059 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of epinephrine into the bloodstream or released from nerve endings modulates the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0001997 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by epinephrine-norepinephrine Updated DEFINITION Any process that increases the force with which the cardiac muscles of the heart pump blood through the circulatory system as a result of the presence of epinephrine or norepinephrine in the bloodstream or released from the nerve endings.
2007-11-27 GO:0003087 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by neuronal epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the release of epinephrine from nerve endings modulates the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003090 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by neuronal epinephrine-norepinephrine Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the force with which the cardiac muscles of the heart pump blood through the circulatory system as a result of the presence of epinephrine or norepinephrine released from the nerve endings.
2007-11-27 GO:0003110 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by neuronal norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the release of norepinephrine from nerve endings modulates the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003061 positive regulation of the force of heart contraction by norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of norepinephrine into the bloodstream or released from nerve endings modulates the force of heart musclecontraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014747 positive regulation of tonic skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of tonic skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0040026 positive regulation of vulval development Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of development of the vulva. Vulval development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the egg-laying organ of female and hermaphrodite nematodes over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In nematodes, the vulva is formed from ventral epidermal cells during larval stages to give rise to a fully formed vulva in the adult.
2007-11-27 GO:0003095 pressure natriuresis Added DEFINITION The process by which the volume of blood increases renal pressure and results in an increase in natriuresis and diuresis.
2007-11-27 GO:0033763 proline 3-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-proline + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = cis-3-hydroxy-L-proline + succinate + CO2.
2007-11-27 GO:0000060 protein import into nucleus, translocation Updated DEFINITION The vectorial transfer of a protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, through the nuclear pore and across the nuclear envelope.
2007-11-27 GO:0014847 proximal stomach smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the proximal stomach. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The proximal stomach, composed of the fundus and upper body, shows low frequency, sustained tonic contractions that are responsible for generating a basal pressure within the stomach.
2007-11-27 GO:0033718 pyranose dehydrogenase (acceptor) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: pyranose + acceptor = 2-dehydropyranose (or 3-dehydropyranose or 2,3-didehydropyranose) + reduced acceptor.a pyranoside + acceptor = a 3-dehydropyranoside (or 3,4-didehydropyranoside) + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033732 pyrroloquinoline-quinone synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 6-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-7,8-dioxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydroquinoline-2,4-dicarboxylate + 3 O2 = 4,5-dioxo-3a,4,5,6,7,8,9,9b-octahydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-f]quinoline-2,7,9-tricarboxylate + 2 H2O2 + 2 H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014885 detection of injury involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION The series of events by which an injury stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. This occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014864 detection of muscle activity Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a muscle activity stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0014875 detection of muscle activity involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION The series of events by which a muscle activity stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. This occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014869 detection of muscle inactivity Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a muscle inactivity stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0014884 detection of muscle inactivity involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a muscle inactivity stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. This occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0003032 detection of oxygen Added DEFINITION The series of events in which an oxygen stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003036 detection of pH by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of hydrogen ions are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in an aortic body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003037 detection of pH by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of hydrogen ions are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in a carotid body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003022 detection of pH by chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of hydrogen ions are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0003038 detection of reduced oxygen by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in an aortic body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003039 detection of reduced oxygen by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in a carotid body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003020 detection of reduced oxygen by chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0014822 detection of wounding Added DEFINITION The series of events by which an injury stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0002086 diaphragm contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within involuntary skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the diaphragm. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The diaphragm is a striated muscle that is necessary for the process of respiratory gaseous exchange.
2007-11-27 GO:0014828 distal stomach smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the distal stomach. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The distal stomach is composed of the lower body and antrum and develops strong peristaltic phasic contractions that increase in amplitude as they propagate toward the pylorus.
2007-11-27 GO:0030146 diuresis Updated DEFINITION The process of renal water excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0033728 divinyl chlorophyllide a 8-vinyl-reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: chlorophyllide a + NADP+ = divinyl chlorophyllide a + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033699 DNA 5'-adenosine monophosphate hydrolase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 5'-AMP-DNA + H2O = AMP + DNA; nucleophilic release of a covalently linked adenylate residue from a DNA strand, leaving a 5' phosphate terminus.
2007-11-27 GO:0003887 DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNA(n) = diphosphate + DNA(n+1); the synthesis of DNA from deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates in the presence of a DNA template and primer.
2007-11-27 GO:0033701 dTDP-galactose 6-dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: dTDP-D-galactose + 2 NADP+ + H2O = dTDP-D-galacturonate + 2 NADPH + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0048001 erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: D-erythrose 4-phosphate + NAD+ + H2O = 4-phosphoerythronate + NADH + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0014846 esophagus smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the esophagus. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The esophagus is the muscular membranous segment between the pharynx and the stomach in the upper gastrointestinal tract.
2007-11-27 GO:0033739 preQ1 synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: queuine + 2 NADP+ = 7-cyano-7-carbaguanine + 2 NADPH + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033706 quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: L-quinate + NAD(P)+ = 3-dehydroquinate + NAD(P)H + H+.shikimate + NAD(P)+ = 3-dehydroshikimate + NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033753 establishment of ribosome localization Added DEFINITION The directed movement of the ribosome to a specific location.
2007-11-27 GO:0018693 ethylbenzene hydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ethylbenzene + H2O + acceptor = (S)-1-phenylethanol + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0003040 excitation of vasomotor center by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which the molecular signal from an aortic body is relayed to the vasomotor center, causing it to signal an increase arterial pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0003041 excitation of vasomotor center by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which the molecular signal from a carotid body is relayed to the vasomotor center, causing it to signal an increase arterial pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0010458 exit from mitosis Added DEFINITION The cell cycle process where a cell leaves M phase. M phase is the part of the mitotic cell cycle during which mitosis and cytokinesis take place.
2007-11-27 GO:0002074 extraocular skeletal muscle development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the extraocular skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The extraocular muscle is derived from cranial mesoderm and controls eye movements. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0005916 fascia adherens Updated DEFINITION An electron dense junctional complex, at the end to end contacts of cardiac muscle cells, that contains gap junctions and desmosomes. Most of the disc is formed of a convoluted fascia adherens type of junction into which the actin filaments of the terminal sarcomeres insert (or in the case of muscle cells, myofibrils), desmosomes are also present. The lateral portion of the stepped disc contains gap junctions that couple the cells electrically and thus coordinate the contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0031443 fast-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within fast-twitch skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The fast-twitch skeletal muscle is characterised by fast time parameters, high force development and fatiguability.
2007-11-27 GO:0003021 detection of increased carbon dioxide by chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of carbon dioxideare received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0014897 striated muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of an organ due to an increase in size of muscle cells without cell division. In the case of striated muscle, this happens due to the additional synthesis of sarcomeric proteins and assembly of myofibrils.
2007-11-27 GO:0033755 sulfur oxygenase/reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4 sulfur + 4 H2O + O2 = 2 hydrogen sulfide + 2 bisulfite + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033796 sulfur reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: reduction of elemental sulfur or polysulfide to hydrogen sulfide.
2007-11-27 GO:0003008 system process Added DEFINITION A biological process, occurring at the level of an organ system pertinent to the function of the organism. An organ system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of organs or tissues that work together to carry out a given biological process.
2007-11-27 GO:0045138 nematode male tail tip morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of the tail tip are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form. The tail tip undergoes morphogenesis to form a copulatory structure. The most posterior hypodermal cells in the tail define a specialized, sexually dimorphic compartment in which cells fuse and retract in the male, changing their shape from a tapered cone to a blunt dome.
2007-11-27 GO:0033780 taurochenodeoxycholate 6alpha-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: taurochenodeoxycholate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = taurohyocholate + NADP+ + H2O.lithocholate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = hyodeoxycholate + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014802 terminal cisterna Added DEFINITION The portion of sarcoplasmic reticulum devoted to calcium ion storage and calcium ion release.
2007-11-27 GO:0014804 terminal cisterna lumen Added DEFINITION The region between the inner and outer lipid bilayers of the terminal cisternae envelope. This space is enriched in calsequestrin.
2007-11-27 GO:0033798 thyroxine 5-deiodinase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 3,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine + iodide + A + H+ = L-thyroxine + AH2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033789 phenylacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: phenylacetyl-CoA + H2O + 2 quinone = phenylglyoxylyl-CoA + 2 quinol.
2007-11-27 GO:0033700 phospholipid efflux Added DEFINITION The directed movement of a phospholipid out of a cell or organelle.
2007-11-27 GO:0055091 phospholipid homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of phospholipid within an organism or cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0030965 plasma membrane electron transport, NADH to quinone Updated DEFINITION The transfer of electrons from NADH to the quinone pool that occurs during oxidative phosphorylation and results in the generation of a proton gradient, mediated by the enzyme known as NADH-quinone oxidoreductase.
2007-11-27 GO:0002802 positive regulation of antifungal peptide secretion Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of antifungal peptide secretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0002225 positive regulation of antimicrobial peptide production Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of antimicrobial peptide production.
2007-11-27 GO:0045777 positive regulation of blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The process by which the force of blood traveling through the circulatory system is increased.
2007-11-27 GO:0014712 positive regulation of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development. Branchiomeric skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the branchiomeric skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
2007-11-27 GO:0010455 positive regulation of cell fate commitment Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency or rate of cell fate commitment. Cell fate commitment is the commitment of cells to specific cell fates and their capacity to differentiate into particular kinds of cells. Positional information is established through protein signals that emanate from a localized source within a cell (the initial one-cell zygote) or within a developmental field.
2007-11-27 GO:0003103 positive regulation of diuresis Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of diuresis. Diuresis is the process of renal water excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0014917 positive regulation of diuresis by pressure natriuresis Added DEFINITION The process by which pressure natriuresis increases the rate of diuresis.
2007-11-27 GO:0033697 positive regulation of extent of heterochromatin assembly Added DEFINITION Any process that increases the extent of heterochromatin formation; increases the size of a chromosomal region converted to heterochromatin.
2007-11-27 GO:0014727 positive regulation of extraocular skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of extraocular skeletal muscle development. Extraocular skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the extraocular skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The extraocular muscle is derived from cranial mesoderm and controls eye movements. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0031448 positive regulation of fast-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of fast-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003104 positive regulation of glomerular filtration Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration is the processs whereby blood is filtered by the glomerulus into the renal tubule.
2007-11-27 GO:0010460 positive regulation of heart rate Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency or rate of heart contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003111 positive regulation of heart rate by circulating epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of epinephrine into the bloodstream increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003114 positive regulation of heart rate by circulating norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of norepinephrine into the bloodstream increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003065 positive regulation of heart rate by epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of epinephrine into the bloodstream or released from nerve endings increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003112 positive regulation of heart rate by neuronal epinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of epinephrine from nerve endings increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003113 positive regulation of heart rate by neuronal norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of norepinephrine released from nerve endings increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003066 positive regulation of heart rate by norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which the secretion of norepinephrine into the bloodstream or released from nerve endings increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0031453 positive regulation of heterochromatin assembly Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of heterochromatin formation.
2007-11-27 GO:0032773 positive regulation of monophenol monooxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the activity of the enzyme monophenol oxygenase. Monophenol monooxygenase catalyzes the reaction: L-tyrosine + L-DOPA + O2 = L-DOPA + DOPAquinone + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014744 positive regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014737 positive regulation of muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle atrophy.
2007-11-27 GO:0014739 positive regulation of muscle hyperplasia Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle hyperplasia.
2007-11-27 GO:0014742 positive regulation of muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle hypertrophy.
2007-11-27 GO:0045663 positive regulation of myoblast differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of myoblast differentiation. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0003079 positive regulation of natriuresis Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of natriuresis.
2007-11-27 GO:0014918 positive regulation of natriuresis by pressure natriuresis Added DEFINITION The process whereby pressure natriuresis increases rate of natriuresis.
2007-11-27 GO:0045872 positive regulation of rhodopsin gene expression Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of rhodopsin gene expression.
2007-11-27 GO:0014718 positive regulation of satellite cell activation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of activation of satellite cell involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. The activation of satellite cell is the process that initiates satellite cell division by causing it to move from quiescence to the G1 stage of the cell cycle. The cell swells and there are a number of other small changes. The cells then start to divide. Following cell division the cells will differentiate.
2007-11-27 GO:0014858 positive regulation of skeletal muscle cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle cell proliferation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014810 positive regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction via the regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion by sarcoplasmic reticulum into cytosol. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the endoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle, specialised for the sequestration of calcium ions that are released upon receipt of a signal relayed by the T tubules from the neuromuscular junction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014911 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration Added DEFINITION Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of smooth muscle cell migration.
2007-11-27 GO:0003055 circadian regulation of heart rate by the suprachiasmatic nucleus Added DEFINITION The processes by which the suprachiasmatic nucleus modulates heart rate at different values with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
2007-11-27 GO:0003052 circadian regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION The processes by which an organism modulates its blood pressure at different values with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
2007-11-27 GO:0003067 circadian regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by hormone Added DEFINITION The process by which hormones modulate the force with which blood passes through the circulatory system contributing to different values of blood pressure oscillating with a regularity of approximately 24 hours. A hormone is one of a group of substances formed in very small amounts in one specialized organ or group of cells and carried (sometimes in the bloodstream) to another organ or group of cells, in the same organism, upon which they have a specific regulatory action.
2007-11-27 GO:0003054 circadian regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by the suprachiasmatic nucleus Added DEFINITION The processes by which the suprachiasmatic nucleus modulates blood pressure at different values with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
2007-11-27 GO:0003013 circulatory system process Added DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of the circulatory system. The circulatory system is an organ system that moves extracellular fluids to and from tissue within a multicellular organism.
2007-11-27 GO:0033758 clavaminate synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: deoxyamidinoproclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = amidinoproclavaminate + succinate + CO2 + H2O.proclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = dihydroclavaminate + succinate + CO2 + 2 H2O.dihydroclavaminate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = clavaminate + succinate + CO2 + 2 H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033698 Rpd3L complex Added DEFINITION A histone deacetylase complex which deacetylates histones across gene coding regions. Composed of a catalytic histone deacetylase subunit, an Sds-3 family protein, a SIN3 family co-repressor, a WD repeat protein, and a zf- PHD finger (Clr6, Sds3, Pst1, Prw1, Png2 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe).
2007-11-27 GO:0014720 tonic skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within tonic skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The tonic skeletal muscle is characterised by long lasting contractile responses and high resistance to fatigue.
2007-11-27 GO:0014820 tonic smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within tonic smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. In the tonic smooth muscle, the muscle contraction occurs without an ordered sarcomeric structure. Tonic smooth muscle contraction occurs as a sustained continuous contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014883 transition between fast and slow fiber Added DEFINITION The process of conversion of fast-contracting muscle fibers to a slower character. This may involve slowing of contractile rate, slow myosin gene induction, increase in oxidative metabolic properties, altered electrophysiology and altered innervation. This process also regulates skeletal muscle adapatation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014886 transition between slow and fast fiber Added DEFINITION The process of conversion of slow-contracting muscle fibers to a faster character. This may involve increasing of contractile rate, fast myosin gene induction, increase in glycolytic metabolic properties, altered electrophysiology and altered innervation. This process also regulates skeletal muscle adapatation.
2007-11-27 GO:0055085 transmembrane transport Added DEFINITION The process whereby a solute is transported from one side of a membrane to the other. This process includes the actual movement of the solute, and any regulation and preparatory steps, such as reduction of the solute.
2007-11-27 GO:0004833 tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-tryptophan + O2 = N-formyl-L-kynurenine.
2007-11-27 GO:0003098 tubuloglomerular feedback Added DEFINITION The process by which blood volume is regulated due to a change in the rate of glomerular filtration. This is accomplished by a feedback mechanism that senses changes in the juxtaglomerular apparatus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014721 twitch skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within twitch skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The twitch skeletal muscle responds to neurostimulations with a contraction followed by a relaxation.
2007-11-27 GO:0055105 ubiquitin-protein transferase inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a ubiquitin-protein ligase.
2007-11-27 GO:0014830 arteriole smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the arteriole. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The arteriole is the smallest division of the artery located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
2007-11-27 GO:0014824 artery smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the artery. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The artery is a vessel carrying blood away from the heart.
2007-11-27 GO:0033735 aspartate dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-aspartate + H2O + NAD(P)+ = oxaloacetate + NH3 + NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033793 aureusidin synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone + O2 = aureusidin + H2O.2',3,4,4',6'-pentahydroxychalcone + 1/2 O2 = aureusidin + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0008088 axon cargo transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of organelles or molecules along microtubules in nerve cell axons.
2007-11-27 GO:0014814 axon regeneration at neuromuscular junction Added DEFINITION The regrowth of axons following their loss or damage at the neuromuscular junction. Motor axons regenerate after injury and they form neuro-muscular junctions with skeletal myofibres similar to normal ones.
2007-11-27 GO:0001981 baroreceptor detection of arterial stretch Updated DEFINITION The series of events by which the change in diameter of an artery is detected and converted to a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003024 baroreceptor detection of decreased arterial stretch Added DEFINITION The series of events by which a decrease in diameter of an artery is detected and converted to a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003023 baroreceptor detection of increased arterial stretch Added DEFINITION The series of events by which an increase in diameter of an artery is detected and converted to a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003025 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by baroreceptor feedback Added DEFINITION The neural regulation of blood pressure in which baroreceptors sense the amount of stretch occurring in vessels and respond to the input via central nervous system control.
2007-11-27 GO:0001982 baroreceptor response to decreased systemic arterial blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The lowering of the number of nerve impulses from baroreceptors as a result of decreased stretch of an artery that results in an increased in sympathetic nerve impulses to peripheral blood vessels.
2007-11-27 GO:0001983 baroreceptor response to increased systemic arterial blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The increase in nerve impulses from baroreceptors as a result of increased pressure on an artery that results in an inhibition of sympathetic nerve impulses to peripheral blood vessels.
2007-11-27 GO:0033795 betaine reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl phosphate + trimethylamine + thioredoxin disulfide = N,N,N-trimethylglycine + phosphate + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0033792 bile-acid 7alpha-dehydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: deoxycholate + FAD + H2O = cholate + FADH2.lithocholate + FAD + H2O = chenodeoxycholate + FADH2.
2007-11-27 GO:0050891 multicellular organismal water homeostasis Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the osmotic activity of the fluid in a tissue, organ or a multicellular organism.
2007-11-27 GO:0014707 branchiomeric skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the branchiomeric skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The branchiomeric muscle is derived from cranial mesoderm and controls facial expression, pharyngeal and laryngeal function, operating the jaw. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle. Branchiomeric muscles of mammals correspond to the gill musculature of fish.
2007-11-27 GO:0014705 C zone Added DEFINITION A region of the A band in which myosin-binding protein C is located and that can be seen by electron microscopy. This is a functional zone that also includes myosin.
2007-11-27 GO:0014887 cardiac muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION The process by which cardiac muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors.
2007-11-27 GO:0014899 cardiac muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in the heart, in which a decrease in cell mass and then in heart size occurs due to shrinking of the individual cells. The shrinkage is caused by protein degradation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014898 cardiac muscle hypertrophy in response to stress Added DEFINITION The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of the heart due to an increase in size (not length) of individual cardiac muscle fibers, without cell division. In the case of cardiac muscle cells this happens due to regular and increasing aerobic exercise.
2007-11-27 GO:0003027 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process that modulates blood pressure by the action of chemoreceptors found in the carotid bodies and their resultant modulation of the vasomotor center. Chemoreceptors respond to oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions.
2007-11-27 GO:0010456 cell proliferation in dorsal spinal cord Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of the dorsal spinal cord cell population.
2007-11-27 GO:0033692 cellular polysaccharide biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of polysaccharides, polymers of more than 10 monosaccharide residues joined by glycosidic linkages, occurring at the level of an individual cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0003019 central nervous system control of baroreceptor feedback Added DEFINITION The neurological process by which nerve impulses arising in the aorta or the carotid sinuses travel to the medulla and reach the nucleus of tractus solaris.
2007-11-27 GO:0010457 centriole-centriole cohesion Added DEFINITION The process by which the two centrioles within a centrosome remain tightly paired.
2007-11-27 GO:0003062 regulation of heart rate by chemical signal Added DEFINITION The regulation of the rate of heart contraction mediated by chemical signaling, hormonal, autocrine or paracrine.
2007-11-27 GO:0010277 chlorophyllide a oxygenase [overall] activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: chlorophyllide a + O2 + NADPH + H+ = 7-hydroxychlorophyllide a + H2O + NADP+ and 7-hydroxychlorophyllide a + O2 + NADPH + H+ = chlorophyllide b + 2 H2O + NADP+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033781 cholesterol 24-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = (24S)-24-hydroxycholesterol + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0001567 cholesterol 25-hydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cholesterol + AH2 + O2 = 25-hydroxycholesterol + A + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033713 choline:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: choline + O2 = betaine aldehyde + H2O2.
2007-11-27 GO:0051276 chromosome organization Updated DEFINITION A process that is carried out at the cellular level that results in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of chromosomes, structures composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins that carries hereditary information.
2007-11-27 GO:0003053 circadian regulation of heart rate Added DEFINITION The processes by which an organism modulates its heart rate at different values with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
2007-11-27 GO:0014860 neurotransmitter secretion involved in regulation of skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION The regulated release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft involved in skeletal muscle contraction. A neurotransmitter is any of a group of substances that are released on excitation from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron of the central or peripheral nervous system and travel across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell. Among the many substances that have the properties of a neurotransmitter are acetylcholine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, glycine, y aminobutyrate, glutamic acid, substance P, enkephalins, endorphins and serotonin.
2007-11-27 GO:0055086 nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides.
2007-11-27 GO:0033716 nucleoside oxidase (hydrogen peroxide-forming) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: adenosine + 2 O2 = 9-riburonosyladenine + 2 H2O2.(1a) adenosine + O2 = 5'-dehydroadenosine + H2O2.(1b) 5'-dehydroadenosine + O2 = 9-riburonosyladenine + H2O2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033715 nucleoside oxidase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: inosine + O2 = 9-riburonosylhypoxanthine + 2 H2O.(1a) 2 inosine + O2 = 2 5'-dehydroinosine + 2 H2O.(1b) 2 5'-dehydroinosine + O2 = 2 9-riburonosylhypoxanthine + 2 H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033756 Oplophorus-luciferin 2-monooxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: Oplophorus luciferin + O2 = oxidized Oplophorus luciferin + CO2 + hnu.
2007-11-27 GO:0014703 oscillatory muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within oscillatory skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The oscillatory muscle contraction occurs in insect wing muscles and it is charactirised by asynchrony between action potential and contraction and by stretch activation.
2007-11-27 GO:0033695 oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH or CH2 groups, quinone or similar compound as acceptor Added DEFINITION Catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in which a CH2 group acts as a hydrogen or electron donor and reduces a quinone or similar acceptor molecule.
2007-11-27 GO:0033694 oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-NH group of donors, iron-sulfur protein as acceptor Added DEFINITION Catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction in which a CH-NH group acts as a hydrogen or electron donor and reduces an iron-sulfur protein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033743 peptide-methionine (R)-S-oxide reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = peptide-L-methionine (R)-S-oxide + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0014821 phasic smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within phasic smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. In the phasic smooth muscle, the muscle contraction occurs without an ordered sarcomeric structure. Phasic smooth muscle contraction occurs in a series of discrete contractions and relaxations.
2007-11-27 GO:0033776 phenylacetone monooxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: phenylacetone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = benzyl acetate + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0032221 Rpd3S complex Updated DEFINITION A eukaryotically conserved histone deacetylse complex which deacetylates histones preferentially in promoter regions. Composed of a catalytic histone deacetylase subunit, a chromodomain protein, a SIN3 family co-repressor, and a WD repeat protein (Clr6p, Alp13p, Pst2p, and Prw1p respectively in Schizosaccharomyces; homologs thereof in other species).
2007-11-27 GO:0000817 COMA complex Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex in yeast consisting of Ctf19p, Okp1p, Mcm1p, Ame1p. This complex bridges the subunits that are in contact with centromeric DNA and the subunits bound to microtubules during kinetochore assembly.
2007-11-27 GO:0042676 compound eye cone cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the cone cells of the compound eye, the lens-secreting cells in the ommatidia, adopt pathways of differentiation that lead to the establishment of their distinct cell type.
2007-11-27 GO:0043034 costamere Updated DEFINITION Regular periodic sub membranous arrays of vinculin in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells, these arrays link Z-discs to the sarcolemma and are associated with links to extracellular matrix.
2007-11-27 GO:0014868 cross bridge cycling involved in regulation of the velocity of shortening in skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby cross bridges are broken and reformed during filament sliding as part of the regulation of the velocity of shortening in skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014871 cross bridge formation involved in regulation of the velocity of shortening in skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION The process whereby actin and myosin interact, split ATP and generate force during skeletal muscle contraction. This process is one of the components of the regulation of the force of skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0033787 cyanocobalamin reductase (cyanide-eliminating) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cob(I)alamin + cyanide + NADP+ = cyanocob(III)alamin + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033709 D-arabinitol dehydrogenase, D-ribulose forming (NADP+) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: D-arabinitol + NADP+ = D-xylulose + NADPH + H+ and D-arabinitol + NADP+ = D-ribulose + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0045442 deacetoxycephalosporin-C hydroxylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: deacetoxycephalosporin C + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = deacetylcephalosporin C + succinate + CO2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033775 deoxysarpagine hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 10-deoxysarpagine + NADPH + H+ + O2 = sarpagine + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0030057 desmosome Updated DEFINITION A specialised type of cell junction into which intermediate filaments of adjacent cells are inserted. This type of cell junction is characteristic of epithelia. Desmosomes are particularly conspicuous in tissues such as skin that have to withstand mechanical stress.
2007-11-27 GO:0014865 detection of activity Added DEFINITION The series of events in which an activity stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003031 detection of carbon dioxide Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a carbon dioxide stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0014879 detection of electrical stimulus involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION The series of events by which an electrical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. This occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0003030 detection of hydrogen ion Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a hydrogen ion stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003033 detection of hypoxic conditions in blood by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about a lack of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the aortic bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0003029 detection of hypoxic conditions in blood by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about a lack of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0002007 detection of hypoxic conditions in blood by chemoreceptor signaling Updated DEFINITION The process by which information about a lack of oxygen are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies.
2007-11-27 GO:0014863 detection of inactivity Added DEFINITION The series of events in which a inactivity stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003034 detection of increased carbon dioxide by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of carbon dioxideare received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in an aortic body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003035 detection of increased carbon dioxide by carotid body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process by which information about the levels of carbon dioxideare received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors in a carotid body.
2007-11-27 GO:0002017 regulation of blood volume by renal aldosterone Updated DEFINITION The process by which the hormone aldosterone decreases the rate of diuresis and natriuresis resulting in increased blood volume.
2007-11-27 GO:0003051 angiotensin-mediated drinking behavior Added DEFINITION The drinking bevavior that is mediated by the action of angiotensin in the brain. Angiotensin stimulates the brain centers that control thirst.
2007-11-27 GO:0003083 negative regulation of renal output by angiotensin Added DEFINITION The process by which angiotensin directly decreases the rate of natriuresis and diuresis in the kidney.
2007-11-27 GO:0003082 positive regulation of renal output by angiotensin Added DEFINITION The process by which angiotensin directly increases the rate of natriuresis and diuresis in the kidney.
2007-11-27 GO:0002019 regulation of renal output by angiotensin Updated DEFINITION The process by which angiotensin directly modulates the rate of urine output by the kidney.
2007-11-27 GO:0003102 positive regulation of diuresis by angiotensin Added DEFINITION Any process mediated by angiotensin that increases the rate of diuresis.
2007-11-27 GO:0003107 positive regulation of natriuresis by angiotensin Added DEFINITION The process by which angiotensin increases the rate of natriuresis indirectly via diuresis. Natriuresis is the process of renal sodium excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0008089 anterograde axon cargo transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of organelles or molecules along microtubules from the cell body toward the cell periphery in nerve cell axons.
2007-11-27 GO:0033729 anthocyanidin reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a flavan-3-ol + 2 NAD(P)+ = an anthocyanidin + 2 NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0003026 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by aortic arch baroreceptor feedback Added DEFINITION Processes that control blood pressure by sensing the amount of stretch occurring in the aortic arch.
2007-11-27 GO:0003028 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by aortic body chemoreceptor signaling Added DEFINITION The process that modulates blood pressure by the action of chemoreceptors found in the aortic bodies and their resultant modulation of the vasomotor center. Chemoreceptors respond to oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions.
2007-11-27 GO:0014805 smooth muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION Processes by which smooth muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors. These adaptive events occur in both muscle fibers and associated structures (motoneurons and capillaries), and they involve alterations in regulatory mechanisms, contractile properties and metabolic capacities.
2007-11-27 GO:0014890 smooth muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in smooth muscle, that is characterized by a decrease in protein content, fibre diameter, force production and fatigue resistance in response to different conditions such as starvation, aging and disuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014909 smooth muscle cell migration Added DEFINITION The orderly movement of smooth muscle cells from one site to another, often during the development of a multicellular organism.
2007-11-27 GO:0006939 smooth muscle contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. Smooth muscle differs from striated muscle in the much higher actin/myosin ratio, the absence of conspicuous sarcomeres and the ability to contract to a much smaller fraction of its resting length.
2007-11-27 GO:0014726 negative regulation of extraocular skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of extraocular skeletal muscle development. Extraocular skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the extraocular skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The extraocular muscle is derived from cranial mesoderm and controls eye movements. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0031447 negative regulation of fast-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of fast-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003105 negative regulation of glomerular filtration Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glomerular filtration. Glomerular filtration is the processs whereby blood is filtered by the glomerulus into the renal tubule.
2007-11-27 GO:0010459 negative regulation of heart rate Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency or rate of heart contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003063 negative regulation of heart rate by acetylcholine Added DEFINITION The process by which acetylcholine released from vagus nerve endings binds to muscarinic receptors on the pacemaker cells and decreases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0031452 negative regulation of heterochromatin assembly Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of heterochromatin formation.
2007-11-27 GO:0032772 negative regulation of monophenol monooxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops or reduces the activity of the enzyme monophenol monooxygenase. Monophenol monooxygenase catalyzes the reaction: L-tyrosine + L-DOPA + O2 = L-DOPA + DOPAquinone + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014745 negative regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014736 negative regulation of muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of muscle atrophy.
2007-11-27 GO:0014740 negative regulation of muscle hyperplasia Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of muscle hyperplasia.
2007-11-27 GO:0014741 negative regulation of muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of muscle hypertrophy.
2007-11-27 GO:0045662 negative regulation of myoblast differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of myoblast differentiation. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0010466 negative regulation of peptidase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that stops or reduces the rate of peptidase activity, the hydrolysis of peptide linkages within proteins.
2007-11-27 GO:0045871 negative regulation of rhodopsin gene expression Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of rhodopsin gene expression.
2007-11-27 GO:0014859 negative regulation of skeletal muscle cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle cell proliferation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014811 negative regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction via the regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion by sarcoplasmic reticulum into cytosol. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the endoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle, specialised for the sequestration of calcium ions that are released upon receipt of a signal relayed by the T tubules from the neuromuscular junction.
2007-11-27 GO:0048744 negative regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle fiber development. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0031450 negative regulation of slow-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of slow-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014912 negative regulation of smooth muscle cell migration Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of smooth muscle cell migration.
2007-11-27 GO:0014710 negative regulation of somitomeric trunk muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of somitomeric trunk muscle development. The somitomeric trunk muscle is derived from somitomeric mesoderm. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0003085 negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION The process that reduces the force with which blood travels through the systemic arterial circulatory system.
2007-11-27 GO:0003060 negative regulation of the force of heart contraction by acetylcholine Added DEFINITION The process by which acetylcholine released from vagus nerve endings binds to muscarinic receptors and decreases the force of heart muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0003108 negative regulation of the force of heart contraction by chemical signal Added DEFINITION Any process which decreases the force of heart muscle contraction mediated by chemical signaling, hormonal, autocrine or paracrine.
2007-11-27 GO:0014748 negative regulation of tonic skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of tonic skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0040027 negative regulation of vulval development Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of development of the vulva. Vulval development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the egg-laying organ of female and hermaphrodite nematodes over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In nematodes, the vulva is formed from ventral epidermal cells during larval stages to give rise to a fully formed vulva in the adult.
2007-11-27 GO:0045812 negative regulation of Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a receptor on the surface of the target cell where activated receptors leads to an increase in intracellular calcium and activation of protein kinase C (PKC).
2007-11-27 GO:0010465 nerve growth factor receptor activity Added DEFINITION Combining with nerve growth factor, to block apoptosis in neurons and promote nerve growth, or to initiate a change in cell activity.
2007-11-27 GO:0033693 neurofilament bundle assembly Added DEFINITION The assembly of neurofilaments into bundles, in which the filaments are longitudinally oriented, with numerous crossbridges between them. Neurofilament bundles may be cross-linked to each other, to membrane-bounded organelles or other cytoskeletal structures such as microtubules.
2007-11-27 GO:0007269 neurotransmitter secretion Updated DEFINITION The regulated release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. A neurotransmitter is any of a group of substances that are released on excitation from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron of the central or peripheral nervous system and travel across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell. Among the many substances that have the properties of a neurotransmitter are acetylcholine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, glycine, y aminobutyrate, glutamic acid, substance P, enkephalins, endorphins and serotonin.
2007-11-27 GO:0008113 peptide-methionine (S)-S-oxide reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: peptide-L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = peptide-L-methionine (S)-S-oxide + thioredoxin and L-methionine + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = L-methionine (S)-S-oxide + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0004859 phospholipase inhibitor activity Updated DEFINITION Stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a phospholipase, an enzyme that catalyzes of the hydrolysis of a phospholipid.
2007-11-27 GO:0048746 smooth muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The process whose specific outcome is the progression of smooth muscle fiber over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
2007-11-27 GO:0014806 smooth muscle hyperplasia Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in smooth muscle, in which there is an increase in cell number by cell division, often leading to an increase in the size of an organ.
2007-11-27 GO:0014895 smooth muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of an organ due to an increase in size of its smooth muscle cells without cell division. Physiological hypertrophy is a normal process during development, and can also occur in mature structures on demand. In the uterus, smooth muscle cells undergo hypertrophy during pregnancy.
2007-11-27 GO:0007525 somatic muscle development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the somatic muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. This muscle is found in Nematodes.
2007-11-27 GO:0014731 spectrin-associated cytoskeleton Added DEFINITION The part of the cytoskeleton composed of spectrin, protein 4.1 and ankyrin. Spectrin-associated cytoskeleton is associated with the plasma membrane.
2007-11-27 GO:0000909 sporocarp development involved in sexual reproduction Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a fruiting body organ over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The fruiting body is a spore bearing structure. In fungi, the sporocarp (also known as fruiting body) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne. The fruiting body is part of the sexual phase of a fungal life cycle, with the rest of the life cycle being characterized by vegetative mycelial growth. The sporocarp of a basidiomycete is known as a basidiocarp, while the fruiting body of an ascomycete is known as an ascocarp. A significant range of different shapes and morphologies is found in both basidiocarps and ascocarps; these features play an important role in the identification and taxonomy of fungi.
2007-11-27 GO:0055092 sterol homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of sterol within an organism or cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0014845 stomach body smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the body of stomach. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The body of stomach is the part of the stomach that lies between the fundus above and the pyloric antrum below; its boundaries are poorly defined.
2007-11-27 GO:0014825 stomach fundus smooth muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the fundus of stomach. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The fundus is the portion of the stomach that lies above the cardiac notch.
2007-11-27 GO:0014888 striated muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION Processes by which striated muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors. These adaptive events occur in both muscle fibers and associated structures (motoneurons and capillaries), and they involve alterations in regulatory mechanisms, contractile properties and metabolic capacities.
2007-11-27 GO:0014891 striated muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in striated muscle, that is characterized by a decrease in protein content, fiber diameter, force production and fatigue resistance in response to different conditions such as starvation, aging and disuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014855 striated muscle cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of striated muscle cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of a cell population. Striated muscles contain fibers that are divided by transverse bands into striations, and cardiac and skeletal muscle are types of striated muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0006941 striated muscle contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within striated muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. Striated muscle is a type of muscle in which the repeating units (sarcomeres) of the contractile myofibrils are arranged in registry throughout the cell, resulting in transverse or oblique striations observable at the level of the light microscope.
2007-11-27 GO:0014706 striated muscle tissue development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a striated muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Striated muscle contain fibers that are divided by transverse bands into striations, and cardiac and skeletal muscle are types of striated muscle. Skeletal muscle myoblasts fuse to form myotubes and eventually multinucleated muscle fibers. The fusion of cardiac cells is very rare and can only form binucleate cells.
2007-11-27 GO:0048740 striated muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. The process whose specific outcome is the amplification and progression of myoblasts (muscle precursor cells) into terminally differentiated multinucleated muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0005863 striated muscle myosin thick filament Updated DEFINITION Bipolar filaments formed of polymers of a muscle-specific myosin II isoform, found in the middle of sarcomeres in myofibrils.
2007-11-27 GO:0033730 arogenate dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-arogenate + NADP+ = L-tyrosine + NADPH + CO2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033731 arogenate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: L-arogenate + NAD(P)+ = L-tyrosine + NAD(P)H + CO2.
2007-11-27 GO:0014902 myotube differentiation Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myotube cell. Myotube differentiation starts with myoblast fusion and the appearance of specific cell markers (this is the cell development step). Then individual myotubes can fuse to form bigger myotubes and start to contract. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014908 myotube differentiation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myotube cell. Myotube differentiation starts with myoblast fusion and the appearance of specific cell markers (this is the cell development step). Then individual myotubes can fuse to form bigger myotubes and start to contract. This process occurs as part of the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0030147 natriuresis Updated DEFINITION The process of renal sodium excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0022001 negative regulation of anterior neural cell fate commitment of the neural plate Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency or rate at which a cell adopts an anterior neural cell fate.
2007-11-27 GO:0002801 negative regulation of antifungal peptide secretion Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of antifungal peptide secretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0045776 negative regulation of blood pressure Updated DEFINITION The process by which the force of blood traveling through the circulatory system is decreased.
2007-11-27 GO:0014713 negative regulation of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of branchiomeric skeletal muscle development. Branchiomeric skeletal muscle development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the branchiomeric skeletal muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
2007-11-27 GO:0010454 negative regulation of cell fate commitment Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency or rate of cell fate commitment. Cell fate commitment is the commitment of cells to specific cell fates and their capacity to differentiate into particular kinds of cells. Positional information is established through protein signals that emanate from a localized source within a cell (the initial one-cell zygote) or within a developmental field.
2007-11-27 GO:0003077 negative regulation of diuresis Added DEFINITION Any process that reduces the rate of diuresis. Diuresis is the process of renal water excretion.
2007-11-27 GO:0033696 negative regulation of extent of heterochromatin assembly Added DEFINITION Any process that reduces the extent of heterochromatin formation; reduces the size of a chromosomal region converted to heterochromatin.
2007-11-27 GO:0014716 skeletal muscle satellite stem cell asymmetric division involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION Satellite cell asymmetric division that occurs during a process in which damaged muscle tissue is being rebuilt. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0014813 skeletal muscle satellite cell commitment Added DEFINITION The process whereby the developmental fate of a cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a satellite cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0014834 skeletal muscle satellite cell maintenance involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process essential to mantain a ready source of satellite cells. It consists in the return of activated satellite cells to a quiescent state after proliferation to replenish the satellite cell pool. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0014816 skeletal muscle satellite cell differentiation Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a satellite cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0014818 skeletal muscle satellite cell fate determination Added DEFINITION The process whereby a cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a satellite cell regardless of its environment; upon determination, the cell fate cannot be reversed.
2007-11-27 GO:0014817 satellite cell fate specification Added DEFINITION The process whereby a cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a satellite cell in an environment that is neutral with respect to the developmental pathway. Upon specification, the cell fate can be reversed.
2007-11-27 GO:0014841 skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of satellite cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of the cell population. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0033714 secondary-alcohol oxidase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a secondary alcohol + O2 = a ketone + H2O2.
2007-11-27 GO:0007379 segment specification Updated DEFINITION The process whereby segments assume individual identities; exemplified in insects by the actions of the products of the homeotic genes.
2007-11-27 GO:0033797 selenate reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: selenite + H2O + acceptor = selenate + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033784 senecionine N-oxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: senecionine + NADPH + H+ + O2 = senecionine N-oxide + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0014732 skeletal muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in skeletal muscle, that is characterized by a decrease in protein content, fiber diameter, force production and fatigue resistance in response to different conditions such as starvation, aging and disuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014856 skeletal muscle cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of skeletal muscle cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of a cell population.
2007-11-27 GO:0003009 skeletal muscle contraction Added DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. In the skeletal muscle, the muscle contraction takes advantage of an ordered sarcomeric structure and in most cases it is under voluntary control.
2007-11-27 GO:0007519 skeletal muscle tissue development Updated DEFINITION The developmental sequence of events leading to the formation of adult muscle that occurs in the anima. In vertebrate skeletal muscle the main events are: the fusion of myoblasts to form myotubes that increase in size by further fusion to them of myoblasts, the formation of myofibrils within their cytoplasm and the establishment of functional neuromuscular junctions with motor neurons. At this stage they can be regarded as mature muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0043503 skeletal muscle fiber adaptation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which the skeletal muscle fibers change their phenotypic profiles in response to altered functional demands and a variety of signals. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0048741 skeletal muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the skeletal muscle fiber over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0014734 skeletal muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of an organ due to an increase in size (not length) of individual muscle fibers without cell division. In the case of skeletal muscle cells this happens due to the additional synthesis of sarcomeric proteins and assembly of myofibrils.
2007-11-27 GO:0014730 skeletal muscle regeneration at neuromuscular junction Added DEFINITION The regrowth of muscle tissue to repair injured or damaged muscle fibers in the postnatal stage at the neuromuscular junction. Regeneration of neuromuscular junctions occurs in an orderly way and relies on communication between nerve and muscle. Skeletal myofibres regenerate after injury and they form neuro-muscular junctions with motor axons similar to normal ones. Regenerating myofibres develop within the basal lamina sheaths (satellite cells) of original myofibres.
2007-11-27 GO:0014866 skeletal myofibril assembly Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the skeletal myofibril over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A skeletal myofibril is a myofibril specific to skeletal muscle cells.
2007-11-27 GO:0055087 Ski complex Added DEFINITION A heterotrimeric protein complex that regulates RNA degradation by the exosome complex.
2007-11-27 GO:0031444 slow-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within slow-twitch skeletal muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The slow-twitch skeletal muscle is characterised by slow time parameters, low force development and resistance to fatigue.
2007-11-27 GO:0033702 (+)-trans-carveol dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (+)-trans-carveol + NAD+ = (+)-(S)-carvone + NADH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033734 (R)-benzylsuccinyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-2-benzylsuccinyl-CoA + 2 electron-transferring flavoprotein = (E)-2-benzylidenesuccinyl-CoA + 2 reduced electron-transferring flavoprotein.
2007-11-27 GO:0033720 (S)-mandelate dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate + acceptor = 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033712 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose reductase (1,5-anhydro-D-mannitol-forming) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1,5-anhydro-D-mannitol + NADP+ = 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033737 1-pyrroline dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1-pyrroline + NAD+ + 2 H2O = 4-aminobutanoate + NADH + 2 H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033760 2'-deoxymugineic-acid 2'-dioxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2'-deoxymugineic acid + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = mugineic acid + succinate + CO2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033770 2-hydroxyisoflavanone synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: apigenin + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ + O2 = 2-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrogenistein + 2 NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033766 2-hydroxyquinoline 8-monooxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: quinolin-2-ol + NADH + H+ + O2 = quinolin-2,8-diol + NAD+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033719 2-oxo-acid reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: a (2R)-hydroxy-carboxylate + acceptor = a 2-oxo-carboxylate + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033782 24-hydroxycholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (24R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,24-diol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = (24R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,7alpha,24-triol + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033783 25-hydroxycholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: cholest-5-ene-3beta,25-diol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = cholest-5-ene-3beta,7alpha,25-triol + NADP+ + H2O and cholest-5-ene-3beta,27-diol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = cholest-5-ene-3beta,7alpha,27-triol + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033707 3''-deamino-3''-oxonicotianamine reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2'-deoxymugineic acid + NAD(P)+ = 3''-deamino-3''-oxonicotianamine + NAD(P)H + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033791 3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestanoyl-CoA 24-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (25R)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oyl-CoA + H2O + acceptor = (24R,25R)-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,24-tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestan-26-oyl-CoA + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033704 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-steroid dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one + NADP+ = 5alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033703 3beta-hydroxy-5beta-steroid dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 3beta-hydroxy-5beta-pregnane-20-one + NADP+ = 5beta-pregnan-3,20-dione + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033767 4-hydroxyacetophenone monooxygenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (4-hydroxyphenyl)ethan-1-one + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033711 4-phosphoerythronate dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 4-phospho-D-erythronate + NAD+ = (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate + NADH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033779 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha-diol 12alpha-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha-diol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-triol + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0033778 7alpha-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one 12alpha-hydroxylase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 7alpha-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 7alpha,12alpha-dihydroxycholest-4-en-3-one + NADP+ + H2O.
2007-11-27 GO:0045549 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reactions: a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + a 12'-apo-carotenal.9-cis-violaxanthin + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + (3S,5R,6S)-5,6-epoxy-3-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-12'-apo-beta-caroten-12'-al.9'-cis-neoxanthin + O2 = 2-cis,4-trans-xanthoxin + (3S,5R,6R)-5,6-dihydroxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6-dihydro-12'-apo-beta-caroten-12'-al.
2007-11-27 GO:0010293 abscisic aldehyde oxidase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: abscisic aldehyde + H2O + O2 = abscisate + H2O2.
2007-11-27 GO:0033752 acetylacetone-cleaving enzyme activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: pentane-2,4-dione + O2 = acetate + 2-oxopropanal.
2007-11-27 GO:0003069 vasodilation by acetylcholine involved in regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION The process by which acetylcholine signaling causes vasodilation, resulting in a change in blood pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0055090 acylglycerol homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium of acylglycerol within an organism or cell.
2007-11-27 GO:0033741 adenylyl-sulfate reductase (glutathione) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: AMP + sulfite + glutathione disulfide = adenylyl sulfate + 2 glutathione.
2007-11-27 GO:0055100 adiponectin binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with adiponectin, a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism.
2007-11-27 GO:0004025 alcohol dehydrogenase activity, iron-dependent Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an alcohol + NAD+ = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH + H+, requiring the presence of iron.
2007-11-27 GO:0004023 alcohol dehydrogenase activity, metal ion-independent Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an alcohol + NAD+ = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH + H+; can proceed in the absence of a metal ion.
2007-11-27 GO:0004024 alcohol dehydrogenase activity, zinc-dependent Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an alcohol + NAD+ = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH + H+ requiring the presence of zinc.
2007-11-27 GO:0033727 aldehyde dehydrogenase (FAD-independent) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an aldehyde + H2O + acceptor = a carboxylate + reduced acceptor.
2007-11-27 GO:0033721 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an aldehyde + NADP+ + H2O = an acid + NADPH + H+.
2007-11-27 GO:0033726 aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: an aldehyde + H2O + 2 oxidized ferredoxin = an acid + 2 H+ + 2 reduced ferredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0003126 regulation of vasodilation by neuronal norepinephrine Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of increases in the diameter of blood vessels as a result of epinephrine released by nerve endings.
2007-11-27 GO:0014878 response to electrical stimulus involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an electrical stimulus. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0055099 response to high density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a high density lipoprotein stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0055093 response to hyperoxia Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating increased oxygen tension.
2007-11-27 GO:0014854 response to inactivity Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an inactivity stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014876 response to injury involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a injury. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0055094 response to lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lipoprotein stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0055098 response to low-density lipoprotein particle Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a low density lipoprotein stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014850 response to muscle activity Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a muscle activity stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014873 response to muscle activity involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a muscle activity stimulus. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014870 response to muscle inactivity Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an muscle inactivity stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014877 response to muscle inactivity involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a muscle inactivity stimulus. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014893 response to rest involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a rest stimulus. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014874 response to stimulus involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. This occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0008090 retrograde axon cargo transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of organelles or molecules along microtubules from the cell periphery toward the cell body in nerve cell axons.
2007-11-27 GO:0033750 ribosome localization Added DEFINITION A process by which a ribosome is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location.
2007-11-27 GO:0016529 sarcoplasmic reticulum Updated DEFINITION A fine reticular network of membrane-limited elements that pervades the sarcoplasm of a muscle fiber; continuous over large portions of the cell and with the nuclear envelope; that part of the endoplasmic reticulum specialized for calcium release, uptake and storage.
2007-11-27 GO:0033794 sarcosine reductase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl phosphate + methylamine + thioredoxin disulfide = N-methylglycine + phosphate + thioredoxin.
2007-11-27 GO:0014719 skeletal muscle satellite cell activation Added DEFINITION A change in the morphology or behavior of a satellite cell resulting from exposure to an activating factor such as a cellular or soluble ligand. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0014901 satellite cell activation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process that initiates satellite cell division by causing it to move from quiescence to the G1 stage of the cell cycle. The cell swells and there are a number of other small changes. The cells then start to divide. Following cell division the cells will differentiate. Satellite cells are quiescent cells that are located between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the muscle fibre, which are the main contributors to postnatal muscle growth. In adult muscle, satellite cells become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0014889 muscle atrophy Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in the muscle, that is characterized by a decrease in protein content, fibre diameter, force production and fatigue resistance in response to different conditions such as starvation, aging and disuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014812 muscle cell migration Added DEFINITION The orderly movement of muscle cells from one site to another, often during the development of a multicellular organism.
2007-11-27 GO:0006936 muscle contraction Updated DEFINITION A process whereby force is generated within muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step. The chemo-mechanical energy conversion step is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis.
2007-11-27 GO:0048747 muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the muscle fiber over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0030049 muscle filament sliding Updated DEFINITION The sliding of actin thin filaments and myosin thick filaments past each other in muscle contraction. This involves a process of interaction of myosin located on a thick filament with actin located on a thin filament. During this process ATP is split and forces are generated.
2007-11-27 GO:0014900 muscle hyperplasia Added DEFINITION A process, occurring in muscle, in which there is an increase in cell number by cell division, often leading to an increase in the size of an organ.
2007-11-27 GO:0014896 muscle hypertrophy Added DEFINITION The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of an organ due to an increase in the size of its muscle cells. Physiological hypertrophy is a normal process during development (it stops in cardiac muscle after adolescence) and can also be brought on in response to demand. In athletes cardiac and skeletal muscles undergo hypertrophy stimulated by increasing muscle activity on exercise. Smooth muscle cells in the uterus undergo hypertrophy during pregnancy.
2007-11-27 GO:0003012 muscle system process Added DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of a muscle. Muscle tissue is composed of contractile cells or fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0005927 muscle tendon junction Updated DEFINITION Terminal anchorage site of skeletal muscle cells to tendons; a specialised type of contact between the cell and the extracellular matrix in skeletal muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0022010 central nervous system myelination Updated DEFINITION The process whereby neuronal axons and dendrites become coated with a segmented lipid-rich sheath (myelin) to enable faster and more energetically efficient conduction of electrical impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Adjacent myelin segments are separated by a non-myelinated stretch of axon called a node of Ranvier.
2007-11-27 GO:0022011 myelination in peripheral nervous system Updated DEFINITION The process whereby neuronal axons and dendrites become coated with a segmented lipid-rich sheath (myelin) to enable faster and more energetically efficient conduction of electrical impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Adjacent myelin segments are separated by a non-myelinated stretch of axon called a node of Ranvier.
2007-11-27 GO:0014835 myoblast differentiation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized satellite cell acquires specialized features of a myoblast cell. This occurs as part of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014872 myoblast division Added DEFINITION The process resulting in the physical partitioning and separation of a myoblast into daughter cells. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0048625 myoblast fate commitment Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the developmental fate of a cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a myoblast cell. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014714 myoblast fate commitment in head Added DEFINITION The process, taking place in the head, whereby the developmental fate of a cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a myoblast cell. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014715 myoblast fate commitment in trunk Added DEFINITION The process taking place in the trunk whereby the developmental fate of a cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a myoblast cell. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014836 myoblast fate commitment involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby the developmental fate of a satellite cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a myoblast cell. This occurs as part of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0007518 myoblast fate determination Updated DEFINITION Process by which a cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a myoblast cell regardless of its environment; upon determination, the cell fate cannot be reversed. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014837 myoblast fate determination involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby a satellite cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a myoblast cell regardless of its environment; upon determination, the cell fate cannot be reversed. This occurs as part of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0003096 renal sodium ion transport Added DEFINITION The directed movement of sodium ions (Na+) by the kidney.
2007-11-27 GO:0003014 renal system process Added DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of the renal system. The renal system is responsible for fluid volume regulation and detoxification in an organism.
2007-11-27 GO:0003091 renal water homeostasis Added DEFINITION Renal process involved in the maintenance of internal equilibrium of water in the body.
2007-11-27 GO:0003092 renal water retention Added DEFINITION The process whereby renal water excretion is decreased.
2007-11-27 GO:0003097 renal water transport Added DEFINITION The directed movement of water (H2O) by the kidney.
2007-11-27 GO:0002016 regulation of blood volume by renin-angiotensin Updated DEFINITION The process by which the renin-angiotensin system controls the rate of fluid intake and output into the blood.
2007-11-27 GO:0003016 respiratory system process Added DEFINITION The biological processes, occurring at the level of the resiratory system. The respiratory system is an organ system responsible for respiratory gasseous exchange.
2007-11-27 GO:0014823 response to activity Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an activity stimulus.
2007-11-27 GO:0014075 response to amine Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an amine stimulus. An amine is a compound formally derived from ammonia by replacing one, two or three hydrogen atoms by hydrocarbyl groups.
2007-11-27 GO:0043200 response to amino acid Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an amino acid stimulus. An amino acid is a carboxylic acids containing one or more amino groups.
2007-11-27 GO:0014894 response to denervation involved in regulation of muscle adaptation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a denervation stimulus. This process occurs as part of the regulation of muscle adaptation.
2007-11-27 GO:0014833 skeletal muscle satellite stem cell asymmetric division Added DEFINITION The asymmetric division of a satellite cell that occurs when a satellite cell divides to produce two daughter cells, one of which is destined to differentiate and the other to be a quiescent cell that restocks the satellite cell pool. Satellite cells are quiescent adult muscle stem cells that become activated to divide and differentiate in response to muscle damage.
2007-11-27 GO:0048626 myoblast fate specification Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a myoblast cell in an environment that is neutral with respect to the developmental pathway. Upon specification, the cell fate can be reversed. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014838 myoblast fate specification involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby a satellite cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a myoblast cell in an environment that is neutral with respect to the developmental pathway. Upon specification, the cell fate can be reversed. This occurs as part of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014844 myoblast proliferation involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of myoblast cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of the cell population. This occurs as part of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0048627 myoblast development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the myoblast over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0045445 myoblast differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myoblast. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0007520 myoblast fusion Updated DEFINITION A process whereby non-proliferating myoblasts fuse to exisiting fibres or to myotubes to form new fibers. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014905 myoblast fusion involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION A process whereby non-proliferating myoblasts, after migrating to the site of injury, fuse into existing damaged fibers or fuse to myotubes to form new fibers, as part of the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0048628 myoblast maturation Updated DEFINITION A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a myoblast to attain its fully functional state. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014914 myoblast maturation involved in muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a myoblast cell to attain its fully functional state involved in muscle regeneration. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014839 myoblast migration involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby a myoblast migrates along an entire fiber to the site of injury. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0051450 myoblast proliferation Updated DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of myoblasts, resulting in the rapid expansion of a myoblast cell population. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2007-11-27 GO:0014904 myotube cell development Added DEFINITION The process aimed at the progression of a myotube cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014906 myotube cell development involved in skeletal muscle regeneration Added DEFINITION The process aimed at the progression of a myotube cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell. This occurs as part of the process of skeletal muscle regeneration. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.
2007-11-27 GO:0014722 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by calcium ion signaling Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction by changing the calcium ion signals that trigger contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014862 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by chemo-mechanical energy conversion Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction by regulating force and velocity of shortening. The force of skeletal muscle contraction is produced by acto-myosin interaction processes through formation of cross bridges. The shortening leads to reduction of length of muscle fiber and sarcomeres.
2007-11-27 GO:0014852 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by neural stimulation via neuromuscular junction Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction by variation of the pattern of stimulation by nervous system.
2007-11-27 GO:0014861 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction via regulation of action potential Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction by depolarization of muscle membrane and ionic fluxes.
2007-11-27 GO:0014723 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by modulation of calcium ion sensitivity of myofibril Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction by changing calcium ion binding affinity of the myofibril.
2007-11-27 GO:0014809 regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle contraction via the regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion by sarcoplasmic reticulum into cytosol. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the endoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle, specialised for the sequestration of calcium ions that are released upon receipt of a signal relayed by the T tubules from the neuromuscular junction.
2007-11-27 GO:0048742 regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle fiber development. Muscle fibres are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.
2007-11-27 GO:0031449 regulation of slow-twitch skeletal muscle fiber contraction Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of slow-twitch skeletal muscle contraction.
2007-11-27 GO:0014910 regulation of smooth muscle cell migration Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of smooth muscle cell migration.
2007-11-27 GO:0014807 regulation of somitogenesis Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of somitogenesis.
2007-11-27 GO:0014708 regulation of somitomeric trunk muscle development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the somitomeric trunk muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The somitomeric trunk muscle is derived from somitomeric mesoderm. The muscle begins its development with the differentiation of the muscle cells and ends with the mature muscle.
2007-11-27 GO:0003073 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure Added DEFINITION The process that modulates the force with which blood travels through the systemic arterial circulatory system. The process is controlled by a balance of processes that increase pressure and decrease pressure.
2007-11-27 GO:0003068 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by acetylcholine Added DEFINITION The regulation of blood pressure mediated by acetylcholine signaling. Acetylcholine is an acetic acid ester of the organic base choline and functions as a neurotransmitter.
2007-11-27 GO:0003050 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by atrial natriuretic peptide Added DEFINITION The regulation of blood pressure mediated by the signaling molecule atrial natriuretic peptide.
2007-11-27 GO:0003049 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by capillary fluid shift Added DEFINITION The intrinsic circulatory process resulting from capillary fluid shift that modulates the force with which blood travels through the systemic arterial circulatory system. Capillary fluid shift is the movement of fluid across the capillary membrane between the blood and the interstitial fluid compartment.
2007-11-27 GO:0003101 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by circulatory epinephrine-norepinephrine Added DEFINITION The process by which epinephrine-norepinephrine modulate the force with which blood passes through the circulatory system.
2007-11-27 GO:0001991 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by circulatory renin-angiotensin Updated DEFINITION The process by which angiotensinogen metabolites in the bloodstream modulate the force with which blood passes through the circulatory system. The process begins when renin is released and cleaves angiotensinogen.
spacer
Please send comments, suggestions or bug reports to goa@ebi.ac.uk. Click here for details of how to cite UniProt-GOA and QuickGO.
110ms