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GO Term History: Displaying 286 audit records for all terms for the date 2007-04-20

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This page displays the differences recorded in the full Gene Ontology OBO v1.2 file as audited by the UniProt-GOA database during its daily update cycle.
If there is any delay in uploading the current OBO file, the changes displayed and the date recorded for these changes may not correspond to when the changes to the OBO file were committed.

All changes

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2007-04-20 GO:0009559 embryo sac central cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the two uncellularized polar nuclei cellularize, fuse and acquire the specialized features of a mononucleate diploid central cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0009553 embryo sac development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo sac over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The process begins with the meiosis of the megasporocyte to form four haploid megaspores. Three of the megaspores disintegrate, and the fourth undergoes mitosis giving rise to a binucleate syncytial embryo sac. The two haploid nuclei migrate to the opposite poles of the embryo sac and then undergo two rounds of mitosis generating four haploid nuclei at each pole. One nucleus from each set of four migrates to the center of the cell. Cellularization occurs, resulting in an eight-nucleate seven-celled structure. This structure contains two synergid cells and an egg cell at the micropylar end, and three antipodal cells at the other end. A binucleate endosperm mother cell is formed at the center. The two polar nuclei fuse resulting in a mononucleate diploid endosperm mother cell. The three antipodal cells degenerate.
2007-04-20 GO:0009560 embryo sac egg cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby an uncellularized embryo sac nucleus cellularizes and acquires the specialized features of an egg cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0048314 embryo sac morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of the embryo sac are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form. The embryo sac develops from the megaspore in heterosporous plants.
2007-04-20 GO:0009562 embryo sac nuclear migration Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of an embryo sac nucleus to the pole or center of the cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0009790 embryo development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo from its formation until the end of its embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic stage is organism-specific. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant.
2007-04-20 GO:0035163 embryonic hemocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell derived from the embryonic head mesoderm acquires the specialized features of a mature hemocyte. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0031992 energy transducer activity Updated DEFINITION The biological transducer activity that accepts energy and converts it to another form, often by transfer to another molecule within the cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0060105 epicuticle of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION A lipid-containing layer of cuticle that lies between the cortical layer and the surface coat.
2007-04-20 GO:0005793 endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment Updated DEFINITION A complex system of membrane-bounded compartments located between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex, with a distinctive membrane protein composition; involved in ER-to-Golgi transport.
2007-04-20 GO:0033116 endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding any of the compartments of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment system.
2007-04-20 GO:0033117 esterosome Added DEFINITION A vesicle filled with crystalline protein that shows sequence similarities with various esterases.
2007-04-20 GO:0033118 esterosome membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding an esterosome. This membrane has characteristics of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) membranes.
2007-04-20 GO:0010409 extensin metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving extensins, a group of 60-90 kDNA hydroxyproline (Hyp)-rich glycoproteins whose polypeptide backbone consists of many repeats of structural Ser(Hyp)4-6 motifs, with heavily glycosylated 1-4 arabinose residues O-linked to contiguous stretches of Hyp residues, with most of the Ser residues being O-galactosylated.
2007-04-20 GO:0033078 extrathymic T cell differentiation Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized hemopoietic stem cell acquires the specialized features of a T cell via a differentiation pathway independent of the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0010408 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the cell wall arabinogalactan II glycoprotein variant which contains both an arabinogalactan protein (AGP) motif and a fasciclin domain.
2007-04-20 GO:0005836 fatty-acyl-CoA synthase complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that possesses fatty-acyl-CoA synthase activity.
2007-04-20 GO:0033149 FFAT motif binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with the FFAT motif, a short motif containing diphenylalanine in an acidic tract that targets proteins to the cytosolic surface of the ER and to the nuclear membrane by binding directly to members of the VAP (VAMP-associated protein) protein family.
2007-04-20 GO:0051069 galactomannan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving galactomannan, a polysaccharide composed of D-galactose and D-mannose. The mannose units form the backbone structure (a linear main chain) with the D-galactose as single side units.
2007-04-20 GO:0033110 Cvt vesicle membrane Added DEFINITION The double lipid bilayer surrounding a CVT vesicle.
2007-04-20 GO:0033112 cyanelle envelope Added DEFINITION The double lipid bilayer enclosing the cyanelle and separating its contents from the rest of the cytoplasm; includes the intermembrane space.
2007-04-20 GO:0033113 cyanelle membrane Added DEFINITION Either of the lipid bilayers that surround a cyanelle and form the cyanelle envelope.
2007-04-20 GO:0033114 cyanelle thylakoid lumen Added DEFINITION The volume enclosed by a cyanelle thylakoid membrane.
2007-04-20 GO:0033115 cyanelle thylakoid membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer membrane of any thylakoid within a cyanelle.
2007-04-20 GO:0043705 cyanophycin metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanophycin, a non-protein, non-ribosomally produced amino acid polymer composed of an aspartic acid backbone and arginine side groups.
2007-04-20 GO:0008093 cytoskeletal adaptor activity Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together a cytoskeletal molecule and one or more other molecules, permitting them to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0033150 cytoskeletal calyx Added DEFINITION A large cytoskeletal structure located at the posterior end of the perinuclear theca of a mammalian sperm head. The nucleus is tightly associated with the calyx, which contains calicin and basic cylicin proteins.
2007-04-20 GO:0060097 cytoskeletal rearrangement involved in phagocytosis, engulfment Added DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of cytoskeletal structures that is involved in the internalization of bacteria, immune complexes and other particulate matter or of an apoptotic cell by phagocytosis.
2007-04-20 GO:0060109 medial layer of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION The fluid-filled cuticle layer that lies between the cortical and basal layers and is characterized by the presence of regularly spaced columnar struts that lie on either side of the annular furrows and link the two surrounding layers. In C. elegans, a defined medial layer is found only in adult animals.
2007-04-20 GO:0060098 membrane reorganization involved in phagocytosis, engulfment Added DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of the plasma membrane that is involved in the internalization of bacteria, immune complexes and other particulate matter or of an apoptotic cell by phagocytosis.
2007-04-20 GO:0055046 microgametogenesis Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pollen grain over time, from its formation as the microspore to the mature structure.
2007-04-20 GO:0033108 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex assembly Added DEFINITION The formation of a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex.
2007-04-20 GO:0033161 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase, any protein that can phosphorylate a MAP kinase kinase kinase.
2007-04-20 GO:0005091 guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor adaptor activity Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together a guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor and one or more other molecules, permitting them to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0010410 hemicellulose metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving hemicelluloses, plant cell wall polysaccharides that have a backbone of 1,4-linked beta-D-pyranosyl residues in which O4 is in the equatorial orientation. Many different hemicelluloses usually occur intermixed with each molecular type representing different degrees of polymerization and contain many different sugar monomers, which can include glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and arabinose. Hemicelluloses also contain most of the D-pentose sugars and occasionally small amounts of L-sugars as well. Xylose is always the sugar monomer present in the largest amount, but mannuronic acid and galacturonic acid also tend to be present.
2007-04-20 GO:0007516 hemocyte development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the hemocyte over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0042386 hemocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the characteristics of a mature hemocyte. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0035099 hemocyte migration Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of hemocytes within the embryo. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen. In Drosophila, embryonic hemocytes originate from the head mesoderm as a cluster of cells. The cluster splits into two and one group of cells crosses the amnioserosa. Both populations then spread toward the middle of the embryo and then disperse evenly throughout the embryo.
2007-04-20 GO:0035172 hemocyte proliferation Updated DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of hemocytes, resulting in the rapid expansion of the cell population. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0043706 heterophilic cell adhesion involved in cytoadherence to microvasculature, mediated by parasite protein Added DEFINITION The attachment of a parasite adhesion molecule to a nonidentical adhesion molecule on the microvasculature of a host cell, thereby adhering the parasite to the host cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0010390 histone monoubiquitination Added DEFINITION The modification of histones by addition of a single ubiquitin moiety.
2007-04-20 GO:0005675 holo TFIIH complex Updated DEFINITION A complex that contains kinase activity directed towards the C-terminal Domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and is essential for initiation at RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro. In S. cerevisiae, it is composed of the 5-subunit core (Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4), Ssl2p, and TFIIK (Kin28p, Ccl1p, and Tfb3p). All of the subunits have equivalents in humans: the 5 subunit core is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34; the equivalent of the TFIIK subcomplex is composed of MO15, Mat1, and a cyclin; the human equivalent of Ssl2p is XPB.
2007-04-20 GO:0048874 homeostasis of number of cells in a free-living population Updated DEFINITION The biological process involved in maintaining the equilibrium of cell number within a population of free-living cells such as the bacteria in the gut.
2007-04-20 GO:0010394 homogalacturonan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving homogalacturonan, a pectin characterized by a backbone of alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galacturonic acid residues that can be methyl-esterified at C-6 and carry acetyl groups on O-2 and O-3.
2007-04-20 GO:0005889 hydrogen:potassium-exchanging ATPase complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that possesses hydrogen:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity; characterized in animal cells, where it maintains ionic gradients of Na+ and K+ at the expense of ATP hydrolysis; The complex contains two obligatory subunits, the catalytic alpha subunit and a glycosylated beta subunit; two additional subunits, gamma and channel-inducing factor (CHIF), may also be present.
2007-04-20 GO:0007486 imaginal disc-derived female genitalia development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the female genitalia over time, from formation as part of the genital disc to the mature structure.
2007-04-20 GO:0048804 imaginal disc-derived female genitalia morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of female genitalia are generated and organized from the genital disc. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form.
2007-04-20 GO:0007484 imaginal disc-derived genitalia development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the genitalia over time, from formation as part of the genital disc to the mature structure.
2007-04-20 GO:0048805 imaginal disc-derived genitalia morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of genitalia are generated and organized from the genital imaginal disc. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form.
2007-04-20 GO:0007485 imaginal disc-derived male genitalia development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the male genitalia over time, from formation as part of the genital disc to the mature structure.
2007-04-20 GO:0010392 galactoglucomannan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving galactoglucomannan, a polysaccharide composed of D-glucose, D-galactose and D-mannose. The mannose units form the backbone structure (a linear main chain) decorated with a mixture of D-glucose and D-galactose side-units.
2007-04-20 GO:0010393 galacturonan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving galacturonan, a pectin polymer containing a backbone of alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galacturonic acid residues.
2007-04-20 GO:0005092 GDP-dissociation inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Prevents the dissociation of GDP from a GTPase, thereby preventing GTP from binding.
2007-04-20 GO:0060112 generation of ovulation cycle rhythm Added DEFINITION The process which controls the timing of the type of sexual cycle seen in female mammals.
2007-04-20 GO:0055047 generative cell mitosis Added DEFINITION The process whereby the generative cell divides by mitosis to form two haploid cells. These will subsequently differentiate into sperm cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0010391 glucomannan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucomannan, a polysaccharide composed of D-glucose and D-mannose. The mannose units form the backbone structure (a linear main chain) with the D-glucose as single side-units.
2007-04-20 GO:0010414 glucuronoarabinoxylan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xylan, a polymer containing a beta-(1->4)-linked D-xylose backbone decorated with glucuronic acid and arabinose side units.
2007-04-20 GO:0010417 glucuronoxylan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glucuronoxylan, a polymer containing a beta-1,4-linked D-xylose backbone substituted with glucuronic acid residues.
2007-04-20 GO:0010413 glucuronoxylan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xylan, a polymer containing a beta-(1->4)-linked D-xylose backbone decorated with glucuronic acid side units.
2007-04-20 GO:0009814 defense response, incompatible interaction Updated DEFINITION A response of an plant to a pathogenic agent that prevents the occurrence or spread of disease.
2007-04-20 GO:0031045 dense core granule Updated DEFINITION Electron-dense organelle with a granular internal matrix; contains proteins destined to be secreted.
2007-04-20 GO:0010385 double-stranded methylated DNA binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with double-stranded methylated DNA. Cytosine methylation in DNA is an important mechanism for establishing stable heritable epigenetic marks.
2007-04-20 GO:0048803 imaginal disc-derived male genitalia morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of male genitalia are generated and organized from the genital imaginal disc. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form.
2007-04-20 GO:0033079 immature T cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The rapid expansion of an immature T cell population by cell division.
2007-04-20 GO:0033080 immature T cell proliferation in thymus Added DEFINITION The rapid expansion of an immature T cell population by cell division in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033152 immunoglobulin V(D)J recombination Added DEFINITION The process by which immunoglobulin heavy chain V, D, and J gene segments are recombined within a single locus utilizing the conserved heptamer and nonomer recombination signal sequences (RSS). For immunoglobulin light chains the same process is used to join V and J gene segments directly.
2007-04-20 GO:0009561 megagametogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo sac over time, from its formation as the megaspore to the mature structure. The process begins when three of the four haploid megaspores disintegrate, and the fourth undergoes mitosis giving rise to a binucleate syncytial embryo sac. The two haploid nuclei migrate to the opposite poles of the embryo sac and then undergo two rounds of mitosis generating four haploid nuclei at each pole. One nucleus from each set of four migrates to the center of the cell. Cellularization occurs, resulting in an eight-nucleate seven-celled structure. This structure contains two synergid cells and an egg cell at the micropylar end, and three antipodal cells at the other end. A binucleate endosperm mother cell is formed at the center.
2007-04-20 GO:0009554 megasporogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the megasporocyte undergoes meiosis, giving rise to four haploid megaspores in the nucellus.
2007-04-20 GO:0060081 membrane hyperpolarization Updated DEFINITION The process in which membrane potential changes in the hyperpolarizing direction from the resting potential, usually from negative to more negative.
2007-04-20 GO:0007552 metamorphosis Updated DEFINITION A biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's form or structure. For example the change from tadpole to frog, and the change from larva to adult.
2007-04-20 GO:0009556 microsporogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the microsporocyte undergoes meiosis, giving rise to four haploid microspores.
2007-04-20 GO:0060090 binding, bridging Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together two or more molecules, permitting those molecules to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0060089 molecular transducer activity Added DEFINITION The molecular function that accepts an input of one form and creates an output of a different form.
2007-04-20 GO:0002823 negative regulation of adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of an adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains.
2007-04-20 GO:0002814 negative regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0002817 negative regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0008269 JAK pathway signal transduction adaptor activity Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together a molecule of the JAK signal transduction pathway and one or more other molecules of the pathway, permitting them to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0060091 kinocilium Added DEFINITION An immotile primary cilium that is found at the apical surface of auditory receptor cells. The kinocilium is surrounded by actin-based stereocilia.
2007-04-20 GO:0035193 larval central nervous system remodeling Updated DEFINITION Reorganization of the pre-existing, functional larval central nervous system into one that can serve the novel behavioral needs of the adult.
2007-04-20 GO:0010386 lateral root primordium development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the lateral root primordium over time, which initiates the formation to the mature structure. A lateral root primordium represents an organized group of cells derived from the root pericycle that will differentiate into a new root, as opposed to the initiation of the main root from the embryo proper.
2007-04-20 GO:0045121 membrane raft Updated DEFINITION Specialized membrane domains composed mainly of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and relatively poor in polyunsaturated lipids such as glycerophospholipids. The formation of these membrane domains is promoted by the presence of cholesterol in the lipid bilayer: the rigid hexagonal rings of cholesterol can pack tightly against the saturated hydrocarbon chains of some membrane lipids, allowing these lipids to assemble into cohesive units floating in the mass of loosely packed polyunsaturated plasma membrane components.
2007-04-20 GO:0010352 lithium ion export Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of lithium ion out of a cell or organelle.
2007-04-20 GO:0048542 lymph gland development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the lymph gland over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The lymph gland is one of the sites of hemocyte differentiation. It consists of three to six bilaterally paired lobes that are attached to the cardioblasts during larval stages, and it degenerates during pupal stages.
2007-04-20 GO:0035168 larval lymph gland hemocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell derived from the larval lymph gland acquires the specialized features of a mature hemocyte. The lymph gland consists of three to six bilaterally paired lobes that are attached to the cardioblasts during larval stages, and it degenerates during pupal stages. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0035167 larval lymph gland hemopoiesis Updated DEFINITION The production of blood cells from the larval lymph gland. The lymph gland consists of three to six bilaterally paired lobes that are attached to the cardioblasts during larval stages, and it degenerates during pupal stages.
2007-04-20 GO:0033068 macrolide biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways leading to the formation of macrolides, any of a large group of polyketide compounds that contain a large lactone ring with few or no double bonds and no nitrogen atoms, linked glycosidically to one or more sugar moieties. The macrolides include the carbomycins, the erythromycins, oleandomycin, oligomycins, and the spiramycins, and act as antibiotics, mainly against Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0033067 macrolide metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving macrolides, any of a large group of polyketide compounds that contain a large lactone ring with few or no double bonds and no nitrogen atoms, linked glycosidically to one or more sugar moieties. The macrolides include the carbomycins, the erythromycins, oleandomycin, oligomycins, and the spiramycins, and act as antibiotics, mainly against Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0016543 male courtship behavior, orientation prior to leg tapping and wing vibration Updated DEFINITION The process during courtship, where the male orients towards a potential partner.
2007-04-20 GO:0010412 mannan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving mannan, a group of polysaccharides containing a backbone composed of a polymer of D-mannose units.
2007-04-20 GO:0010415 unsubstituted mannan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the mannan backbone, the unsubstituted polymer of D-mannose units.
2007-04-20 GO:0033151 V(D)J recombination Added DEFINITION The process by which immune receptor V, D, and J, or V and J gene segments, depending on the specific receptor, are recombined within a single locus utilizing the conserved heptamer and nonomer recombination signal sequences (RSS).
2007-04-20 GO:0033072 vancomycin biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways leading to the formation of vancomycin, (3S,6R,7R,11R,23S,26S,30aS,36R,38aR)-44-[2-O-(3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-3-C-methyl-alpha-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-3-(carbamoylmethyl)-10,19-dichloro-2,3,4,5,6,7,23,25,26,36,37,38,38a-tetradecahydro-7,22,28,30,32-pentahydroxy-6-(N-methyl-D-leucyl)-2,5,24,38,39-pentaoxo-1H,22H-23,36-(epiminomethano)-8,11:18,21-dietheno-13,16:31,35-di(metheno)[1,6,9]oxadiazacyclohexadecino[4,5-m][10,2,16]benzoxadiazacyclotetracosine-26-carboxylic acid, a complex glycopeptide from Streptomyces orientalis that inhibits a specific step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer in Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0033071 vancomycin metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving vancomycin, (3S,6R,7R,11R,23S,26S,30aS,36R,38aR)-44-[2-O-(3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-3-C-methyl-alpha-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-3-(carbamoylmethyl)-10,19-dichloro-2,3,4,5,6,7,23,25,26,36,37,38,38a-tetradecahydro-7,22,28,30,32-pentahydroxy-6-(N-methyl-D-leucyl)-2,5,24,38,39-pentaoxo-1H,22H-23,36-(epiminomethano)-8,11:18,21-dietheno-13,16:31,35-di(metheno)[1,6,9]oxadiazacyclohexadecino[4,5-m][10,2,16]benzoxadiazacyclotetracosine-26-carboxylic acid, a complex glycopeptide from Streptomyces orientalis that inhibits a specific step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer in Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0008316 structural constituent of vitelline membrane Updated DEFINITION The action of a molecule that contributes to the structural integrity of the vitelline membrane of an egg.
2007-04-20 GO:0006080 substituted mannan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a mannan backbone composed of D-mannose unites, substituted with D-glucose and/or D-galactose units.
2007-04-20 GO:0060104 surface coat of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION An electron dense, amorphous envelope that comprises the outermost layer of the cuticle. The surface coat is loosely apposed to the epicuticle, has distinct biochemical properties, is synthesized by cells other than the underlying hypodermis, and is labile. In addition to serving as a lubricant to protect against abrasion and dehydration, the surface coat may also play important roles in infection and immune evasion.
2007-04-20 GO:0009563 synergid differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby an uncellularized nucleus cellularizes and acquires the specialized features of a synergid cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0033077 T cell differentiation in thymus Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized hemopoietic stem cell acquires the specialized features of a T cell via a differentiation pathway dependent upon transit through the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033153 T cell receptor V(D)J recombination Added DEFINITION The process by which T cell receptor V, D, and J, or V and J gene segments, depending on the specific locus, are recombined within a single locus utilizing the conserved heptamer and nonomer recombination signal sequences (RSS).
2007-04-20 GO:0010378 temperature compensation of the circadian clock Added DEFINITION The process by which the circadian clock maintains robust and accurate timing over a broad range of physiological temperatures. The circadian clock is an endogenous 24-h timer found in most eukaryotes and in photosynthetic bacteria. The clock drives rhythms in the physiology, biochemistry, and metabolism of the organisms.
2007-04-20 GO:0005802 trans-Golgi network Updated DEFINITION The network of interconnected tubular and cisternal structures located at the side of the Golgi apparatus distal to the endoplasmic reticulum, from which secretory vesicles emerge. The trans-Golgi network is important in the later stages of protein secretion where it is thought to play a key role in the sorting and targeting of secreted proteins to the correct destination.
2007-04-20 GO:0005068 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase adaptor activity Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together a transmembrane receptor protein kinase and one or more other molecules, permitting them to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0010091 trichome branching Updated DEFINITION The processes involved in the formation of branches in plant hair cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0010026 trichome differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized epidermal cell acquires the specialized features of a trichome cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0010395 rhamnogalacturonan I metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI), a branched pectin with a backbone of alternating alpha-(1->2)-linked rhamnose and alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galacturonic acid residues that carries neutral side-chains of predominantly beta-(1->4)-D-galactose and/or alpha-(1->5)-L-arabinose residues attached to the rhamnose residues of the RGI backbone.
2007-04-20 GO:0010400 rhamnogalacturonan I side chain metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the side chains of the pectin, rhamnogalacturonan I.
2007-04-20 GO:0010418 rhamnogalacturonan II backbone metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the backbone structure of pectic rhamnogalacturonan II. The back bone contains at least 8 1,4-linked alpha-D-GalpA residues.
2007-04-20 GO:0010396 rhamnogalacturonan II metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving rhamnogalacturonan II, a low molecular mass (5-10KDa) pectic polysaccharide. The backbone of RG-II contains at least 8 1,4-linked alpha-D-GalpA residues.
2007-04-20 GO:0010419 rhamnogalacturonan II side chain metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the side chains of pectic rhamnogalacturonan II. A number of structurally distinct di- and oligosaccharides can be attached to the C-3 and C-2 of the backbone, respectively.
2007-04-20 GO:0005094 Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Prevents the dissociation of GDP from the small GTPase Rho, thereby preventing GTP from binding.
2007-04-20 GO:0033136 serine phosphorylation of STAT3 protein Added DEFINITION The process of introducing a phosphoric group to a serine residue of the STAT3 protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0001820 serotonin secretion Updated DEFINITION The regulated release of serotonin by a cell or group of cells. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine synthesised in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system, enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract and some immune system cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0060096 serotonin secretion, neurotransmission Added DEFINITION The regulated release of serotonin by a cell or group of cells. During this process,serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesised in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract.
2007-04-20 GO:0010387 COP9 signalosome assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and bonding together of a set of components to form a signalosome complex.
2007-04-20 GO:0000441 SSL2-core TFIIH complex Added DEFINITION A complex which is part of both the general transcription factor TFIIH and the nucleotide-excision repair factor 3 complex. It is composed of the tightly associated 5 subunit core TFIIH subcomplex plus one additional, more loosely associated subunit. The subunits are well conserved from yeast to humans. In S. cerevisiae, the 5-subunit core is composed of Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4 and the loosely associated subunit is Ssl2p (also called Rad25). In humans, the 5 subunit core is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34 and the loosely associated subunit is XPB.
2007-04-20 GO:0000443 SSL2-core TFIIH complex portion of holo TFIIH complex Added DEFINITION The SSL2-core TFIIH complex when it is part of the general transcription factor TFIIH. It is composed of the tightly associated five subunit core TFIIH subcomplex plus one additional, less tighly associated subunit. The subunits are well conserved from yeast to humans. In S. cerevisiae, the 5-subunit core is composed of Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4 and the loosely associated subunit is Ssl2p (also called Rad25). In humans, the 5 subunit core is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34 and the loosely associated subunit is XPB.
2007-04-20 GO:0000442 SSL2-core TFIIH complex portion of NEF3 complex Added DEFINITION The SSL2-core TFIIH complex when it is part of the nucleotide-excision repair factor 3 (NEF3). It is composed of the tightly associated 5 subunit core TFIIH subcomplex plus one additional, less tighly associated subunit. The subunits are well conserved from yeast to humans. In S. cerevisiae, the 5-subunit core is composed of Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4 and the loosely associated subunit is Ssl2p (also called Rad25). In humans, the 5 subunit core is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34 and the loosely associated subunit is XPB.
2007-04-20 GO:0005831 steroid hormone aporeceptor complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex consisting of a steroid receptor associated with nonreceptor proteins, minimally a dimer of Hsp90 and a monomer of hsp56/FKBP59; forms in the absence of bound ligand.
2007-04-20 GO:0005213 structural constituent of chorion Updated DEFINITION The action of a molecule that contributes to the structural integrity of a chorion.
2007-04-20 GO:0033121 regulation of purine nucleotide catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of purine nucleotides.
2007-04-20 GO:0033143 regulation of intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0060092 regulation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic Added DEFINITION Any process that stops or decreases the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033081 regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of T cell differentiation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0010399 rhamnogalacturonan I backbone metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the alternating alpha-(1->2)-linked rhamnose and alpha-(1->2)-linked B-galacturonic acid residues of the rhamnogalacturonan I backbone.
2007-04-20 GO:0060077 inhibitory synapse Updated DEFINITION A synapse in which an action potential in the presynaptic cell reduces the probability of an action potential occurring in the postsynaptic cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0045087 innate immune response Updated DEFINITION Innate immune responses are defense responses mediated by germline encoded components that directly recognize components of potential pathogens.
2007-04-20 GO:0005614 interstitial matrix Added DEFINITION A type of extracellular matrix found in interstitial connective tissue, characterized by the presence of fibronectins, proteoglycans, and types I, III, V, VI, VII and XII collagens.
2007-04-20 GO:0033075 isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of isoquinoline alkaloids, alkaloid compounds that contain bicyclic N-containing aromatic rings and are derived from a 3,4-dihydroxytyramine (dopamine) precursor that undergoes a Schiff base addition with aldehydes of different origin.
2007-04-20 GO:0033076 isoquinoline alkaloid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving isoquinoline alkaloids, alkaloid compounds that contain bicyclic N-containing aromatic rings and are derived from a 3,4-dihydroxytyramine (dopamine) precursor that undergoes a Schiff base addition with aldehydes of different origin.
2007-04-20 GO:0045488 pectin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving pectin, a group of galacturonic acid-containing, water-soluble colloidal carbohydrates of high molecular weight and of net negative charge.
2007-04-20 GO:0010370 perinucleolar chromocenter Updated DEFINITION A chromocenter adjacent to the nucleolus.
2007-04-20 GO:0055040 periplasmic flagellum Updated DEFINITION Flagellar filaments located in the periplasmic space; characterized in spirochetes, in which they are essential for shape and motility. Composed of a core surrounded by two sheath layers, the flagella rotate to allow migration of the cell through viscous media, which would not be possible using external flagella.
2007-04-20 GO:0005781 peroxisome targeting signal receptor complex Added DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2007-04-20 GO:0010379 phaseic acid biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of phaseic acid (PA), a catabolite of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA).
2007-04-20 GO:0043711 pilus organization Added DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of a pilus, a short filamentous structure on a bacterial cell, flagella-like in structure and generally present in many copies.
2007-04-20 GO:0033074 pinene catabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways leading to the breakdown of the monoterpenoid pinene; alpha-pinene is (1S,5S)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene, and beta-pinene is (1S,5S)-6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane.
2007-04-20 GO:0033073 pinene metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the monoterpenoid pinene; alpha-pinene is (1S,5S)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene, and beta-pinene is (1S,5S)-6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane.
2007-04-20 GO:0009555 pollen development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pollen grain over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The process begins with the meiosis of the microsporocyte to form four haploid microspores. The nucleus of each microspore then divides by mitosis to form a two-celled organism, the pollen grain, that contains a tube cell as well as a smaller generative cell. The pollen grain is surrounded by an elaborate cell wall. In some species, the generative cell immediately divides again to give a pair of sperm cells. In most flowering plants, however this division takes place later, in the tube that develops when a pollen grain germinates.
2007-04-20 GO:0002824 positive regulation of adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of an adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains.
2007-04-20 GO:0006964 positive regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0006965 positive regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0045693 positive regulation of embryo sac central cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of embryo sac central cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0045696 positive regulation of embryo sac egg cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of embryo sac egg cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033148 positive regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of an estrogen receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0033090 positive regulation of extrathymic T cell differentiation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of extrathymic T cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033133 positive regulation of glucokinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glucokinase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a glucose molecule.
2007-04-20 GO:0033126 positive regulation of GTP catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of GTP, guanosine triphosphate.
2007-04-20 GO:0033129 positive regulation of histone phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of one or more phosphate groups to a histone protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0023002 nuclear migration to embryo sac poles Added DEFINITION Migration of the nuclei of the two-nucleate embryo sac to opposite poles of the cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0023003 nuclear migration to the embryo sac center Added DEFINITION Migration of one of the four nuclei at each pole of the eight-nucleate embryo sac, to the center of the cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0005731 nucleolus organizer region Added DEFINITION A region of a chromosome where nucleoli form during interphase, and where genes encoding the largest rRNA precursor transcript are tandemly arrayed.
2007-04-20 GO:0033156 oligogalacturonide transport Added DEFINITION The directed movement of oligogalacturonides into, out of, within or between cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0033155 oligogalacturonide transmembrane transporter activity Added DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of oligogalacturonide into, out of, within or between cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0033154 oligogalacturonide transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + oligogalacturonide(out) = ADP + phosphate + oligogalacturonide(in).
2007-04-20 GO:0017077 oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of protons from mitochondrial intermembrane space into mitochondrial matrix, dissipating the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane established by the electron transport chain during the oxidative phosphorylation (proton leak). Proton leak uncouples the processes of electron transport/proton generation and ATP synthesis.
2007-04-20 GO:0010242 oxygen evolving activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2 H2O = O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e-. The evolution of oxygen from oxidizing water is carried out by the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II of plants. P680+, the photochemically oxidized reaction-center chlorophyll of PSII, is a strong biological oxidant. The reduction potential of P680+ is more positive than that of water, and thus it can oxidize water to give O2 and H+ ions. The oxygen escapes as a gas while the H+ ions remain in solution inside the thylakoid vesicle.
2007-04-20 GO:0010402 pectic arabinan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving arabinan, a polymer with an alpha-(1->5)-linked -L-arabinofuranose (Araf) backbone that can be substituted with Araf-alpha-(1->2)-, Araf-alpha-(1->3)-, and/or Araf-alpha-(1->3)-Araf-alpha-(1->3)-side chains. Arabinan can be found as a side chain of the pectin rhamnogalacturonan I.
2007-04-20 GO:0010403 pectic arabinogalactan I metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving pectic arabinogalactan I, an alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galactopyranose backbone that is substituted with alpha-l-Araf residues via the O-3 of the D-galactose residues. Arabinogalactan I can be found as a side chain of rhamnogalacturonan I.
2007-04-20 GO:0060093 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic Added DEFINITION Any process that stops or decreases the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033085 negative regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of T cell differentiation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0000410 negative regulation of transcription by galactose Added DEFINITION Any process involving galactose that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of transcription.
2007-04-20 GO:0010407 non-classical arabinogalactan protein metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cell wall arabinogalactan II glycoprotein where other amino acids besides Hyp, Ala, Ser, Thr and Gly can be present and grouped into regions, such as a Cys-rich or Asn-rich domains.
2007-04-20 GO:0035316 non-sensory hair organization Updated DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of non-sensory hairs. These hairs are polarized cellular extensions that cover much of the insect epidermis.
2007-04-20 GO:0033100 NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex Added DEFINITION A Gcn5-independent multisubunit complex that catalyzes the acetylation of histone H3. The budding yeast complex includes Sas3p, Taf30p, and Yng1p.
2007-04-20 GO:0005846 nuclear cap binding complex Added DEFINITION A conserved heterodimeric protein complex that binds to the 5' terminal cap structure m7G(5')ppp(5')N of nascent eukaryotic RNA polymerase II transcripts such as pre-mRNA and U snRNA.
2007-04-20 GO:0045692 negative regulation of embryo sac central cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of embryo sac central cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0045695 negative regulation of embryo sac egg cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of embryo sac egg cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033147 negative regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of an estrogen receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0033086 negative regulation of extrathymic T cell differentiation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of extrathymic T cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033132 negative regulation of glucokinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glucokinase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a glucose molecule.
2007-04-20 GO:0033125 negative regulation of GTP catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of GTP, guanosine triphosphate.
2007-04-20 GO:0035207 negative regulation of hemocyte proliferation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of hemocyte proliferation. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0033128 negative regulation of histone phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of one or more phosphate groups to a histone protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0033087 negative regulation of immature T cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033088 negative regulation of immature T cell proliferation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033137 negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033140 negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of a serine residue of a STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0060101 negative regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the internalization of bacteria, immune complexes and other particulate matter or of an apoptotic cell by phagocytosis.
2007-04-20 GO:0033159 negative regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the vectorial transfer of a protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, across the nuclear membrane.
2007-04-20 GO:0033122 negative regulation of purine nucleotide catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of purine nucleotides.
2007-04-20 GO:0033119 negative regulation of RNA splicing Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of RNA splicing.
2007-04-20 GO:0033144 negative regulation of intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0005891 voltage-gated calcium channel complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that forms a transmembrane channel through which calcium ions may cross a cell membrane in response to changes in membrane potential.
2007-04-20 GO:0008076 voltage-gated potassium channel complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that forms a transmembrane channel through which potassium ions may cross a cell membrane in response to changes in membrane potential.
2007-04-20 GO:0033093 Weibel-Palade body Added DEFINITION A large, elongated, rod-shaped secretory granule characteristic of vascular endothelial cells that contain a number of structurally and functionally distinct proteins, of which the best characterized are von Willebrand factor (VWF) and P-selectin. Weibel-Palade bodies are formed from the trans-Golgi network in a process that depends on VWF, which is densely packed in a highly organized manner, and on coat proteins that remain associated with the granules. Upon cell stimulation, regulated exocytosis releases the contained proteins to the cell surface, where they act in the recruitment of platelets and leukocytes and in inflammatory and vasoactive responses.
2007-04-20 GO:0010398 xylogalacturonan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xylogalacturonan, a pectin characterized by a backbone of alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galacturonic acid residues substituted on C-3 with beta-D-xylopyranose residues.
2007-04-20 GO:0010411 xyloglucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xyloglucan, the cross-linking glycan composed of (1->4)-beta-D-glucan backbone substituted at regular intervals with beta-D-xylosyl-(1->6) residues, which is present in the primary cell wall of most higher plants.
2007-04-20 GO:0060095 zinc potentiation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission in the presence of zinc. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.
2007-04-20 GO:0010090 trichome morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the structures of a hair cell (trichome) cell are generated and organized. This process occurs while the initially relatively unspecialized epidermal cell is acquiring the specialized features of a hair cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0048629 trichome patterning Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process of establishing the non-random spatial arrangement of trichomes on the surface and margin of a leaf. Process involves signaling between adjacent epidermal cells that results in differentiation of some epidermal cells into trichomes.
2007-04-20 GO:0030533 triplet codon-amino acid adaptor activity Updated DEFINITION The codon binding activity of a tRNA that positions an activated amino acid, mediating its insertion at the correct point in the sequence of a nascent polypeptide chain during protein synthesis.
2007-04-20 GO:0033104 type VI protein secretion system complex Added DEFINITION A complex of proteins that permits the transfer of proteins into the extracellular milieu or directly into host cells via the type VI secretion system. Proteins secreted by this complex do not require an N-terminal signal sequence.
2007-04-20 GO:0033134 ubiquitin activating enzyme binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a ubiquitin activating enzyme, any of the E1 proteins.
2007-04-20 GO:0035206 regulation of hemocyte proliferation Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of hemocyte proliferation. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0033127 regulation of histone phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of one or more phosphate groups to a histone protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0033083 regulation of immature T cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033084 regulation of immature T cell proliferation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033157 regulation of intracellular protein transport Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of proteins within cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0033135 regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033139 regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of a serine residue of a STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0060099 regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the internalization of bacteria, immune complexes and other particulate matter or of an apoptotic cell by phagocytosis.
2007-04-20 GO:0033158 regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the vectorial transfer of a protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, across the nuclear membrane.
2007-04-20 GO:0035208 positive regulation of hemocyte proliferation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of hemocyte proliferation. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0033091 positive regulation of immature T cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033092 positive regulation of immature T cell proliferation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033138 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033141 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of a serine residue of a STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0060100 positive regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the internalization of bacteria, immune complexes and other particulate matter or of an apoptotic cell by phagocytosis.
2007-04-20 GO:0033160 positive regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the vectorial transfer of a protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, across the nuclear membrane.
2007-04-20 GO:0033123 positive regulation of purine nucleotide catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of purine nucleotides.
2007-04-20 GO:0033120 positive regulation of RNA splicing Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of RNA splicing.
2007-04-20 GO:0033145 positive regulation of intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0060094 positive regulation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033089 positive regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of T cell differentiation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033142 progesterone receptor binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a progesterone receptor.
2007-04-20 GO:0006464 cellular protein modification process Updated DEFINITION The covalent alteration of one or more amino acids occurring in proteins, peptides and nascent polypeptides (co-translational, post-translational modifications). Includes the modification of charged tRNAs that are destined to occur in a protein (pre-translation modification).
2007-04-20 GO:0033103 protein secretion by the type VI secretion system Added DEFINITION The process by which proteins are transferred into the extracellular milieu or directly into host cells by the type VI secretion system. Proteins secreted by this system do not require an N-terminal signal sequence.
2007-04-20 GO:0033130 acetylcholine receptor binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with an acetylcholine receptor.
2007-04-20 GO:0033102 acidocalcisome membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding an acidocalcisome.
2007-04-20 GO:0002460 adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains Updated DEFINITION An immune response based on directed amplification of specific receptors for antigen produced through a somatic diversification process that includes somatic recombination of germline gene segments encoding immunoglobulin superfamily domains, and allowing for enhanced responses upon subsequent exposures to the same antigen (immunological memory). Recombined receptors for antigen encoded by immunoglobulin superfamily domains include T cell receptors and immunoglobulins (antibodies).
2007-04-20 GO:0002459 adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from leucine-rich repeat domains Updated DEFINITION An immune response based on directed amplification of specific receptors for antigen produced through a somatic diversification process that includes somatic recombination of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) incorporating leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, and allowing for enhanced responses upon subsequent exposures to the same antigen (immunological memory).
2007-04-20 GO:0060111 alae of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION Raised, thickened cuticular ridges that run longitudinally, and in parallel, along the left and right sides of the animal. The alae lie above the hypodermal cells known as the lateral seam cells. In C. elegans, alae are produced in L1 larvae, dauer larvae and adult stage animals, where they consist of three, five, and three ridges of distinct morphology, respectively.
2007-04-20 GO:0033095 aleurone grain Added DEFINITION A membrane-bounded storage granule found in cells of the aleurone layer in plants; contains either a protein matrix, protein-carbohydrate bodies and/or globoids. Aleurone grains are formed by the vacuole, rough endoplasmic reticulum and dictyosomes.
2007-04-20 GO:0033096 amyloplast envelope Added DEFINITION The double lipid bilayer enclosing the amyloplast and separating its contents from the rest of the cytoplasm; includes the intermembrane space.
2007-04-20 GO:0033098 amyloplast inner membrane Added DEFINITION The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the amyloplast envelope; also faces the amyloplast stroma.
2007-04-20 GO:0033097 amyloplast membrane Added DEFINITION Either of the lipid bilayers that surround an amyloplast and form the amyloplast envelope.
2007-04-20 GO:0017107 anion exchanger adaptor activity Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together an anion exchanger and one or more other molecules, permitting them to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0060108 annular furrow extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION The extracellular matrix part that is a regularly spaced indentation in the outer cortical layer of the cuticle. The pattern of annular furrows corresponds to sites of invaginations in hypodermal cell membranes that, in turn, correspond to submembranous regions where actin microfilament bundles assemble early in lethargus, the first phase of the molting cycle in which activity and feeding decline.
2007-04-20 GO:0060107 annuli extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION The extracellular matrix that is a regularly spaced circumferential ridge present in the cortical region of the cuticle. Annuli are delineated by annular furrows and are present throughout the cuticle with the exception of lateral regions where longitudinal alae are present.
2007-04-20 GO:0033070 ansamycin biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways leading to the formation of ansamycins, any of a group of complex macrolactam compounds characterized by a cyclic structure in which an aliphatic ansa chain forms a bridge between two non-adjacent positions of a cyclic p-system; many exhibit antibacterial, antifungal or antitumor activity.
2007-04-20 GO:0033069 ansamycin metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving ansamycins, any of a group of complex macrolactam compounds characterized by a cyclic structure in which an aliphatic ansa chain forms a bridge between two non-adjacent positions of a cyclic p-system; many exhibit antibacterial, antifungal or antitumor activity.
2007-04-20 GO:0055045 antipodal cell degeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby the antipodal cells undergo programmed cell death.
2007-04-20 GO:0009557 antipodal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby an uncellularized nucleus cellularizes and acquires the specialized features of an antipodal cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0010397 apiogalacturonan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the pectic apiogalacturonan, characterized by a backbone of alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galacturonic acid residues substituted with apiose and apiobiose (D-apiofuranosyl-beta-(l->3)-D-apiose) side chains via O-2 or O-3 links.
2007-04-20 GO:0010405 arabinogalactan protein metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cell wall arabinogalactan II glycoprotein, which is composed of a group of core protein of highly varying length and domain complexity. These are O-glycosylated at one or more hydroxyproline residues by arabinogalactan (AG) type II groups, which consist of (1->3)-beta-galactan and (1->6)-beta-linked galactan chains connected to each other by (1->3,1->6)-linked branch points, O-3 and O-6 positions substituted with terminal arabinosyl residues. Also, rhamnose, fucose, glucuronic and galacturonic acid can be present in the glycan structures.
2007-04-20 GO:0010416 arabinoxylan-containing compound metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xylan, a polymer containing a beta-1,4-linked D-xylose backbone decorated with arabinose side units.
2007-04-20 GO:0010381 attachment of peroxisome to chloroplast Added DEFINITION The process by which a peroxisome is transported to, and/or maintained in, a location adjacent to the chloroplast.
2007-04-20 GO:0033099 attachment organelle Added DEFINITION A membrane-bounded extension of the cell, originally characterized in Mycoplasma species, that contains an electron-dense core that is part of the cytoskeleton and is oriented lengthwise and ends distally in a bulbous knob (terminal button). Required for adherence to host cells and involved in gliding motility and cell division.
2007-04-20 GO:0033111 attachment organelle membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding an attachment organelle.
2007-04-20 GO:0060110 basal layer of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION The layer of cuticle most closely apposed to the hypodermal cells. The morphology of the basal layer varies with life stage. In adult C. elegans animals, the basal layers is comprised of three sublayers: two fibrous layers whose fibers run in clockwise and counter-clockwise directions meeting one another at a 60 degree angle, and an amorphous basal layer that lies underneath the fibrous layers and directly contacts the hypodermis. In C. elegans dauer and L1 larval stage animals, the basal layer is characterized by a striated pattern that appears to derive from interwoven laminae.
2007-04-20 GO:0006285 base-excision repair, AP site formation Updated DEFINITION The formation of an AP site, a deoxyribose sugar with a missing base, by DNA glycosylase which recognizes an altered base in DNA and catalyzes its hydrolytic removal. This sugar phosphate is the substrate recognized by the AP endonuclease, which cuts the DNA phosphodiester backbone at the 5' side of the altered site to leave a gap which is subsequently repaired.
2007-04-20 GO:0005488 binding Updated DEFINITION The selective, often stoichiometric, interaction of a molecule with one or more specific sites on another molecule.
2007-04-20 GO:0043708 cell adhesion involved in biofilm formation Added DEFINITION The attachment of a cell to a surface, via cell adhesion molecules, during the formation of a biofilm.
2007-04-20 GO:0010401 pectic galactan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving galactan, a polymer of D-galactosyl units that can be found as a side chain of the pectin rhamnogalacturonan I.
2007-04-20 GO:0043710 cell adhesion involved in multi-species biofilm formation Added DEFINITION The attachment of a cell to a surface, via cell adhesion molecules, during the formation of a biofilm composed of microorganisms of different species.
2007-04-20 GO:0043709 cell adhesion involved in single-species biofilm formation Added DEFINITION The attachment of a cell to a surface, via cell adhesion molecules, during the formation of a biofilm composed of microorganisms of the same species.
2007-04-20 GO:0043707 cell adhesion involved in single-species biofilm formation in or on host organism Added DEFINITION The attachment of a cell to either a host cell or a microbial cell of the same species, or to an underlying host substrate, such as the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules, occurring during the formation of a biofilm in or on a surface in a host species.
2007-04-20 GO:0022403 cell cycle phase Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process comprising the steps by which a cell progresses through one of the biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events.
2007-04-20 GO:0010404 cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein that consist of a core-protein backbone O-glycosylated by one or more complex carbohydrates.
2007-04-20 GO:0010382 cellular cell wall macromolecule metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the cell wall, the rigid or semi-rigid envelope lying outside the cell membrane of plant, fungal and most prokaryotic cells, maintaining their shape and protecting them from osmotic lysis.
2007-04-20 GO:0010383 cell wall polysaccharide metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cell wall polysaccharides.
2007-04-20 GO:0010384 cell wall proteoglycan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cell wall peptidoglycan, a group of glycoproteins that consist of a core-protein backbone O-glycosylated by one or more complex carbohydrates.
2007-04-20 GO:0005933 cellular bud Updated DEFINITION A protuberance from a cell of an organism that reproduces by budding, which will grow larger and become a separate daughter cell after nuclear division, cytokinesis, and cell wall formation (when appropriate). The daughter cell may completely separate from the mother cell, or the mother and daughter cells may remain associated.
2007-04-20 GO:0033101 cellular bud membrane Added DEFINITION The portion of the plasma membrane surrounding a cellular bud.
2007-04-20 GO:0005934 cellular bud tip Updated DEFINITION The end of a cellular bud distal to the site of attachment to the mother cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0009558 embryo sac cellularization Updated DEFINITION The process by which the eight-nucleate single celled female gametophyte develops into the seven-celled female gametophyte. This mature structure contains two synergid cells and an egg cell at the micropylar end, and three antipodal cells at the other end. A binucleate endosperm mother cell is formed at the center.
2007-04-20 GO:0046858 chlorosome Updated DEFINITION A large enclosure of aggregated pigment, typically bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c), that acts as a light-harvesting antenna structure and is characteristic of green photosynthetic bacteria (e.g. Chlorobiaceae). The BChl aggregates are organized into lamellar elements by pigment-pigment rather than pigment-protein interactions. Chlorosomes also contain BChl a, carotenoids, quinones, lipids, and proteins, and are attached to the cytoplasmic membrane via a BChl a-containing protein baseplate.
2007-04-20 GO:0033105 chlorosome envelope Added DEFINITION The membrane-like structure, composed of glycolipids and proteins, that encloses the pigments and other contents of the chlorosome.
2007-04-20 GO:0046862 chromoplast membrane Updated DEFINITION Either of the lipid bilayers that surround a chromoplast and form the chromoplast envelope.
2007-04-20 GO:0005801 cis-Golgi network Updated DEFINITION The network of interconnected tubular and cisternal structures located at the convex side of the Golgi apparatus, which abuts the endoplasmic reticulum.
2007-04-20 GO:0033106 cis-Golgi network membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding any of the compartments that make up the cis-Golgi network.
2007-04-20 GO:0010406 classical arabinogalactan protein metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cell wall arabinogalactan II glycoprotein, which is composed of a group of core protein containing Hyp, Ala, Ser, Thr and Gly as the major amino acid constituents, and the C-terminus is GPI anchored.
2007-04-20 GO:0005601 classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase complex Added DEFINITION A heterodimeric protein complex that catalyzes the cleavage of complement components C3 and C5, and acts in the classical pathway of complement activation; consists of one monomer of C2a and one monomer of C4b; C2a is the catalytic subunit, but cannot catalyze cleavage alone.
2007-04-20 GO:0060102 collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION A collagen and cuticulin-based noncellular, multilayered structure that is synthesized by an underlying ectodermal (hypodermal) cell layer. The cuticle serves essential functions in body morphology, locomotion, and environmental protection.
2007-04-20 GO:0060103 collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix part Added DEFINITION Any constituent part of the collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix, a collagen and cuticulin-based noncellular, multilayered structure that is synthesized by an underlying ectodermal (hypodermal) cell layer.
2007-04-20 GO:0005602 complement component C1 complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex composed of six subunits of C1q, each formed of the three homologous polypeptide chains C1QA, C1QB, and C1QB, and tetramer of two C1QR and two C1QS polypeptide chains.
2007-04-20 GO:0000439 core TFIIH complex Added DEFINITION A complex that contains kinase activity directed towards the C-terminal Domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and is essential for initiation at RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro. In S. cerevisiae, it is composed of the 5-subunit core (Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4), Ssl2p, and TFIIK (Kin28p, Ccl1p, and Tfb3p). All of the subunits have equivalents in humans: the 5 subunit core is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34; the equivalent of the TFIIK subcomplex is composed of MO15, Mat1, and a cyclin; the human equivalent of Ssl2p is XPB.
2007-04-20 GO:0000438 core TFIIH complex portion of holo TFIIH complex Added DEFINITION The core TFIIH complex when it is part of the general transcription factor TFIIH. In S. cerevisiae, it is composed of Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4. In humans, it is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34.
2007-04-20 GO:0000440 core TFIIH complex portion of NEF3 complex Added DEFINITION The core TFIIH complex when it is part of the nucleotide-excision repair factor 3 (NEF3). In S. cerevisiae, it is composed of Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4. In humans, it is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34.
2007-04-20 GO:0033109 cortical actin cytoskeleton stabilization Added DEFINITION The process by which the assembly and arrangement of cytoskeletal structures in the actin cortex with respect to the plasma membrane is maintained.
2007-04-20 GO:0060106 cortical layer of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION The cuticle layer that lies directly beneath the lipid-containing epicuticle. The cortical layer contains collagens and insoluble, non-collagenous cuticulins and is characterized by a distinct annular pattern consisting of regularly spaced annular ridges delineated by annular furrows.
2007-04-20 GO:0010388 cullin deneddylation Added DEFINITION The modification of cullins by removal of ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 (RUB1).
2007-04-20 GO:0033107 CVT vesicle Added DEFINITION A cytosolic vesicle that is enclosed by a double membrane and is implicated in the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway. These vesicles are found in the yeast S. cerevisiae, and contain vacuolar hydrolases, aminopeptidase I (Ape1p) and alpha-mannosidase (Ams1p).
2007-04-20 GO:0005578 proteinaceous extracellular matrix Updated DEFINITION A layer consisting mainly of proteins (especially collagen) and glycosaminoglycans (mostly as proteoglycans) that forms a sheet underlying or overlying cells such as endothelial and epithelial cells. The proteins are secreted by cells in the vicinity.
2007-04-20 GO:0033094 butane-1,4-diamine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: putrescine + 2-oxoglutarate = L-glutamate + 1-pyrroline + H(2)O.
2007-04-20 GO:0005093 Rab GDP-dissociation inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Prevents the dissociation of GDP from the small GTPase Rab, thereby preventing GTP from binding.
2007-04-20 GO:0002822 regulation of adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of an adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains.
2007-04-20 GO:0002813 regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0002816 regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0010380 regulation of chlorophyll biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of chlorophyll, any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment, from less complex precursors.
2007-04-20 GO:0045694 regulation of embryo sac egg cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of embryo sac egg cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033146 regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of an estrogen receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0033082 regulation of extrathymic T cell differentiation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of extrathymic T cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0010389 regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progression from G2 phase to M phase of the mitotic cell cycle.
2007-04-20 GO:0033131 regulation of glucokinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glucokinase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a glucose molecule.
2007-04-20 GO:0033124 regulation of GTP catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of GTP, guanosine triphosphate.

Definition/synonyms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2007-04-20 GO:0009559 embryo sac central cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby the two uncellularized polar nuclei cellularize, fuse and acquire the specialized features of a mononucleate diploid central cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0009553 embryo sac development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo sac over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The process begins with the meiosis of the megasporocyte to form four haploid megaspores. Three of the megaspores disintegrate, and the fourth undergoes mitosis giving rise to a binucleate syncytial embryo sac. The two haploid nuclei migrate to the opposite poles of the embryo sac and then undergo two rounds of mitosis generating four haploid nuclei at each pole. One nucleus from each set of four migrates to the center of the cell. Cellularization occurs, resulting in an eight-nucleate seven-celled structure. This structure contains two synergid cells and an egg cell at the micropylar end, and three antipodal cells at the other end. A binucleate endosperm mother cell is formed at the center. The two polar nuclei fuse resulting in a mononucleate diploid endosperm mother cell. The three antipodal cells degenerate.
2007-04-20 GO:0009560 embryo sac egg cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby an uncellularized embryo sac nucleus cellularizes and acquires the specialized features of an egg cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0048314 embryo sac morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of the embryo sac are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form. The embryo sac develops from the megaspore in heterosporous plants.
2007-04-20 GO:0009562 embryo sac nuclear migration Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of an embryo sac nucleus to the pole or center of the cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0009790 embryo development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo from its formation until the end of its embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic stage is organism-specific. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant.
2007-04-20 GO:0035163 embryonic hemocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell derived from the embryonic head mesoderm acquires the specialized features of a mature hemocyte. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0031992 energy transducer activity Updated DEFINITION The biological transducer activity that accepts energy and converts it to another form, often by transfer to another molecule within the cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0060105 epicuticle of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION A lipid-containing layer of cuticle that lies between the cortical layer and the surface coat.
2007-04-20 GO:0005793 endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment Updated DEFINITION A complex system of membrane-bounded compartments located between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex, with a distinctive membrane protein composition; involved in ER-to-Golgi transport.
2007-04-20 GO:0033116 endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding any of the compartments of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment system.
2007-04-20 GO:0033117 esterosome Added DEFINITION A vesicle filled with crystalline protein that shows sequence similarities with various esterases.
2007-04-20 GO:0033118 esterosome membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding an esterosome. This membrane has characteristics of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) membranes.
2007-04-20 GO:0010409 extensin metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving extensins, a group of 60-90 kDNA hydroxyproline (Hyp)-rich glycoproteins whose polypeptide backbone consists of many repeats of structural Ser(Hyp)4-6 motifs, with heavily glycosylated 1-4 arabinose residues O-linked to contiguous stretches of Hyp residues, with most of the Ser residues being O-galactosylated.
2007-04-20 GO:0033078 extrathymic T cell differentiation Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized hemopoietic stem cell acquires the specialized features of a T cell via a differentiation pathway independent of the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0010408 fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the cell wall arabinogalactan II glycoprotein variant which contains both an arabinogalactan protein (AGP) motif and a fasciclin domain.
2007-04-20 GO:0005836 fatty-acyl-CoA synthase complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that possesses fatty-acyl-CoA synthase activity.
2007-04-20 GO:0033149 FFAT motif binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with the FFAT motif, a short motif containing diphenylalanine in an acidic tract that targets proteins to the cytosolic surface of the ER and to the nuclear membrane by binding directly to members of the VAP (VAMP-associated protein) protein family.
2007-04-20 GO:0051069 galactomannan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving galactomannan, a polysaccharide composed of D-galactose and D-mannose. The mannose units form the backbone structure (a linear main chain) with the D-galactose as single side units.
2007-04-20 GO:0033110 Cvt vesicle membrane Added DEFINITION The double lipid bilayer surrounding a CVT vesicle.
2007-04-20 GO:0033112 cyanelle envelope Added DEFINITION The double lipid bilayer enclosing the cyanelle and separating its contents from the rest of the cytoplasm; includes the intermembrane space.
2007-04-20 GO:0033113 cyanelle membrane Added DEFINITION Either of the lipid bilayers that surround a cyanelle and form the cyanelle envelope.
2007-04-20 GO:0033114 cyanelle thylakoid lumen Added DEFINITION The volume enclosed by a cyanelle thylakoid membrane.
2007-04-20 GO:0033115 cyanelle thylakoid membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer membrane of any thylakoid within a cyanelle.
2007-04-20 GO:0043705 cyanophycin metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanophycin, a non-protein, non-ribosomally produced amino acid polymer composed of an aspartic acid backbone and arginine side groups.
2007-04-20 GO:0008093 cytoskeletal adaptor activity Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together a cytoskeletal molecule and one or more other molecules, permitting them to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0033150 cytoskeletal calyx Added DEFINITION A large cytoskeletal structure located at the posterior end of the perinuclear theca of a mammalian sperm head. The nucleus is tightly associated with the calyx, which contains calicin and basic cylicin proteins.
2007-04-20 GO:0060097 cytoskeletal rearrangement involved in phagocytosis, engulfment Added DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of cytoskeletal structures that is involved in the internalization of bacteria, immune complexes and other particulate matter or of an apoptotic cell by phagocytosis.
2007-04-20 GO:0060109 medial layer of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION The fluid-filled cuticle layer that lies between the cortical and basal layers and is characterized by the presence of regularly spaced columnar struts that lie on either side of the annular furrows and link the two surrounding layers. In C. elegans, a defined medial layer is found only in adult animals.
2007-04-20 GO:0060098 membrane reorganization involved in phagocytosis, engulfment Added DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of the plasma membrane that is involved in the internalization of bacteria, immune complexes and other particulate matter or of an apoptotic cell by phagocytosis.
2007-04-20 GO:0055046 microgametogenesis Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pollen grain over time, from its formation as the microspore to the mature structure.
2007-04-20 GO:0033108 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex assembly Added DEFINITION The formation of a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex.
2007-04-20 GO:0033161 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase, any protein that can phosphorylate a MAP kinase kinase kinase.
2007-04-20 GO:0005091 guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor adaptor activity Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together a guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor and one or more other molecules, permitting them to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0010410 hemicellulose metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving hemicelluloses, plant cell wall polysaccharides that have a backbone of 1,4-linked beta-D-pyranosyl residues in which O4 is in the equatorial orientation. Many different hemicelluloses usually occur intermixed with each molecular type representing different degrees of polymerization and contain many different sugar monomers, which can include glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and arabinose. Hemicelluloses also contain most of the D-pentose sugars and occasionally small amounts of L-sugars as well. Xylose is always the sugar monomer present in the largest amount, but mannuronic acid and galacturonic acid also tend to be present.
2007-04-20 GO:0007516 hemocyte development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the hemocyte over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0042386 hemocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the characteristics of a mature hemocyte. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0035099 hemocyte migration Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of hemocytes within the embryo. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen. In Drosophila, embryonic hemocytes originate from the head mesoderm as a cluster of cells. The cluster splits into two and one group of cells crosses the amnioserosa. Both populations then spread toward the middle of the embryo and then disperse evenly throughout the embryo.
2007-04-20 GO:0035172 hemocyte proliferation Updated DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of hemocytes, resulting in the rapid expansion of the cell population. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0043706 heterophilic cell adhesion involved in cytoadherence to microvasculature, mediated by parasite protein Added DEFINITION The attachment of a parasite adhesion molecule to a nonidentical adhesion molecule on the microvasculature of a host cell, thereby adhering the parasite to the host cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0010390 histone monoubiquitination Added DEFINITION The modification of histones by addition of a single ubiquitin moiety.
2007-04-20 GO:0005675 holo TFIIH complex Updated DEFINITION A complex that contains kinase activity directed towards the C-terminal Domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and is essential for initiation at RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro. In S. cerevisiae, it is composed of the 5-subunit core (Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4), Ssl2p, and TFIIK (Kin28p, Ccl1p, and Tfb3p). All of the subunits have equivalents in humans: the 5 subunit core is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34; the equivalent of the TFIIK subcomplex is composed of MO15, Mat1, and a cyclin; the human equivalent of Ssl2p is XPB.
2007-04-20 GO:0048874 homeostasis of number of cells in a free-living population Updated DEFINITION The biological process involved in maintaining the equilibrium of cell number within a population of free-living cells such as the bacteria in the gut.
2007-04-20 GO:0010394 homogalacturonan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving homogalacturonan, a pectin characterized by a backbone of alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galacturonic acid residues that can be methyl-esterified at C-6 and carry acetyl groups on O-2 and O-3.
2007-04-20 GO:0005889 hydrogen:potassium-exchanging ATPase complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that possesses hydrogen:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity; characterized in animal cells, where it maintains ionic gradients of Na+ and K+ at the expense of ATP hydrolysis; The complex contains two obligatory subunits, the catalytic alpha subunit and a glycosylated beta subunit; two additional subunits, gamma and channel-inducing factor (CHIF), may also be present.
2007-04-20 GO:0007486 imaginal disc-derived female genitalia development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the female genitalia over time, from formation as part of the genital disc to the mature structure.
2007-04-20 GO:0048804 imaginal disc-derived female genitalia morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of female genitalia are generated and organized from the genital disc. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form.
2007-04-20 GO:0007484 imaginal disc-derived genitalia development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the genitalia over time, from formation as part of the genital disc to the mature structure.
2007-04-20 GO:0048805 imaginal disc-derived genitalia morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of genitalia are generated and organized from the genital imaginal disc. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form.
2007-04-20 GO:0007485 imaginal disc-derived male genitalia development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the male genitalia over time, from formation as part of the genital disc to the mature structure.
2007-04-20 GO:0010392 galactoglucomannan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving galactoglucomannan, a polysaccharide composed of D-glucose, D-galactose and D-mannose. The mannose units form the backbone structure (a linear main chain) decorated with a mixture of D-glucose and D-galactose side-units.
2007-04-20 GO:0010393 galacturonan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving galacturonan, a pectin polymer containing a backbone of alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galacturonic acid residues.
2007-04-20 GO:0005092 GDP-dissociation inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Prevents the dissociation of GDP from a GTPase, thereby preventing GTP from binding.
2007-04-20 GO:0060112 generation of ovulation cycle rhythm Added DEFINITION The process which controls the timing of the type of sexual cycle seen in female mammals.
2007-04-20 GO:0055047 generative cell mitosis Added DEFINITION The process whereby the generative cell divides by mitosis to form two haploid cells. These will subsequently differentiate into sperm cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0010391 glucomannan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucomannan, a polysaccharide composed of D-glucose and D-mannose. The mannose units form the backbone structure (a linear main chain) with the D-glucose as single side-units.
2007-04-20 GO:0010414 glucuronoarabinoxylan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xylan, a polymer containing a beta-(1->4)-linked D-xylose backbone decorated with glucuronic acid and arabinose side units.
2007-04-20 GO:0010417 glucuronoxylan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glucuronoxylan, a polymer containing a beta-1,4-linked D-xylose backbone substituted with glucuronic acid residues.
2007-04-20 GO:0010413 glucuronoxylan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xylan, a polymer containing a beta-(1->4)-linked D-xylose backbone decorated with glucuronic acid side units.
2007-04-20 GO:0009814 defense response, incompatible interaction Updated DEFINITION A response of an plant to a pathogenic agent that prevents the occurrence or spread of disease.
2007-04-20 GO:0031045 dense core granule Updated DEFINITION Electron-dense organelle with a granular internal matrix; contains proteins destined to be secreted.
2007-04-20 GO:0010385 double-stranded methylated DNA binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with double-stranded methylated DNA. Cytosine methylation in DNA is an important mechanism for establishing stable heritable epigenetic marks.
2007-04-20 GO:0048803 imaginal disc-derived male genitalia morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of male genitalia are generated and organized from the genital imaginal disc. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form.
2007-04-20 GO:0033079 immature T cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The rapid expansion of an immature T cell population by cell division.
2007-04-20 GO:0033080 immature T cell proliferation in thymus Added DEFINITION The rapid expansion of an immature T cell population by cell division in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033152 immunoglobulin V(D)J recombination Added DEFINITION The process by which immunoglobulin heavy chain V, D, and J gene segments are recombined within a single locus utilizing the conserved heptamer and nonomer recombination signal sequences (RSS). For immunoglobulin light chains the same process is used to join V and J gene segments directly.
2007-04-20 GO:0009561 megagametogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo sac over time, from its formation as the megaspore to the mature structure. The process begins when three of the four haploid megaspores disintegrate, and the fourth undergoes mitosis giving rise to a binucleate syncytial embryo sac. The two haploid nuclei migrate to the opposite poles of the embryo sac and then undergo two rounds of mitosis generating four haploid nuclei at each pole. One nucleus from each set of four migrates to the center of the cell. Cellularization occurs, resulting in an eight-nucleate seven-celled structure. This structure contains two synergid cells and an egg cell at the micropylar end, and three antipodal cells at the other end. A binucleate endosperm mother cell is formed at the center.
2007-04-20 GO:0009554 megasporogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the megasporocyte undergoes meiosis, giving rise to four haploid megaspores in the nucellus.
2007-04-20 GO:0060081 membrane hyperpolarization Updated DEFINITION The process in which membrane potential changes in the hyperpolarizing direction from the resting potential, usually from negative to more negative.
2007-04-20 GO:0007552 metamorphosis Updated DEFINITION A biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's form or structure. For example the change from tadpole to frog, and the change from larva to adult.
2007-04-20 GO:0009556 microsporogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the microsporocyte undergoes meiosis, giving rise to four haploid microspores.
2007-04-20 GO:0060090 binding, bridging Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together two or more molecules, permitting those molecules to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0060089 molecular transducer activity Added DEFINITION The molecular function that accepts an input of one form and creates an output of a different form.
2007-04-20 GO:0002823 negative regulation of adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of an adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains.
2007-04-20 GO:0002814 negative regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0002817 negative regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0008269 JAK pathway signal transduction adaptor activity Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together a molecule of the JAK signal transduction pathway and one or more other molecules of the pathway, permitting them to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0060091 kinocilium Added DEFINITION An immotile primary cilium that is found at the apical surface of auditory receptor cells. The kinocilium is surrounded by actin-based stereocilia.
2007-04-20 GO:0035193 larval central nervous system remodeling Updated DEFINITION Reorganization of the pre-existing, functional larval central nervous system into one that can serve the novel behavioral needs of the adult.
2007-04-20 GO:0010386 lateral root primordium development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the lateral root primordium over time, which initiates the formation to the mature structure. A lateral root primordium represents an organized group of cells derived from the root pericycle that will differentiate into a new root, as opposed to the initiation of the main root from the embryo proper.
2007-04-20 GO:0045121 membrane raft Updated DEFINITION Specialized membrane domains composed mainly of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and relatively poor in polyunsaturated lipids such as glycerophospholipids. The formation of these membrane domains is promoted by the presence of cholesterol in the lipid bilayer: the rigid hexagonal rings of cholesterol can pack tightly against the saturated hydrocarbon chains of some membrane lipids, allowing these lipids to assemble into cohesive units floating in the mass of loosely packed polyunsaturated plasma membrane components.
2007-04-20 GO:0010352 lithium ion export Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of lithium ion out of a cell or organelle.
2007-04-20 GO:0048542 lymph gland development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the lymph gland over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The lymph gland is one of the sites of hemocyte differentiation. It consists of three to six bilaterally paired lobes that are attached to the cardioblasts during larval stages, and it degenerates during pupal stages.
2007-04-20 GO:0035168 larval lymph gland hemocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell derived from the larval lymph gland acquires the specialized features of a mature hemocyte. The lymph gland consists of three to six bilaterally paired lobes that are attached to the cardioblasts during larval stages, and it degenerates during pupal stages. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0035167 larval lymph gland hemopoiesis Updated DEFINITION The production of blood cells from the larval lymph gland. The lymph gland consists of three to six bilaterally paired lobes that are attached to the cardioblasts during larval stages, and it degenerates during pupal stages.
2007-04-20 GO:0033068 macrolide biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways leading to the formation of macrolides, any of a large group of polyketide compounds that contain a large lactone ring with few or no double bonds and no nitrogen atoms, linked glycosidically to one or more sugar moieties. The macrolides include the carbomycins, the erythromycins, oleandomycin, oligomycins, and the spiramycins, and act as antibiotics, mainly against Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0033067 macrolide metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving macrolides, any of a large group of polyketide compounds that contain a large lactone ring with few or no double bonds and no nitrogen atoms, linked glycosidically to one or more sugar moieties. The macrolides include the carbomycins, the erythromycins, oleandomycin, oligomycins, and the spiramycins, and act as antibiotics, mainly against Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0016543 male courtship behavior, orientation prior to leg tapping and wing vibration Updated DEFINITION The process during courtship, where the male orients towards a potential partner.
2007-04-20 GO:0010412 mannan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving mannan, a group of polysaccharides containing a backbone composed of a polymer of D-mannose units.
2007-04-20 GO:0010415 unsubstituted mannan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the mannan backbone, the unsubstituted polymer of D-mannose units.
2007-04-20 GO:0033151 V(D)J recombination Added DEFINITION The process by which immune receptor V, D, and J, or V and J gene segments, depending on the specific receptor, are recombined within a single locus utilizing the conserved heptamer and nonomer recombination signal sequences (RSS).
2007-04-20 GO:0033072 vancomycin biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways leading to the formation of vancomycin, (3S,6R,7R,11R,23S,26S,30aS,36R,38aR)-44-[2-O-(3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-3-C-methyl-alpha-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-3-(carbamoylmethyl)-10,19-dichloro-2,3,4,5,6,7,23,25,26,36,37,38,38a-tetradecahydro-7,22,28,30,32-pentahydroxy-6-(N-methyl-D-leucyl)-2,5,24,38,39-pentaoxo-1H,22H-23,36-(epiminomethano)-8,11:18,21-dietheno-13,16:31,35-di(metheno)[1,6,9]oxadiazacyclohexadecino[4,5-m][10,2,16]benzoxadiazacyclotetracosine-26-carboxylic acid, a complex glycopeptide from Streptomyces orientalis that inhibits a specific step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer in Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0033071 vancomycin metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving vancomycin, (3S,6R,7R,11R,23S,26S,30aS,36R,38aR)-44-[2-O-(3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-3-C-methyl-alpha-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-3-(carbamoylmethyl)-10,19-dichloro-2,3,4,5,6,7,23,25,26,36,37,38,38a-tetradecahydro-7,22,28,30,32-pentahydroxy-6-(N-methyl-D-leucyl)-2,5,24,38,39-pentaoxo-1H,22H-23,36-(epiminomethano)-8,11:18,21-dietheno-13,16:31,35-di(metheno)[1,6,9]oxadiazacyclohexadecino[4,5-m][10,2,16]benzoxadiazacyclotetracosine-26-carboxylic acid, a complex glycopeptide from Streptomyces orientalis that inhibits a specific step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer in Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0008316 structural constituent of vitelline membrane Updated DEFINITION The action of a molecule that contributes to the structural integrity of the vitelline membrane of an egg.
2007-04-20 GO:0006080 substituted mannan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a mannan backbone composed of D-mannose unites, substituted with D-glucose and/or D-galactose units.
2007-04-20 GO:0060104 surface coat of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION An electron dense, amorphous envelope that comprises the outermost layer of the cuticle. The surface coat is loosely apposed to the epicuticle, has distinct biochemical properties, is synthesized by cells other than the underlying hypodermis, and is labile. In addition to serving as a lubricant to protect against abrasion and dehydration, the surface coat may also play important roles in infection and immune evasion.
2007-04-20 GO:0009563 synergid differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby an uncellularized nucleus cellularizes and acquires the specialized features of a synergid cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0033077 T cell differentiation in thymus Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized hemopoietic stem cell acquires the specialized features of a T cell via a differentiation pathway dependent upon transit through the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033153 T cell receptor V(D)J recombination Added DEFINITION The process by which T cell receptor V, D, and J, or V and J gene segments, depending on the specific locus, are recombined within a single locus utilizing the conserved heptamer and nonomer recombination signal sequences (RSS).
2007-04-20 GO:0010378 temperature compensation of the circadian clock Added DEFINITION The process by which the circadian clock maintains robust and accurate timing over a broad range of physiological temperatures. The circadian clock is an endogenous 24-h timer found in most eukaryotes and in photosynthetic bacteria. The clock drives rhythms in the physiology, biochemistry, and metabolism of the organisms.
2007-04-20 GO:0005802 trans-Golgi network Updated DEFINITION The network of interconnected tubular and cisternal structures located at the side of the Golgi apparatus distal to the endoplasmic reticulum, from which secretory vesicles emerge. The trans-Golgi network is important in the later stages of protein secretion where it is thought to play a key role in the sorting and targeting of secreted proteins to the correct destination.
2007-04-20 GO:0005068 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase adaptor activity Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together a transmembrane receptor protein kinase and one or more other molecules, permitting them to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0010091 trichome branching Updated DEFINITION The processes involved in the formation of branches in plant hair cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0010026 trichome differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized epidermal cell acquires the specialized features of a trichome cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0010395 rhamnogalacturonan I metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI), a branched pectin with a backbone of alternating alpha-(1->2)-linked rhamnose and alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galacturonic acid residues that carries neutral side-chains of predominantly beta-(1->4)-D-galactose and/or alpha-(1->5)-L-arabinose residues attached to the rhamnose residues of the RGI backbone.
2007-04-20 GO:0010400 rhamnogalacturonan I side chain metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the side chains of the pectin, rhamnogalacturonan I.
2007-04-20 GO:0010418 rhamnogalacturonan II backbone metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the backbone structure of pectic rhamnogalacturonan II. The back bone contains at least 8 1,4-linked alpha-D-GalpA residues.
2007-04-20 GO:0010396 rhamnogalacturonan II metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving rhamnogalacturonan II, a low molecular mass (5-10KDa) pectic polysaccharide. The backbone of RG-II contains at least 8 1,4-linked alpha-D-GalpA residues.
2007-04-20 GO:0010419 rhamnogalacturonan II side chain metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the side chains of pectic rhamnogalacturonan II. A number of structurally distinct di- and oligosaccharides can be attached to the C-3 and C-2 of the backbone, respectively.
2007-04-20 GO:0005094 Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Prevents the dissociation of GDP from the small GTPase Rho, thereby preventing GTP from binding.
2007-04-20 GO:0033136 serine phosphorylation of STAT3 protein Added DEFINITION The process of introducing a phosphoric group to a serine residue of the STAT3 protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0001820 serotonin secretion Updated DEFINITION The regulated release of serotonin by a cell or group of cells. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine synthesised in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system, enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract and some immune system cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0060096 serotonin secretion, neurotransmission Added DEFINITION The regulated release of serotonin by a cell or group of cells. During this process,serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesised in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract.
2007-04-20 GO:0010387 COP9 signalosome assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and bonding together of a set of components to form a signalosome complex.
2007-04-20 GO:0000441 SSL2-core TFIIH complex Added DEFINITION A complex which is part of both the general transcription factor TFIIH and the nucleotide-excision repair factor 3 complex. It is composed of the tightly associated 5 subunit core TFIIH subcomplex plus one additional, more loosely associated subunit. The subunits are well conserved from yeast to humans. In S. cerevisiae, the 5-subunit core is composed of Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4 and the loosely associated subunit is Ssl2p (also called Rad25). In humans, the 5 subunit core is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34 and the loosely associated subunit is XPB.
2007-04-20 GO:0000443 SSL2-core TFIIH complex portion of holo TFIIH complex Added DEFINITION The SSL2-core TFIIH complex when it is part of the general transcription factor TFIIH. It is composed of the tightly associated five subunit core TFIIH subcomplex plus one additional, less tighly associated subunit. The subunits are well conserved from yeast to humans. In S. cerevisiae, the 5-subunit core is composed of Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4 and the loosely associated subunit is Ssl2p (also called Rad25). In humans, the 5 subunit core is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34 and the loosely associated subunit is XPB.
2007-04-20 GO:0000442 SSL2-core TFIIH complex portion of NEF3 complex Added DEFINITION The SSL2-core TFIIH complex when it is part of the nucleotide-excision repair factor 3 (NEF3). It is composed of the tightly associated 5 subunit core TFIIH subcomplex plus one additional, less tighly associated subunit. The subunits are well conserved from yeast to humans. In S. cerevisiae, the 5-subunit core is composed of Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4 and the loosely associated subunit is Ssl2p (also called Rad25). In humans, the 5 subunit core is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34 and the loosely associated subunit is XPB.
2007-04-20 GO:0005831 steroid hormone aporeceptor complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex consisting of a steroid receptor associated with nonreceptor proteins, minimally a dimer of Hsp90 and a monomer of hsp56/FKBP59; forms in the absence of bound ligand.
2007-04-20 GO:0005213 structural constituent of chorion Updated DEFINITION The action of a molecule that contributes to the structural integrity of a chorion.
2007-04-20 GO:0033121 regulation of purine nucleotide catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of purine nucleotides.
2007-04-20 GO:0033143 regulation of intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0060092 regulation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic Added DEFINITION Any process that stops or decreases the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033081 regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of T cell differentiation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0010399 rhamnogalacturonan I backbone metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the alternating alpha-(1->2)-linked rhamnose and alpha-(1->2)-linked B-galacturonic acid residues of the rhamnogalacturonan I backbone.
2007-04-20 GO:0060077 inhibitory synapse Updated DEFINITION A synapse in which an action potential in the presynaptic cell reduces the probability of an action potential occurring in the postsynaptic cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0045087 innate immune response Updated DEFINITION Innate immune responses are defense responses mediated by germline encoded components that directly recognize components of potential pathogens.
2007-04-20 GO:0005614 interstitial matrix Added DEFINITION A type of extracellular matrix found in interstitial connective tissue, characterized by the presence of fibronectins, proteoglycans, and types I, III, V, VI, VII and XII collagens.
2007-04-20 GO:0033075 isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of isoquinoline alkaloids, alkaloid compounds that contain bicyclic N-containing aromatic rings and are derived from a 3,4-dihydroxytyramine (dopamine) precursor that undergoes a Schiff base addition with aldehydes of different origin.
2007-04-20 GO:0033076 isoquinoline alkaloid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving isoquinoline alkaloids, alkaloid compounds that contain bicyclic N-containing aromatic rings and are derived from a 3,4-dihydroxytyramine (dopamine) precursor that undergoes a Schiff base addition with aldehydes of different origin.
2007-04-20 GO:0045488 pectin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving pectin, a group of galacturonic acid-containing, water-soluble colloidal carbohydrates of high molecular weight and of net negative charge.
2007-04-20 GO:0010370 perinucleolar chromocenter Updated DEFINITION A chromocenter adjacent to the nucleolus.
2007-04-20 GO:0055040 periplasmic flagellum Updated DEFINITION Flagellar filaments located in the periplasmic space; characterized in spirochetes, in which they are essential for shape and motility. Composed of a core surrounded by two sheath layers, the flagella rotate to allow migration of the cell through viscous media, which would not be possible using external flagella.
2007-04-20 GO:0005781 peroxisome targeting signal receptor complex Added DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2007-04-20 GO:0010379 phaseic acid biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of phaseic acid (PA), a catabolite of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA).
2007-04-20 GO:0043711 pilus organization Added DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of a pilus, a short filamentous structure on a bacterial cell, flagella-like in structure and generally present in many copies.
2007-04-20 GO:0033074 pinene catabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways leading to the breakdown of the monoterpenoid pinene; alpha-pinene is (1S,5S)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene, and beta-pinene is (1S,5S)-6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane.
2007-04-20 GO:0033073 pinene metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the monoterpenoid pinene; alpha-pinene is (1S,5S)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene, and beta-pinene is (1S,5S)-6,6-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane.
2007-04-20 GO:0009555 pollen development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pollen grain over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The process begins with the meiosis of the microsporocyte to form four haploid microspores. The nucleus of each microspore then divides by mitosis to form a two-celled organism, the pollen grain, that contains a tube cell as well as a smaller generative cell. The pollen grain is surrounded by an elaborate cell wall. In some species, the generative cell immediately divides again to give a pair of sperm cells. In most flowering plants, however this division takes place later, in the tube that develops when a pollen grain germinates.
2007-04-20 GO:0002824 positive regulation of adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of an adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains.
2007-04-20 GO:0006964 positive regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0006965 positive regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0045693 positive regulation of embryo sac central cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of embryo sac central cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0045696 positive regulation of embryo sac egg cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of embryo sac egg cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033148 positive regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of an estrogen receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0033090 positive regulation of extrathymic T cell differentiation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of extrathymic T cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033133 positive regulation of glucokinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glucokinase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a glucose molecule.
2007-04-20 GO:0033126 positive regulation of GTP catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of GTP, guanosine triphosphate.
2007-04-20 GO:0033129 positive regulation of histone phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of one or more phosphate groups to a histone protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0023002 nuclear migration to embryo sac poles Added DEFINITION Migration of the nuclei of the two-nucleate embryo sac to opposite poles of the cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0023003 nuclear migration to the embryo sac center Added DEFINITION Migration of one of the four nuclei at each pole of the eight-nucleate embryo sac, to the center of the cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0005731 nucleolus organizer region Added DEFINITION A region of a chromosome where nucleoli form during interphase, and where genes encoding the largest rRNA precursor transcript are tandemly arrayed.
2007-04-20 GO:0033156 oligogalacturonide transport Added DEFINITION The directed movement of oligogalacturonides into, out of, within or between cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0033155 oligogalacturonide transmembrane transporter activity Added DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of oligogalacturonide into, out of, within or between cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0033154 oligogalacturonide transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + oligogalacturonide(out) = ADP + phosphate + oligogalacturonide(in).
2007-04-20 GO:0017077 oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of protons from mitochondrial intermembrane space into mitochondrial matrix, dissipating the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane established by the electron transport chain during the oxidative phosphorylation (proton leak). Proton leak uncouples the processes of electron transport/proton generation and ATP synthesis.
2007-04-20 GO:0010242 oxygen evolving activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 2 H2O = O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e-. The evolution of oxygen from oxidizing water is carried out by the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II of plants. P680+, the photochemically oxidized reaction-center chlorophyll of PSII, is a strong biological oxidant. The reduction potential of P680+ is more positive than that of water, and thus it can oxidize water to give O2 and H+ ions. The oxygen escapes as a gas while the H+ ions remain in solution inside the thylakoid vesicle.
2007-04-20 GO:0010402 pectic arabinan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving arabinan, a polymer with an alpha-(1->5)-linked -L-arabinofuranose (Araf) backbone that can be substituted with Araf-alpha-(1->2)-, Araf-alpha-(1->3)-, and/or Araf-alpha-(1->3)-Araf-alpha-(1->3)-side chains. Arabinan can be found as a side chain of the pectin rhamnogalacturonan I.
2007-04-20 GO:0010403 pectic arabinogalactan I metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving pectic arabinogalactan I, an alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galactopyranose backbone that is substituted with alpha-l-Araf residues via the O-3 of the D-galactose residues. Arabinogalactan I can be found as a side chain of rhamnogalacturonan I.
2007-04-20 GO:0060093 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic Added DEFINITION Any process that stops or decreases the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033085 negative regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of T cell differentiation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0000410 negative regulation of transcription by galactose Added DEFINITION Any process involving galactose that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of transcription.
2007-04-20 GO:0010407 non-classical arabinogalactan protein metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cell wall arabinogalactan II glycoprotein where other amino acids besides Hyp, Ala, Ser, Thr and Gly can be present and grouped into regions, such as a Cys-rich or Asn-rich domains.
2007-04-20 GO:0035316 non-sensory hair organization Updated DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of non-sensory hairs. These hairs are polarized cellular extensions that cover much of the insect epidermis.
2007-04-20 GO:0033100 NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex Added DEFINITION A Gcn5-independent multisubunit complex that catalyzes the acetylation of histone H3. The budding yeast complex includes Sas3p, Taf30p, and Yng1p.
2007-04-20 GO:0005846 nuclear cap binding complex Added DEFINITION A conserved heterodimeric protein complex that binds to the 5' terminal cap structure m7G(5')ppp(5')N of nascent eukaryotic RNA polymerase II transcripts such as pre-mRNA and U snRNA.
2007-04-20 GO:0045692 negative regulation of embryo sac central cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of embryo sac central cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0045695 negative regulation of embryo sac egg cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of embryo sac egg cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033147 negative regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of an estrogen receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0033086 negative regulation of extrathymic T cell differentiation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of extrathymic T cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033132 negative regulation of glucokinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glucokinase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a glucose molecule.
2007-04-20 GO:0033125 negative regulation of GTP catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of GTP, guanosine triphosphate.
2007-04-20 GO:0035207 negative regulation of hemocyte proliferation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of hemocyte proliferation. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0033128 negative regulation of histone phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of one or more phosphate groups to a histone protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0033087 negative regulation of immature T cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033088 negative regulation of immature T cell proliferation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033137 negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033140 negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of a serine residue of a STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0060101 negative regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the internalization of bacteria, immune complexes and other particulate matter or of an apoptotic cell by phagocytosis.
2007-04-20 GO:0033159 negative regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the vectorial transfer of a protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, across the nuclear membrane.
2007-04-20 GO:0033122 negative regulation of purine nucleotide catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of purine nucleotides.
2007-04-20 GO:0033119 negative regulation of RNA splicing Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of RNA splicing.
2007-04-20 GO:0033144 negative regulation of intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0005891 voltage-gated calcium channel complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that forms a transmembrane channel through which calcium ions may cross a cell membrane in response to changes in membrane potential.
2007-04-20 GO:0008076 voltage-gated potassium channel complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that forms a transmembrane channel through which potassium ions may cross a cell membrane in response to changes in membrane potential.
2007-04-20 GO:0033093 Weibel-Palade body Added DEFINITION A large, elongated, rod-shaped secretory granule characteristic of vascular endothelial cells that contain a number of structurally and functionally distinct proteins, of which the best characterized are von Willebrand factor (VWF) and P-selectin. Weibel-Palade bodies are formed from the trans-Golgi network in a process that depends on VWF, which is densely packed in a highly organized manner, and on coat proteins that remain associated with the granules. Upon cell stimulation, regulated exocytosis releases the contained proteins to the cell surface, where they act in the recruitment of platelets and leukocytes and in inflammatory and vasoactive responses.
2007-04-20 GO:0010398 xylogalacturonan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xylogalacturonan, a pectin characterized by a backbone of alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galacturonic acid residues substituted on C-3 with beta-D-xylopyranose residues.
2007-04-20 GO:0010411 xyloglucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xyloglucan, the cross-linking glycan composed of (1->4)-beta-D-glucan backbone substituted at regular intervals with beta-D-xylosyl-(1->6) residues, which is present in the primary cell wall of most higher plants.
2007-04-20 GO:0060095 zinc potentiation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission in the presence of zinc. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.
2007-04-20 GO:0010090 trichome morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process by which the structures of a hair cell (trichome) cell are generated and organized. This process occurs while the initially relatively unspecialized epidermal cell is acquiring the specialized features of a hair cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0048629 trichome patterning Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process of establishing the non-random spatial arrangement of trichomes on the surface and margin of a leaf. Process involves signaling between adjacent epidermal cells that results in differentiation of some epidermal cells into trichomes.
2007-04-20 GO:0030533 triplet codon-amino acid adaptor activity Updated DEFINITION The codon binding activity of a tRNA that positions an activated amino acid, mediating its insertion at the correct point in the sequence of a nascent polypeptide chain during protein synthesis.
2007-04-20 GO:0033104 type VI protein secretion system complex Added DEFINITION A complex of proteins that permits the transfer of proteins into the extracellular milieu or directly into host cells via the type VI secretion system. Proteins secreted by this complex do not require an N-terminal signal sequence.
2007-04-20 GO:0033134 ubiquitin activating enzyme binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a ubiquitin activating enzyme, any of the E1 proteins.
2007-04-20 GO:0035206 regulation of hemocyte proliferation Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of hemocyte proliferation. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0033127 regulation of histone phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of one or more phosphate groups to a histone protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0033083 regulation of immature T cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033084 regulation of immature T cell proliferation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033157 regulation of intracellular protein transport Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of proteins within cells.
2007-04-20 GO:0033135 regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033139 regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of a serine residue of a STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0060099 regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the internalization of bacteria, immune complexes and other particulate matter or of an apoptotic cell by phagocytosis.
2007-04-20 GO:0033158 regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the vectorial transfer of a protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, across the nuclear membrane.
2007-04-20 GO:0035208 positive regulation of hemocyte proliferation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of hemocyte proliferation. Hemocytes are blood cells associated with a hemocoel (the cavity containing most of the major organs of the arthropod body) which are involved in defense and clotting of hemolymph, but not involved in transport of oxygen.
2007-04-20 GO:0033091 positive regulation of immature T cell proliferation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033092 positive regulation of immature T cell proliferation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of immature T cell proliferation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033138 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033141 positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation of STAT protein Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the phosphorylation of a serine residue of a STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) protein.
2007-04-20 GO:0060100 positive regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the internalization of bacteria, immune complexes and other particulate matter or of an apoptotic cell by phagocytosis.
2007-04-20 GO:0033160 positive regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the vectorial transfer of a protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, across the nuclear membrane.
2007-04-20 GO:0033123 positive regulation of purine nucleotide catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of purine nucleotides.
2007-04-20 GO:0033120 positive regulation of RNA splicing Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of RNA splicing.
2007-04-20 GO:0033145 positive regulation of intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0060094 positive regulation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.
2007-04-20 GO:0033089 positive regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of T cell differentiation in the thymus.
2007-04-20 GO:0033142 progesterone receptor binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a progesterone receptor.
2007-04-20 GO:0006464 cellular protein modification process Updated DEFINITION The covalent alteration of one or more amino acids occurring in proteins, peptides and nascent polypeptides (co-translational, post-translational modifications). Includes the modification of charged tRNAs that are destined to occur in a protein (pre-translation modification).
2007-04-20 GO:0033103 protein secretion by the type VI secretion system Added DEFINITION The process by which proteins are transferred into the extracellular milieu or directly into host cells by the type VI secretion system. Proteins secreted by this system do not require an N-terminal signal sequence.
2007-04-20 GO:0033130 acetylcholine receptor binding Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with an acetylcholine receptor.
2007-04-20 GO:0033102 acidocalcisome membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding an acidocalcisome.
2007-04-20 GO:0002460 adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains Updated DEFINITION An immune response based on directed amplification of specific receptors for antigen produced through a somatic diversification process that includes somatic recombination of germline gene segments encoding immunoglobulin superfamily domains, and allowing for enhanced responses upon subsequent exposures to the same antigen (immunological memory). Recombined receptors for antigen encoded by immunoglobulin superfamily domains include T cell receptors and immunoglobulins (antibodies).
2007-04-20 GO:0002459 adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from leucine-rich repeat domains Updated DEFINITION An immune response based on directed amplification of specific receptors for antigen produced through a somatic diversification process that includes somatic recombination of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) incorporating leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, and allowing for enhanced responses upon subsequent exposures to the same antigen (immunological memory).
2007-04-20 GO:0060111 alae of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION Raised, thickened cuticular ridges that run longitudinally, and in parallel, along the left and right sides of the animal. The alae lie above the hypodermal cells known as the lateral seam cells. In C. elegans, alae are produced in L1 larvae, dauer larvae and adult stage animals, where they consist of three, five, and three ridges of distinct morphology, respectively.
2007-04-20 GO:0033095 aleurone grain Added DEFINITION A membrane-bounded storage granule found in cells of the aleurone layer in plants; contains either a protein matrix, protein-carbohydrate bodies and/or globoids. Aleurone grains are formed by the vacuole, rough endoplasmic reticulum and dictyosomes.
2007-04-20 GO:0033096 amyloplast envelope Added DEFINITION The double lipid bilayer enclosing the amyloplast and separating its contents from the rest of the cytoplasm; includes the intermembrane space.
2007-04-20 GO:0033098 amyloplast inner membrane Added DEFINITION The inner, i.e. lumen-facing, lipid bilayer of the amyloplast envelope; also faces the amyloplast stroma.
2007-04-20 GO:0033097 amyloplast membrane Added DEFINITION Either of the lipid bilayers that surround an amyloplast and form the amyloplast envelope.
2007-04-20 GO:0017107 anion exchanger adaptor activity Added DEFINITION The binding activity of a molecule that brings together an anion exchanger and one or more other molecules, permitting them to function in a coordinated way.
2007-04-20 GO:0060108 annular furrow extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION The extracellular matrix part that is a regularly spaced indentation in the outer cortical layer of the cuticle. The pattern of annular furrows corresponds to sites of invaginations in hypodermal cell membranes that, in turn, correspond to submembranous regions where actin microfilament bundles assemble early in lethargus, the first phase of the molting cycle in which activity and feeding decline.
2007-04-20 GO:0060107 annuli extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION The extracellular matrix that is a regularly spaced circumferential ridge present in the cortical region of the cuticle. Annuli are delineated by annular furrows and are present throughout the cuticle with the exception of lateral regions where longitudinal alae are present.
2007-04-20 GO:0033070 ansamycin biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways leading to the formation of ansamycins, any of a group of complex macrolactam compounds characterized by a cyclic structure in which an aliphatic ansa chain forms a bridge between two non-adjacent positions of a cyclic p-system; many exhibit antibacterial, antifungal or antitumor activity.
2007-04-20 GO:0033069 ansamycin metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving ansamycins, any of a group of complex macrolactam compounds characterized by a cyclic structure in which an aliphatic ansa chain forms a bridge between two non-adjacent positions of a cyclic p-system; many exhibit antibacterial, antifungal or antitumor activity.
2007-04-20 GO:0055045 antipodal cell degeneration Added DEFINITION The process whereby the antipodal cells undergo programmed cell death.
2007-04-20 GO:0009557 antipodal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby an uncellularized nucleus cellularizes and acquires the specialized features of an antipodal cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0010397 apiogalacturonan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the pectic apiogalacturonan, characterized by a backbone of alpha-(1->4)-linked D-galacturonic acid residues substituted with apiose and apiobiose (D-apiofuranosyl-beta-(l->3)-D-apiose) side chains via O-2 or O-3 links.
2007-04-20 GO:0010405 arabinogalactan protein metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cell wall arabinogalactan II glycoprotein, which is composed of a group of core protein of highly varying length and domain complexity. These are O-glycosylated at one or more hydroxyproline residues by arabinogalactan (AG) type II groups, which consist of (1->3)-beta-galactan and (1->6)-beta-linked galactan chains connected to each other by (1->3,1->6)-linked branch points, O-3 and O-6 positions substituted with terminal arabinosyl residues. Also, rhamnose, fucose, glucuronic and galacturonic acid can be present in the glycan structures.
2007-04-20 GO:0010416 arabinoxylan-containing compound metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving xylan, a polymer containing a beta-1,4-linked D-xylose backbone decorated with arabinose side units.
2007-04-20 GO:0010381 attachment of peroxisome to chloroplast Added DEFINITION The process by which a peroxisome is transported to, and/or maintained in, a location adjacent to the chloroplast.
2007-04-20 GO:0033099 attachment organelle Added DEFINITION A membrane-bounded extension of the cell, originally characterized in Mycoplasma species, that contains an electron-dense core that is part of the cytoskeleton and is oriented lengthwise and ends distally in a bulbous knob (terminal button). Required for adherence to host cells and involved in gliding motility and cell division.
2007-04-20 GO:0033111 attachment organelle membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding an attachment organelle.
2007-04-20 GO:0060110 basal layer of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION The layer of cuticle most closely apposed to the hypodermal cells. The morphology of the basal layer varies with life stage. In adult C. elegans animals, the basal layers is comprised of three sublayers: two fibrous layers whose fibers run in clockwise and counter-clockwise directions meeting one another at a 60 degree angle, and an amorphous basal layer that lies underneath the fibrous layers and directly contacts the hypodermis. In C. elegans dauer and L1 larval stage animals, the basal layer is characterized by a striated pattern that appears to derive from interwoven laminae.
2007-04-20 GO:0006285 base-excision repair, AP site formation Updated DEFINITION The formation of an AP site, a deoxyribose sugar with a missing base, by DNA glycosylase which recognizes an altered base in DNA and catalyzes its hydrolytic removal. This sugar phosphate is the substrate recognized by the AP endonuclease, which cuts the DNA phosphodiester backbone at the 5' side of the altered site to leave a gap which is subsequently repaired.
2007-04-20 GO:0005488 binding Updated DEFINITION The selective, often stoichiometric, interaction of a molecule with one or more specific sites on another molecule.
2007-04-20 GO:0043708 cell adhesion involved in biofilm formation Added DEFINITION The attachment of a cell to a surface, via cell adhesion molecules, during the formation of a biofilm.
2007-04-20 GO:0010401 pectic galactan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving galactan, a polymer of D-galactosyl units that can be found as a side chain of the pectin rhamnogalacturonan I.
2007-04-20 GO:0043710 cell adhesion involved in multi-species biofilm formation Added DEFINITION The attachment of a cell to a surface, via cell adhesion molecules, during the formation of a biofilm composed of microorganisms of different species.
2007-04-20 GO:0043709 cell adhesion involved in single-species biofilm formation Added DEFINITION The attachment of a cell to a surface, via cell adhesion molecules, during the formation of a biofilm composed of microorganisms of the same species.
2007-04-20 GO:0043707 cell adhesion involved in single-species biofilm formation in or on host organism Added DEFINITION The attachment of a cell to either a host cell or a microbial cell of the same species, or to an underlying host substrate, such as the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules, occurring during the formation of a biofilm in or on a surface in a host species.
2007-04-20 GO:0022403 cell cycle phase Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process comprising the steps by which a cell progresses through one of the biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events.
2007-04-20 GO:0010404 cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein that consist of a core-protein backbone O-glycosylated by one or more complex carbohydrates.
2007-04-20 GO:0010382 cellular cell wall macromolecule metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving the cell wall, the rigid or semi-rigid envelope lying outside the cell membrane of plant, fungal and most prokaryotic cells, maintaining their shape and protecting them from osmotic lysis.
2007-04-20 GO:0010383 cell wall polysaccharide metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cell wall polysaccharides.
2007-04-20 GO:0010384 cell wall proteoglycan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving cell wall peptidoglycan, a group of glycoproteins that consist of a core-protein backbone O-glycosylated by one or more complex carbohydrates.
2007-04-20 GO:0005933 cellular bud Updated DEFINITION A protuberance from a cell of an organism that reproduces by budding, which will grow larger and become a separate daughter cell after nuclear division, cytokinesis, and cell wall formation (when appropriate). The daughter cell may completely separate from the mother cell, or the mother and daughter cells may remain associated.
2007-04-20 GO:0033101 cellular bud membrane Added DEFINITION The portion of the plasma membrane surrounding a cellular bud.
2007-04-20 GO:0005934 cellular bud tip Updated DEFINITION The end of a cellular bud distal to the site of attachment to the mother cell.
2007-04-20 GO:0009558 embryo sac cellularization Updated DEFINITION The process by which the eight-nucleate single celled female gametophyte develops into the seven-celled female gametophyte. This mature structure contains two synergid cells and an egg cell at the micropylar end, and three antipodal cells at the other end. A binucleate endosperm mother cell is formed at the center.
2007-04-20 GO:0046858 chlorosome Updated DEFINITION A large enclosure of aggregated pigment, typically bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c), that acts as a light-harvesting antenna structure and is characteristic of green photosynthetic bacteria (e.g. Chlorobiaceae). The BChl aggregates are organized into lamellar elements by pigment-pigment rather than pigment-protein interactions. Chlorosomes also contain BChl a, carotenoids, quinones, lipids, and proteins, and are attached to the cytoplasmic membrane via a BChl a-containing protein baseplate.
2007-04-20 GO:0033105 chlorosome envelope Added DEFINITION The membrane-like structure, composed of glycolipids and proteins, that encloses the pigments and other contents of the chlorosome.
2007-04-20 GO:0046862 chromoplast membrane Updated DEFINITION Either of the lipid bilayers that surround a chromoplast and form the chromoplast envelope.
2007-04-20 GO:0005801 cis-Golgi network Updated DEFINITION The network of interconnected tubular and cisternal structures located at the convex side of the Golgi apparatus, which abuts the endoplasmic reticulum.
2007-04-20 GO:0033106 cis-Golgi network membrane Added DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding any of the compartments that make up the cis-Golgi network.
2007-04-20 GO:0010406 classical arabinogalactan protein metabolic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving a cell wall arabinogalactan II glycoprotein, which is composed of a group of core protein containing Hyp, Ala, Ser, Thr and Gly as the major amino acid constituents, and the C-terminus is GPI anchored.
2007-04-20 GO:0005601 classical-complement-pathway C3/C5 convertase complex Added DEFINITION A heterodimeric protein complex that catalyzes the cleavage of complement components C3 and C5, and acts in the classical pathway of complement activation; consists of one monomer of C2a and one monomer of C4b; C2a is the catalytic subunit, but cannot catalyze cleavage alone.
2007-04-20 GO:0060102 collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION A collagen and cuticulin-based noncellular, multilayered structure that is synthesized by an underlying ectodermal (hypodermal) cell layer. The cuticle serves essential functions in body morphology, locomotion, and environmental protection.
2007-04-20 GO:0060103 collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix part Added DEFINITION Any constituent part of the collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix, a collagen and cuticulin-based noncellular, multilayered structure that is synthesized by an underlying ectodermal (hypodermal) cell layer.
2007-04-20 GO:0005602 complement component C1 complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex composed of six subunits of C1q, each formed of the three homologous polypeptide chains C1QA, C1QB, and C1QB, and tetramer of two C1QR and two C1QS polypeptide chains.
2007-04-20 GO:0000439 core TFIIH complex Added DEFINITION A complex that contains kinase activity directed towards the C-terminal Domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and is essential for initiation at RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro. In S. cerevisiae, it is composed of the 5-subunit core (Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4), Ssl2p, and TFIIK (Kin28p, Ccl1p, and Tfb3p). All of the subunits have equivalents in humans: the 5 subunit core is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34; the equivalent of the TFIIK subcomplex is composed of MO15, Mat1, and a cyclin; the human equivalent of Ssl2p is XPB.
2007-04-20 GO:0000438 core TFIIH complex portion of holo TFIIH complex Added DEFINITION The core TFIIH complex when it is part of the general transcription factor TFIIH. In S. cerevisiae, it is composed of Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4. In humans, it is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34.
2007-04-20 GO:0000440 core TFIIH complex portion of NEF3 complex Added DEFINITION The core TFIIH complex when it is part of the nucleotide-excision repair factor 3 (NEF3). In S. cerevisiae, it is composed of Rad3, Tfb1, Tfb2, Ssl1, Tfb4. In humans, it is composed of XPD, p62, p55, p44, p34.
2007-04-20 GO:0033109 cortical actin cytoskeleton stabilization Added DEFINITION The process by which the assembly and arrangement of cytoskeletal structures in the actin cortex with respect to the plasma membrane is maintained.
2007-04-20 GO:0060106 cortical layer of collagen and cuticulin-based cuticle extracellular matrix Added DEFINITION The cuticle layer that lies directly beneath the lipid-containing epicuticle. The cortical layer contains collagens and insoluble, non-collagenous cuticulins and is characterized by a distinct annular pattern consisting of regularly spaced annular ridges delineated by annular furrows.
2007-04-20 GO:0010388 cullin deneddylation Added DEFINITION The modification of cullins by removal of ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 (RUB1).
2007-04-20 GO:0033107 CVT vesicle Added DEFINITION A cytosolic vesicle that is enclosed by a double membrane and is implicated in the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway. These vesicles are found in the yeast S. cerevisiae, and contain vacuolar hydrolases, aminopeptidase I (Ape1p) and alpha-mannosidase (Ams1p).
2007-04-20 GO:0005578 proteinaceous extracellular matrix Updated DEFINITION A layer consisting mainly of proteins (especially collagen) and glycosaminoglycans (mostly as proteoglycans) that forms a sheet underlying or overlying cells such as endothelial and epithelial cells. The proteins are secreted by cells in the vicinity.
2007-04-20 GO:0033094 butane-1,4-diamine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: putrescine + 2-oxoglutarate = L-glutamate + 1-pyrroline + H(2)O.
2007-04-20 GO:0005093 Rab GDP-dissociation inhibitor activity Added DEFINITION Prevents the dissociation of GDP from the small GTPase Rab, thereby preventing GTP from binding.
2007-04-20 GO:0002822 regulation of adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of an adaptive immune response based on somatic recombination of immune receptors built from immunoglobulin superfamily domains.
2007-04-20 GO:0002813 regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-negative bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0002816 regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of biosynthesis of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria.
2007-04-20 GO:0010380 regulation of chlorophyll biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of chlorophyll, any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment, from less complex precursors.
2007-04-20 GO:0045694 regulation of embryo sac egg cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of embryo sac egg cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0033146 regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of an estrogen receptor signaling pathway.
2007-04-20 GO:0033082 regulation of extrathymic T cell differentiation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of extrathymic T cell differentiation.
2007-04-20 GO:0010389 regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the rate or extent of progression from G2 phase to M phase of the mitotic cell cycle.
2007-04-20 GO:0033131 regulation of glucokinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glucokinase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a glucose molecule.
2007-04-20 GO:0033124 regulation of GTP catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of GTP, guanosine triphosphate.
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