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GO Term History: Displaying 174 audit records for all terms for the date 2007-02-16

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This page displays the differences recorded in the full Gene Ontology OBO v1.2 file as audited by the UniProt-GOA database during its daily update cycle.
If there is any delay in uploading the current OBO file, the changes displayed and the date recorded for these changes may not correspond to when the changes to the OBO file were committed.

All changes

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2007-02-16 GO:0030094 plasma membrane-derived photosystem I Updated DEFINITION Photosystem located in the plasma membrane that functions as a light-dependent plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from plastocyanin to ferredoxin.
2007-02-16 GO:0030096 plasma membrane-derived thylakoid photosystem II Updated DEFINITION An integral plasma membrane complex containing the P680 reaction center. In the light, PSII functions as a water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from water to plastoquinone.
2007-02-16 GO:0045260 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase complex Updated DEFINITION The complex that catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in the plasma membrane, during oxidative phosphorylation; it catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and orthophosphate.
2007-02-16 GO:0045262 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) Updated DEFINITION The catalytic sector of the plasma membrane hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase; it comprises the catalytic core and central stalk, and is peripherally associated with the plasma membrane when the entire ATP synthase is assembled.
2007-02-16 GO:0045264 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, coupling factor F(o) Updated DEFINITION All non-F1 subunits of the plasma membrane hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase, including integral and peripheral plasma membrane proteins.
2007-02-16 GO:0045268 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase, catalytic core Updated DEFINITION The hexamer that possesses the catalytic activity of the plasma membrane hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase.
2007-02-16 GO:0045270 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase, central stalk Updated DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the plasma membrane-associated Fo proteins; rotates within the catalytic core during catalysis.
2007-02-16 GO:0045266 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase, stator stalk Updated DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the plasma membrane-associated F0 proteins; is thought to prevent futile rotation of the catalytic core.
2007-02-16 GO:0030062 mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme complex Updated DEFINITION Any of the heteromeric enzymes, located in the mitochondrion, that act in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.
2007-02-16 GO:0012511 monolayer-surrounded lipid storage body Updated DEFINITION A subcellular organelle of plant cells surrounded by 'half-unit' or a monolayer membrane instead of the more usual bilayer. A droplet of triacylglycerol surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, interacting with the triacylglycerols and the hydrophilic head groups facing the cytosol, and containing major protein components called oleosins.
2007-02-16 GO:0005862 muscle thin filament tropomyosin Updated DEFINITION A form of the tropomyosin dimer found associated with actin and the troponin complex in muscle thin filaments.
2007-02-16 GO:0007027 negative regulation of axonemal microtubule depolymerization Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the depolymerization of the specialized microtubules of the axoneme.
2007-02-16 GO:0007026 negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule depolymerization; prevention of depolymerization of a microtubule can result from binding by 'capping' at the plus end (e.g. by interaction with another cellular protein of structure) or by exposing microtubules to a stabilizing drug such as taxol.
2007-02-16 GO:0032929 negative regulation of superoxide anion generation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of enzymatic generation of superoxide by a cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0043599 nuclear DNA replication factor C complex Updated DEFINITION A nuclear complex of five polypeptides that loads the DNA polymerase processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto DNA, thereby permitting processive DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta or epsilon. In Saccharomyces and several other species, the subunits are known as Rfc1p-Rfc5p, although subunit names do not necessarily correspond between different species.
2007-02-16 GO:0055029 nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerase complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex, located in the nucleus, that possesses DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0043596 nuclear replication fork Updated DEFINITION The Y-shaped region of a nuclear replicating DNA molecule, resulting from the separation of the DNA strands and in which the synthesis of new strands takes place. Also includes associated protein complexes.
2007-02-16 GO:0043601 nuclear replisome Updated DEFINITION A multi-component enzymatic machine at the nuclear replication fork, which mediates DNA replication. Includes DNA primase, one or more DNA polymerases, DNA helicases, and other proteins.
2007-02-16 GO:0030288 outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space Updated DEFINITION The region between the inner (cytoplasmic) membrane and outer membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0019826 oxygen sensor activity Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with and responding, e.g. by conformational change, to changes in the cellular level of, oxygen (O2).
2007-02-16 GO:0055030 peptidoglycan-based spore wall Added DEFINITION A spore wall consisting of a peptidoglycan-containing inner layer (the spore cortex) surrounded by a multilayered proteinaceous coat. An exosporium may be present as an extreme outer layer.
2007-02-16 GO:0060039 pericardium development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pericardium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the aorta, vena cava and the pulmonary artery.
2007-02-16 GO:0060037 pharyngeal system development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pharyngeal system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The pharyngeal system is a transient embryonic complex that is specific to vertebrates. It comprises the pharyngeal arches, bulges of tissues of mesoderm and neural crest derivation through which pass nerves and pharyngeal arch arteries. The arches are separated internally by pharyngeal pouches, evaginations of foregut endoderm, and externally by pharyngeal clefts, invaginations of surface ectoderm. The development of the system ends when the stucture it contributes to are forming: the thymus, thyroid, parathyroids, maxilla, mandible, aortic arch, cardiac outflow tract, external and middle ear.
2007-02-16 GO:0009420 bacterial-type flagellum filament Updated DEFINITION The long (approximately 20 nm), thin external structure of the flagellum, which acts as a propeller.
2007-02-16 GO:0009421 bacterial-type flagellum filament cap Updated DEFINITION The proteinaceous structure at the distal tip of the flagellar filament.
2007-02-16 GO:0009424 bacterial-type flagellum hook Updated DEFINITION The portion of the flagellum that connects the filament to the basal body.
2007-02-16 GO:0009422 bacterial-type flagellum hook-filament junction Updated DEFINITION The region of the flagellum where the hook and filament meet.
2007-02-16 GO:0009288 bacterial-type flagellum Updated DEFINITION A 20 nm diameter filament composed of subunits of flagellin driven passively at its base by a motor powered by the transmembrane proton potential.
2007-02-16 GO:0009425 bacterial-type flagellum basal body Updated DEFINITION One of the three major substructures of the flagellin-based flagellum; a structure consisting of a rod, a series of rings, the Mot proteins, the switch complex and the flagellum-specific export apparatus. The rings anchor the flagellum to the cytoplasmic membrane (MS ring), the peptidoglycan (P ring) and the outer membrane (L ring).
2007-02-16 GO:0044461 bacterial-type flagellum part Updated DEFINITION Any constituent part of flagellum, a 20 nm diameter filament composed of subunits of flagellin driven passively at its base by a motor powered by the transmembrane proton potential.
2007-02-16 GO:0055031 gamma-tubulin large complex, equatorial microtubule organizing center Added DEFINITION A complex of gamma tubulin and associated proteins thought to be formed by multimerization of gamma-tubulin small complexes located at equatorial microtubule organizing centers.
2007-02-16 GO:0055033 gamma-tubulin large complex, interphase microtubule organizing center Added DEFINITION A complex of gamma tubulin and associated proteins thought to be formed by multimerization of gamma-tubulin small complexes located at interphase microtubule organizing centers.
2007-02-16 GO:0055032 gamma-tubulin large complex, spindle pole body Added DEFINITION A complex of gamma tubulin and associated proteins thought to be formed by multimerization of gamma-tubulin small complexes located in the spindle pole body.
2007-02-16 GO:0000927 gamma-tubulin small complex, centrosomal Updated DEFINITION A centrosomal complex usually comprising two gamma-tubulin molecules, at least two conserved non-tubulin proteins that multimerize along with additional non-tubulin proteins in animal cells into larger functional complexes. Gamma-tubulin small complexes are thought to be the repeating unit making up the core of the gamma-tubulin ring complex.
2007-02-16 GO:0000928 gamma-tubulin small complex, spindle pole body Updated DEFINITION A complex composed of two gamma-tubulin molecules and conserved non-tubulin proteins isolated by fractionation from cells. The complex, approximately 6S-9S, is analogous to the small complex in animal cells but contains fewer subunits, and is not thought to multimerize into larger functional units, like complexes in those organisms.
2007-02-16 GO:0010336 gibberellic acid homeostasis Added DEFINITION Maintenance of endogenous concentration of primary gibberellic acid equilibrium, or constant level of gibberellic acid in a biological system by a number of biochemical processes including transport, biosynthesis, catabolism and conjugation.
2007-02-16 GO:0045247 cytosolic electron transfer flavoprotein complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex located in the cytosol containing flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that, together with an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, forms a system that oxidizes an acyl-CoA molecule and reduces ubiquinone and other acceptors.
2007-02-16 GO:0045243 cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase complex (NAD+) Updated DEFINITION Cytosolic complex that possesses isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0045248 cytosolic oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION A cytosolic complex of multiple copies of three enzymatic components: oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) ; EC:1.2.4.2 (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase ; EC:2.3.1.61 (E2) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase ; EC:1.8.1.4 (E3); catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and carbon dioxide (CO2).
2007-02-16 GO:0032931 histone acetyltransferase activity (H3-K56 specific) Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the addition of an acetyl group onto lysine at position 56 of the histone H3 protein.
2007-02-16 GO:0045203 integral component of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Penetrating at least one phospholipid bilayer of the external outer membrane of the cell. May also refer to the state of being buried in the bilayer with no exposure outside the bilayer.
2007-02-16 GO:0031241 periplasmic side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION The side of the outer membrane that faces the periplasm of the cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0031230 intrinsic component of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Located in the cell outer membrane such that some covalently attached portion of the gene product spans or is embedded in one or both leaflets of the membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0031243 intrinsic component of external side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Located in the outer membrane of the cell such that some covalently attached portion of the gene product spans or is embedded in one or both leaflets of the membrane, with the bulk of the gene product located on the side opposite to the side that faces the periplasm.
2007-02-16 GO:0031246 intrinsic component of periplasmic side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Located in the outer membrane of the cell such that some covalently attached portion of the gene product spans or is embedded in one or both leaflets of the membrane, with the bulk of the gene product located on the side that faces the periplasm.
2007-02-16 GO:0051536 iron-sulfur cluster binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with an iron-sulfur cluster, a combination of iron and sulfur atoms.
2007-02-16 GO:0010337 regulation of salicylic acid metabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions involving salicylic acid.
2007-02-16 GO:0032921 sarcosine oxidase complex Added DEFINITION A complex consisting of 4 protein subunits as a heterotetramer, that possesses sarcosine oxidase activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0051077 secondary cell septum Updated DEFINITION Cell wall structures composed of linear polysaccharides which are deposited at both sides of the primary septum at 90 degrees to the primary septum.
2007-02-16 GO:0010334 sesquiterpene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalyzing the formation of sesquiterpenes (terpene containing 15 carbons = three isoprene units) through the cyclization of trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate (an allylic prenyl diphosphate intermediates of the terpene biosynthesis pathway).
2007-02-16 GO:0005786 signal recognition particle, endoplasmic reticulum targeting Updated DEFINITION A ribonucleoprotein particle of 325 kDa composed of a 7S (300 nucleotide) RNA molecule and a complex of six different polypeptides. This binds both to the N-terminal signal peptide for proteins destined for the endoplasmic reticulum as they emerge from the large ribosomal subunit and also to the ribosome. This binding arrests further translation thereby preventing the proteins from being released into the cytosol. The SRP-ribosome complex then diffuses to the endoplasmic reticulum where it is bound to the signal recognition particle receptor, which allows resumption of protein synthesis and facilitates the passage of the growing polypeptide chain through the translocon. Through a process involving GTP hydrolysis, the SRP-SRP receptor complex dissociates and SRP returns to the cytosol. Of the six polypeptides of SRP the 54 kDa subunit (SRP54) is the central player. It contains an N-terminal GTPase domain and a C-terminal domain that binds directly to the signal peptide and the SRP RNA.
2007-02-16 GO:0048501 signal recognition particle, plasma membrane targeting Updated DEFINITION A complex consisting of a protein and RNA component which binds the signal sequence of some proteins and facilitates their export to or across the plasma membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0032918 spermidine acetylation Added DEFINITION The modification of spermidine by addition of acetyl groups.
2007-02-16 GO:0032919 spermine acetylation Added DEFINITION The modification of spermine by addition of acetyl groups.
2007-02-16 GO:0006994 positive regulation of transcription via sterol regulatory element binding involved in ER-nuclear sterol response pathway Updated DEFINITION The process by which a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) mediates an increase in rate or extent of transcription of nuclear target genes in response to sterol depletion. SREBPs are transcription factors that bind sterol regulatory elements (SREs), DNA motifs found in the promoters of target genes.
2007-02-16 GO:0006992 sterol regulatory element binding protein cleavage involved in ER-nuclear sterol response pathway Updated DEFINITION The proteolytic release of a transcriptionally active sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) from intracellular membranes, freeing it to move to the nucleus and upregulate transcription of target genes, in response to depleted sterol levels.
2007-02-16 GO:0006993 sterol regulatory element binding protein import into nucleus involved in sterol depletion response Updated DEFINITION The transfer of a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) into the nucleus across the nuclear membrane, in response to sterol depletion. SREBPs are transcription factors that bind sterol regulatory elements (SREs), DNA motifs found in the promoters of target genes.
2007-02-16 GO:0035103 sterol regulatory element binding protein cleavage Updated DEFINITION The proteolytic release of a transcriptionally active sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) from intracellular membranes, freeing it to move to the nucleus and upregulate transcription of target genes, in response to altered levels of one or more lipids.
2007-02-16 GO:0035105 sterol regulatory element binding protein import into nucleus Updated DEFINITION The transfer of a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) into the nucleus, across the nuclear membrane, in response to altered levels of one or more lipids. SREBPs are transcription factors that bind sterol regulatory elements (SREs), DNA motifs found in the promoters of target genes.
2007-02-16 GO:0017093 sterol regulatory element-binding protein protease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds within a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). SREBPs are transcription factors that bind sterol regulatory elements (SREs), DNA motifs found in the promoters of target genes.
2007-02-16 GO:0017094 sterol regulatory element-binding protein site 1 protease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage of a Leu-Ser bond within the luminal loop of a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). This activity is the first of two sequential cleavage reactions and cleaves SREBP into two membrane-bound halves.
2007-02-16 GO:0017092 sterol regulatory element-binding protein site 2 protease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage, within the membrane-spanning helix, of the amino-terminal half (the intermediate form) of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). This activity releases the transcription factor domain of SREBP from the membrane, freeing it to enter the nucleus.
2007-02-16 GO:0010333 terpene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalyzing the formation of cyclic terpenes through the cyclization of linear terpenes containing varying quantities of isoprene units (i.e. isopentenyl-PP, geranyl-PP, farnesyl-PP and geranylgeranyl-PP).
2007-02-16 GO:0043556 regulation of translation in response to oxidative stress Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of translation as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.
2007-02-16 GO:0010332 response to gamma radiation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a gamma radiation stimulus. Gamma radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) or light emission of a specific frequency produced from sub-atomic particle interaction, such as electron-positron annihilation and radioactive decay. Gamma rays are generally characterised as EMR having the highest frequency and energy, and also the shortest wavelength, within the electromagnetic radiation spectrum.
2007-02-16 GO:0010335 response to non-ionic osmotic stress Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating an increase or decrease in the concentration of non-ionic solutes (e.g. mannitol, sorbitol) in the environment.
2007-02-16 GO:0060041 retina development in camera-type eye Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the retina over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The retina is the innermost layer or coating at the back of the eyeball, which is sensitive to light and in which the optic nerve terminates.
2007-02-16 GO:0060042 retina morphogenesis in camera-type eye Added DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of the retina are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form.
2007-02-16 GO:0060040 retinal bipolar neuron differentiation Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a bipolar cell, the last neuron to be generated in the retina.
2007-02-16 GO:0010338 leaf formation Added DEFINITION The process that gives rise to a leaf. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts.
2007-02-16 GO:0043082 megagametophyte egg cell nucleus Updated DEFINITION The nucleus of a plant egg cell, the female gamete, at the micropylar end of the embryo and its descendents.
2007-02-16 GO:0020026 merozoite dense granule Updated DEFINITION Electron-dense organelle with a granular internal matrix found throughout the merozoite life cycle stage of apicomplexan parasites; contains proteins destined to be secreted into the parasitophorous vacuole following parasite invasion of a host cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0030668 merozoite dense granule membrane Updated DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding a dense granule of the type found in apicomplexan parasites.
2007-02-16 GO:0009434 microtubule-based flagellum Updated DEFINITION A long, whiplike protrusion from the surface of a eukaryotic cell, whose undulations drive the cell through a liquid medium; similar in structure to a cilium. The flagellum is based on a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules.
2007-02-16 GO:0044442 microtubule-based flagellum part Updated DEFINITION Any constituent part of a microtubule-based flagellum, a long, whiplike protrusion from the surface of a eukaryotic cell, whose undulations drive the cell through a liquid medium; similar in structure to a cilium. The flagellum is based on a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules.
2007-02-16 GO:0048196 plant extracellular matrix Updated DEFINITION The matrix external to the cell, composed of the cell wall and middle lamella.
2007-02-16 GO:0005947 mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Mitochondrial complex that possesses alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0042776 mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Updated DEFINITION The transport of protons across a mitochondrial membrane to generate an electrochemical gradient (proton-motive force) that powers ATP synthesis.
2007-02-16 GO:0017133 mitochondrial electron transfer flavoprotein complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex located in the mitochondrion. It contains flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that, together with an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, forms a system that oxidizes an acyl-CoA molecule and reduces ubiquinone and other acceptors in the mitochondrial electron transport system.
2007-02-16 GO:0005962 mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase complex (NAD+) Updated DEFINITION Mitochondrial complex that possesses isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0009353 mitochondrial oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION A complex of multiple copies of three enzymatic components: oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) ; EC:1.2.4.2 (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase ; EC:2.3.1.61 (E2) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase ; EC:1.8.1.4 (E3); catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and carbon dioxide (CO2) within the mitochondrial matrix.
2007-02-16 GO:0005753 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex Updated DEFINITION The mitochondrial complex that catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in mitochondria, during oxidative phosphorylation; it catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and orthophosphate.
2007-02-16 GO:0000275 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) Updated DEFINITION The catalytic sector of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase; it comprises the catalytic core and central stalk, and is peripherally associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane when the entire ATP synthase is assembled.
2007-02-16 GO:0000276 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, coupling factor F(o) Updated DEFINITION All non-F1 subunits of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase, including integral and peripheral mitochondrial inner membrane proteins.
2007-02-16 GO:0005754 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, catalytic core Updated DEFINITION The hexamer that possesses the catalytic activity of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase.
2007-02-16 GO:0005756 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, central stalk Updated DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the mitochondrial membrane-associated F0 proteins; rotates within the catalytic core during catalysis.
2007-02-16 GO:0000274 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, stator stalk Updated DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the mitochondrial membrane-associated F0 proteins; is thought to prevent futile rotation of the catalytic core.
2007-02-16 GO:0019910 mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) phosphatase complex Updated DEFINITION A mitochondrial complex of a regulatory and catalytic subunit that catalyzes the dephosphorylation and concomitant reactivation of the alpha subunit of the E1 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
2007-02-16 GO:0005967 mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Complex that carries out the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl-CoA in eukaryotes; includes subunits possessing three catalytic activities: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (E2), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). Usually contains more subunits than its bacterial counterpart; for example, one known complex contains 30 E1 dimers, 60 E2 monomers, and 6 E3 dimers as well as a few copies of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase.
2007-02-16 GO:0005747 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondrion. It contains about 25 different polypeptide subunits, including NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), flavin mononucleotide and several different iron-sulfur clusters containing non-heme iron. The iron undergoes oxidation-reduction between Fe(II) and Fe(III), and catalyzes proton translocation linked to the oxidation of NADH by ubiquinone.
2007-02-16 GO:0042653 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, membrane segment Updated DEFINITION The mitochondrial membrane segment of respiratory chain complex I. Respiratory chain complex I is an enzyme of the respiratory chain, consisting of at least 34 polypeptide chains. The electrons of NADH enter the chain at this complex. The complete complex is L-shaped, with a horizontal arm lying in the membrane and a vertical arm that projects into the matrix.
2007-02-16 GO:0032926 negative regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any activin receptor signaling pathway.
2007-02-16 GO:0032932 negative regulation of astral microtubule depolymerization Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the depolymerization of astral microtubules.
2007-02-16 GO:0045250 cytosolic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Complex that carries out the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl-CoA; comprises subunits possessing three catalytic activities: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (E2), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). Usually contains fewer subunits than its eukaryotic counterpart; for example, the E. coli complex contains 12 E1 dimers, 8 E2 trimers, and 6 E3 dimers arranged in highly symmetric cubic order.
2007-02-16 GO:0045246 cytosolic tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme complex Updated DEFINITION Any of the heteromeric enzymes, located in the cytosol, that act in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.
2007-02-16 GO:0031205 endoplasmic reticulum Sec complex Updated DEFINITION An endoplasmic reticulum membrane-associated complex involved in the translocation of proteins that are targeted to the ER. In yeast, this complex consists of two subcomplexes, namely, the Sec61 complex and the Sec62/Sec63 complex.
2007-02-16 GO:0042601 endospore-forming forespore Updated DEFINITION Portion of the cell formed during the process of bacterial sporulation that will ultimately become the core of the endospore. An endospore is a type of dormant cell that is resistant to adverse conditions.
2007-02-16 GO:0031240 external side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION The side of the outer membrane that is opposite to the side that faces the periplasm of the cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0031244 extrinsic component of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Loosely bound to one surface of the outer membrane of the cell, but not integrated into the hydrophobic region.
2007-02-16 GO:0031242 extrinsic component of external side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Loosely bound to the surface of the outer membrane of the cell that faces away from the cytoplasm, but not integrated into the hydrophobic region.
2007-02-16 GO:0031245 extrinsic component of periplasmic side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Loosely bound to the surface of the outer membrane of the cell that faces the cytoplasm, but not integrated into the hydrophobic region.
2007-02-16 GO:0001674 female germ cell nucleus Updated DEFINITION MERGED DEFINITION: TARGET DEFINITION: The nucleus of the female germ cell, a cell specialized to produce haploid gametes, and its descendents. -------------------- SOURCE DEFINITION: The nucleus of the female germ cell, a cell specialized to produce haploid gametes, and its descendents. As in, but not restricted to, the multicellular animals (Metazoa, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33208).
2007-02-16 GO:0009433 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, C ring Updated DEFINITION Cytoplasmic ring located at the base of the flagellar basal body; acts as a rotor; includes three switch proteins, which generate torque and can change their conformational state in a bimodal fashion, so that the motor direction can switch between clockwise and counterclockwise.
2007-02-16 GO:0009426 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, distal rod Updated DEFINITION The portion of the central rod of the flagellar basal body that is distal to the cell membrane; spans most of the distance between the inner and outer membranes.
2007-02-16 GO:0009427 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, distal rod, L ring Updated DEFINITION One of the rings of the flagellar basal body; anchors the basal body to the outer membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0009428 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, distal rod, P ring Updated DEFINITION One of the rings of the flagellar basal body; anchors the basal body to the peptidoglycan layer.
2007-02-16 GO:0009431 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, MS ring Updated DEFINITION One of the rings of the flagellar basal body; a double-flanged ring that anchors the basal body to the cytoplasmic membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0009429 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, proximal rod Updated DEFINITION The portion of the central rod of the flagellar basal body that is proximal to the cell membrane; proximal rod connects the distal rod to the flagellar motor.
2007-02-16 GO:0030694 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, rod Updated DEFINITION The central portion of the flagellar basal body, which spans the periplasm and threads through the rings.
2007-02-16 GO:0032928 regulation of superoxide anion generation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of enzymatic generation of superoxide by a cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0016362 activin receptor activity, type II Updated DEFINITION Combining with activin to initiate a change in cell activity; upon ligand binding, binds to catalyzes the phosphorylation of type I activin receptor.
2007-02-16 GO:0032924 activin receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION A series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of any member of the activin family binding to a cell surface receptor.
2007-02-16 GO:0060038 cardiac muscle cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The rapid expansion of a cardiac muscle cell population by cell division.
2007-02-16 GO:0009279 cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION A lipid bilayer that forms the outermost layer of the cell envelope; enriched in polysaccharide and protein; the outer leaflet of the membrane contains specific lipopolysaccharide structures.
2007-02-16 GO:0009986 cell surface Updated DEFINITION The external part of the cell wall and/or plasma membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0030287 cell wall-bounded periplasmic space Updated DEFINITION The region between the plasma membrane and the cell wall.
2007-02-16 GO:0007349 cellularization Updated DEFINITION The separation of a multi-nucleate cell or syncytium into individual cells.
2007-02-16 GO:0009831 plant-type cell wall modification involved in multidimensional cell growth Updated DEFINITION The series of events that occur during cell growth that result in chemical or structural changes to existing cell walls of the type composed chiefly of cellulose and pectin.
2007-02-16 GO:0010330 cellulose synthase complex Updated DEFINITION The multimeric protein complex, organized in a rosette, which catalyzes the biosynthesis of cellulose for the plant cell wall.
2007-02-16 GO:0009277 fungal-type cell wall Updated DEFINITION A rigid yet dynamic structure surrounding the plasma membrane that affords protection from stresses and contributes to cell morphogenesis, consisting of an inner layer formed of a network of beta-glucans crosslinked to chitin and an outer layer of mannoproteins and other glycoproteins. The inner layer contains primarily beta1,3-glucans; beta1,6-glucans are present in lower amounts, and in some species alpha-glucans and other carbohydrate polymers are also present. Enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis are also found in the cell wall. Note that some forms of fungi develop a capsule outside of the cell wall under certain circumstances; this is considered a separate structure. As in, but not restricted to, the fungi (Fungi, ncbi_taxonomy_id:4751).
2007-02-16 GO:0001410 chlamydospore formation Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the chlamydospore over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Chlamydospores are thick-walled, spore-like cells borne on the ends of elongated cells attached to hyphae or pseudohyphae, seen in the species Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. Note that although these structures resemble the chlamydospores of other fungi, it is not known whether they are true spores, so this process is not currently considered an instance of spore formation. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Candida albicans (Candida albicans, ncbi_taxonomy_id:5476).
2007-02-16 GO:0045320 chloroplast proton-transporting ATP synthase complex Updated DEFINITION A chloroplast multisubunit hydrogen-translocating F-type ATPase. F-type ATPases have 2 components, CF(1), the catalytic core, and CF(0), the membrane proton channel. CF(1) has five subunits, alpha(3), beta(3), gamma(1), delta(1), and epsilon(1). CF(0) has three main subunits, a, b and c.
2007-02-16 GO:0030093 chloroplast photosystem I Updated DEFINITION Photosystem located in the chloroplast that functions as a light-dependent plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from plastocyanin to ferredoxin.
2007-02-16 GO:0030095 chloroplast photosystem II Updated DEFINITION An integral chloroplast membrane complex containing the P680 reaction center. In the light, PSII functions as a water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from water to plastoquinone.
2007-02-16 GO:0009573 chloroplast ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase complex Updated DEFINITION A complex containing either both large and small subunits or just small subunits which carries out the activity of producing 3-phosphoglycerate from carbon dioxide and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate.
2007-02-16 GO:0009534 chloroplast thylakoid Updated DEFINITION Sac-like membranous structures (cisternae) in a chloroplast combined into stacks (grana) and present singly in the stroma (stroma thylakoids or frets) as interconnections between grana.
2007-02-16 GO:0009543 chloroplast thylakoid lumen Updated DEFINITION The cavity enclosed within the chloroplast thylakoid membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0009535 chloroplast thylakoid membrane Updated DEFINITION The pigmented membrane of a chloroplast thylakoid.
2007-02-16 GO:0048494 chromatophore ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase complex Updated DEFINITION A complex containing either both large and small subunits or just small subunits which carries out the activity of producing 3-phosphoglycerate from carbon dioxide and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate.
2007-02-16 GO:0032922 circadian regulation of gene expression Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression such that an expression pattern recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
2007-02-16 GO:0055028 cortical microtubule Added DEFINITION Arrays of microtubules underlying and connected to the plasma membrane in the cortical cytosol.
2007-02-16 GO:0010005 cortical microtubule, transverse to long axis Updated DEFINITION Arrays of microtubules underlying and connected to the plasma membrane, in the cortical cytosol, oriented mainly with their axes transverse to the long axis of the cell (and root in plants). In plants it influences the direction of cellulose microfibril deposition.
2007-02-16 GO:0009843 cyanelle thylakoid Updated DEFINITION Photosynthetic membrane resembling that of cyanobacteria found in the cyanelles of certain algae.
2007-02-16 GO:0043598 cytoplasmic DNA replication factor C complex Updated DEFINITION A cytoplasmic complex of two polypeptides that loads the DNA polymerase processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto DNA, thereby permitting processive DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase.
2007-02-16 GO:0043597 cytoplasmic replication fork Updated DEFINITION The Y-shaped region of a cytoplasmic replicating DNA molecule, resulting from the separation of the DNA strands and in which the synthesis of new strands takes place. Also includes associated protein complexes.
2007-02-16 GO:0043600 cytoplasmic replisome Updated DEFINITION A multi-component enzymatic machine at the cytoplasmic replication fork, which mediates DNA replication. Includes DNA primase, DNA polymerase, DNA helicase, and other proteins.
2007-02-16 GO:0045249 cytosol pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) phosphatase complex Updated DEFINITION A cytosolic complex of a regulatory and catalytic subunit that catalyzes the dephosphorylation and concomitant reactivation of the alpha subunit of the E1 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
2007-02-16 GO:0045241 cytosolic alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Cytosolic complex that possesses alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0000345 cytosolic DNA-directed RNA polymerase complex Updated DEFINITION The eubacterial DNA-directed RNA polymerase is a multisubunit complex with a core composed of the essential subunits beta-prime, beta, and two copies of alpha and a fifth nonessential subunit called omega. An additional subunit, a sigma factor, is required for promoter recognition and specificity.
2007-02-16 GO:0016361 activin receptor activity, type I Updated DEFINITION Combining with activin-bound type II activin receptor to initiate a change in cell activity; upon binding, acts as a downstream transducer of activin signals.
2007-02-16 GO:0032923 organic phosphonate biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of phosphonates, any organic compound containing one or more C-PO(OH)2 or C-PO(OR)2 (with R=alkyl, aryl) groups. Synthesis of phosphonic acid itself, an inorganic compound without the biochemically relevant C-P bond, is not included.
2007-02-16 GO:0019700 organic phosphonate catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of phosphonates, any organic compound containing one or more C-PO(OH)2 or C-PO(OR)2 (with R=alkyl, aryl) groups. Catabolism of phosphonic acid itself, an inorganic compound without the biochemically relevant C-P bond, is not included.
2007-02-16 GO:0019634 organic phosphonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving of phosphonates, any organic compound containing one or more C-PO(OH)2 or C-PO(OR)2 (with R=alkyl, aryl) groups. Metabolism of phosphonic acid itself, an inorganic compound without the biochemically relevant C-P bond, is not included.
2007-02-16 GO:0042777 plasma membrane ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Updated DEFINITION The transport of protons across the plasma membrane to generate an electrochemical gradient (proton-motive force) that powers ATP synthesis.
2007-02-16 GO:0045256 plasma membrane hydrogen-translocating F-type ATPase complex Updated DEFINITION A plasma membrane multisubunit hydrogen-translocating F-type ATPase. F-type ATPases have 2 components, CF(1), the catalytic core, and CF(0), the membrane proton channel. CF(1) has five subunits, alpha(3), beta(3), gamma(1), delta(1), and epsilon(1). CF(0) has three main subunits, a, b and c.
2007-02-16 GO:0030077 plasma membrane light-harvesting complex Updated DEFINITION A plasma membrane protein-pigment complex that may be closely or peripherally associated to photosynthetic reaction centers that participate in harvesting and transferring radiant energy to the reaction center.
2007-02-16 GO:0032917 polyamine acetylation Added DEFINITION The modification of polyamines by addition of acetyl groups.
2007-02-16 GO:0042652 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, peripheral segment Updated DEFINITION The peripheral segment of respiratory chain complex I located in the mitochondrion. Respiratory chain complex I is an enzyme of the respiratory chain, consisting of at least 34 polypeptide chains. The electrons of NADH enter the chain at this complex. The complete complex is L-shaped, with a horizontal arm lying in the membrane and a vertical arm that projects into the matrix.
2007-02-16 GO:0005749 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondrion, containing the four polypeptide subunits of succinate dehydrogenase, flavin-adenine dinucleotide and iron-sulfur. Catalyzes the oxidation of succinate by ubiquinone. Connects the TCA cycle with the respiratory chain.
2007-02-16 GO:0005750 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondrion, containing about 10 polypeptide subunits including four redox centers: cytochrome b/b6, cytochrome c1 and an 2Fe-2S cluster. Catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol by oxidized cytochrome c1.
2007-02-16 GO:0005751 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondrion, containing the 13 polypeptide subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, including cytochrome a and cytochrome a3. Catalyzes the oxidation of reduced cytochrome c by dioxygen (O2). Found in eukaryotes.
2007-02-16 GO:0045272 plasma membrane respiratory chain complex I Updated DEFINITION A subcomplex of the respiratory chain located in the plasma membrane. It contains about 25 different polypeptide subunits, including NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), flavin mononucleotide and several different iron-sulfur clusters containing non-heme iron. The iron undergoes oxidation-reduction between Fe(II) and Fe(III), and catalyzes proton translocation linked to the oxidation of NADH by ubiquinone.
2007-02-16 GO:0045274 plasma membrane respiratory chain complex II Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the plasma membrane, containing the four polypeptide subunits of succinate dehydrogenase, flavin-adenine dinucleotide and iron-sulfur. Catalyzes the oxidation of succinate by ubiquinone. Connects the TCA cycle with the respiratory chain.
2007-02-16 GO:0045276 plasma membrane respiratory chain complex III Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the plasma membrane, containing about 10 polypeptide subunits including four redox centers: cytochrome b/b6, cytochrome c1 and an 2Fe-2S cluster. Catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol by oxidized cytochrome c1.
2007-02-16 GO:0045278 plasma membrane respiratory chain complex IV Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the plasma membrane, containing the 13 polypeptide subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, including cytochrome a and cytochrome a3. Catalyzes the oxidation of reduced cytochrome c by dioxygen (O2).
2007-02-16 GO:0048493 plasma membrane-derived thylakoid ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase complex Updated DEFINITION A complex, located in the plasma membrane, containing either both large and small subunits or just small subunits. It carries out the activity of producing 3-phosphoglycerate from carbon dioxide and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate.
2007-02-16 GO:0031522 cell envelope Sec protein transport complex Updated DEFINITION A transmembrane protein complex involved in the translocation of proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, Sec-translocated proteins are subsequently secreted via the type II, IV, or V secretion systems. Sec complex components include SecA, D, E, F, G, Y and YajC.
2007-02-16 GO:0045282 plasma membrane succinate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION A multimeric complex which consists of flavoprotein (subunit A ; InterPro:003952), iron-sulfur protein (subunit B) and membrane-bound cytochrome b560 (subunit C; InterPro:000701). In some Archaea, the membrane-bound subunits (C or C and D) do not necessarily contain heme. Membrane-bound subunits can bind/react with quinones.
2007-02-16 GO:0045258 plasma membrane succinate dehydrogenase complex (ubiquinone) Updated DEFINITION The enzyme, located in the plasma membrane, that catalyzes the oxidation of succinate and ubiquinone to fumarate and ubiquinol; involved in aerobic respiration, repressed in anaerobic respiration.
2007-02-16 GO:0030075 bacterial thylakoid Updated DEFINITION A sac-like vesicle attached to the plasma membrane that bears the photosynthetic pigments in photosynthetic bacteria.
2007-02-16 GO:0031979 plasma membrane-derived thylakoid lumen Updated DEFINITION The volume enclosed by a plasma membrane thylakoid.
2007-02-16 GO:0031676 plasma membrane-derived thylakoid membrane Updated DEFINITION The pigmented membrane of a plasma membrane thylakoid.
2007-02-16 GO:0045286 plasma membrane ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase complex Updated DEFINITION A plasma membrane enzyme complex that contains cytochrome b/b6 and cytochrome c1.
2007-02-16 GO:0010240 plastid pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Complex that carries out the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl-CoA; comprises subunits possessing three catalytic activities: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (E2), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). This complex is found in plant plastids and is distinct from the one found in mitochondria.
2007-02-16 GO:0032927 positive regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any activin receptor signaling pathway.
2007-02-16 GO:0035104 positive regulation of transcription via sterol regulatory element binding Updated DEFINITION The process by which a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) mediates an increase in rate or extent of transcription of nuclear target genes in response to altered levels of one or more lipids. SREBPs are transcription factors that bind sterol regulatory elements (SREs), DNA motifs in the promoters of target genes.
2007-02-16 GO:0032930 positive regulation of superoxide anion generation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of enzymatic generation of superoxide by a cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0042764 ascospore-type prospore Updated DEFINITION An immature spore, of the type seen in some species of fungi and protist, undergoing development, usually consisting of nucleic acid, prospore membrane(s) that encase the nucleic acid, and ultimately a cell wall that covers the membrane(s).
2007-02-16 GO:0018347 protein amino acid farnesylation Updated DEFINITION The covalent attachment of a farnesyl moiety to a protein amino acid.
2007-02-16 GO:0018348 protein amino acid geranylgeranylation Updated DEFINITION The covalent attachment of a geranylgeranyl moiety to a protein amino acid.
2007-02-16 GO:0018346 protein amino acid prenylation Updated DEFINITION The covalent attachment of a prenyl moiety to a protein amino acid.
2007-02-16 GO:0005578 proteinaceous extracellular matrix Updated DEFINITION A layer consisting mainly of proteins (especially collagen) and glycosaminoglycans (mostly as proteoglycans) that forms a sheet underlying cells such as endothelial and epithelial cells. The proteins are secreted by cells in the vicinity.
2007-02-16 GO:0032920 putrescine acetylation Added DEFINITION The modification of putrescine by addition of acetyl groups.
2007-02-16 GO:0032925 regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any activin receptor signaling pathway.

Definition/synonyms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2007-02-16 GO:0030094 plasma membrane-derived photosystem I Updated DEFINITION Photosystem located in the plasma membrane that functions as a light-dependent plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from plastocyanin to ferredoxin.
2007-02-16 GO:0030096 plasma membrane-derived thylakoid photosystem II Updated DEFINITION An integral plasma membrane complex containing the P680 reaction center. In the light, PSII functions as a water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from water to plastoquinone.
2007-02-16 GO:0045260 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase complex Updated DEFINITION The complex that catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in the plasma membrane, during oxidative phosphorylation; it catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and orthophosphate.
2007-02-16 GO:0045262 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) Updated DEFINITION The catalytic sector of the plasma membrane hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase; it comprises the catalytic core and central stalk, and is peripherally associated with the plasma membrane when the entire ATP synthase is assembled.
2007-02-16 GO:0045264 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, coupling factor F(o) Updated DEFINITION All non-F1 subunits of the plasma membrane hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase, including integral and peripheral plasma membrane proteins.
2007-02-16 GO:0045268 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase, catalytic core Updated DEFINITION The hexamer that possesses the catalytic activity of the plasma membrane hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase.
2007-02-16 GO:0045270 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase, central stalk Updated DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the plasma membrane-associated Fo proteins; rotates within the catalytic core during catalysis.
2007-02-16 GO:0045266 plasma membrane proton-transporting ATP synthase, stator stalk Updated DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the plasma membrane-associated F0 proteins; is thought to prevent futile rotation of the catalytic core.
2007-02-16 GO:0030062 mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme complex Updated DEFINITION Any of the heteromeric enzymes, located in the mitochondrion, that act in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.
2007-02-16 GO:0012511 monolayer-surrounded lipid storage body Updated DEFINITION A subcellular organelle of plant cells surrounded by 'half-unit' or a monolayer membrane instead of the more usual bilayer. A droplet of triacylglycerol surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids, interacting with the triacylglycerols and the hydrophilic head groups facing the cytosol, and containing major protein components called oleosins.
2007-02-16 GO:0005862 muscle thin filament tropomyosin Updated DEFINITION A form of the tropomyosin dimer found associated with actin and the troponin complex in muscle thin filaments.
2007-02-16 GO:0007027 negative regulation of axonemal microtubule depolymerization Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the depolymerization of the specialized microtubules of the axoneme.
2007-02-16 GO:0007026 negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule depolymerization; prevention of depolymerization of a microtubule can result from binding by 'capping' at the plus end (e.g. by interaction with another cellular protein of structure) or by exposing microtubules to a stabilizing drug such as taxol.
2007-02-16 GO:0032929 negative regulation of superoxide anion generation Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of enzymatic generation of superoxide by a cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0043599 nuclear DNA replication factor C complex Updated DEFINITION A nuclear complex of five polypeptides that loads the DNA polymerase processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto DNA, thereby permitting processive DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta or epsilon. In Saccharomyces and several other species, the subunits are known as Rfc1p-Rfc5p, although subunit names do not necessarily correspond between different species.
2007-02-16 GO:0055029 nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerase complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex, located in the nucleus, that possesses DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0043596 nuclear replication fork Updated DEFINITION The Y-shaped region of a nuclear replicating DNA molecule, resulting from the separation of the DNA strands and in which the synthesis of new strands takes place. Also includes associated protein complexes.
2007-02-16 GO:0043601 nuclear replisome Updated DEFINITION A multi-component enzymatic machine at the nuclear replication fork, which mediates DNA replication. Includes DNA primase, one or more DNA polymerases, DNA helicases, and other proteins.
2007-02-16 GO:0030288 outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space Updated DEFINITION The region between the inner (cytoplasmic) membrane and outer membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0019826 oxygen sensor activity Added DEFINITION Interacting selectively with and responding, e.g. by conformational change, to changes in the cellular level of, oxygen (O2).
2007-02-16 GO:0055030 peptidoglycan-based spore wall Added DEFINITION A spore wall consisting of a peptidoglycan-containing inner layer (the spore cortex) surrounded by a multilayered proteinaceous coat. An exosporium may be present as an extreme outer layer.
2007-02-16 GO:0060039 pericardium development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pericardium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the aorta, vena cava and the pulmonary artery.
2007-02-16 GO:0060037 pharyngeal system development Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pharyngeal system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The pharyngeal system is a transient embryonic complex that is specific to vertebrates. It comprises the pharyngeal arches, bulges of tissues of mesoderm and neural crest derivation through which pass nerves and pharyngeal arch arteries. The arches are separated internally by pharyngeal pouches, evaginations of foregut endoderm, and externally by pharyngeal clefts, invaginations of surface ectoderm. The development of the system ends when the stucture it contributes to are forming: the thymus, thyroid, parathyroids, maxilla, mandible, aortic arch, cardiac outflow tract, external and middle ear.
2007-02-16 GO:0009420 bacterial-type flagellum filament Updated DEFINITION The long (approximately 20 nm), thin external structure of the flagellum, which acts as a propeller.
2007-02-16 GO:0009421 bacterial-type flagellum filament cap Updated DEFINITION The proteinaceous structure at the distal tip of the flagellar filament.
2007-02-16 GO:0009424 bacterial-type flagellum hook Updated DEFINITION The portion of the flagellum that connects the filament to the basal body.
2007-02-16 GO:0009422 bacterial-type flagellum hook-filament junction Updated DEFINITION The region of the flagellum where the hook and filament meet.
2007-02-16 GO:0009288 bacterial-type flagellum Updated DEFINITION A 20 nm diameter filament composed of subunits of flagellin driven passively at its base by a motor powered by the transmembrane proton potential.
2007-02-16 GO:0009425 bacterial-type flagellum basal body Updated DEFINITION One of the three major substructures of the flagellin-based flagellum; a structure consisting of a rod, a series of rings, the Mot proteins, the switch complex and the flagellum-specific export apparatus. The rings anchor the flagellum to the cytoplasmic membrane (MS ring), the peptidoglycan (P ring) and the outer membrane (L ring).
2007-02-16 GO:0044461 bacterial-type flagellum part Updated DEFINITION Any constituent part of flagellum, a 20 nm diameter filament composed of subunits of flagellin driven passively at its base by a motor powered by the transmembrane proton potential.
2007-02-16 GO:0055031 gamma-tubulin large complex, equatorial microtubule organizing center Added DEFINITION A complex of gamma tubulin and associated proteins thought to be formed by multimerization of gamma-tubulin small complexes located at equatorial microtubule organizing centers.
2007-02-16 GO:0055033 gamma-tubulin large complex, interphase microtubule organizing center Added DEFINITION A complex of gamma tubulin and associated proteins thought to be formed by multimerization of gamma-tubulin small complexes located at interphase microtubule organizing centers.
2007-02-16 GO:0055032 gamma-tubulin large complex, spindle pole body Added DEFINITION A complex of gamma tubulin and associated proteins thought to be formed by multimerization of gamma-tubulin small complexes located in the spindle pole body.
2007-02-16 GO:0000927 gamma-tubulin small complex, centrosomal Updated DEFINITION A centrosomal complex usually comprising two gamma-tubulin molecules, at least two conserved non-tubulin proteins that multimerize along with additional non-tubulin proteins in animal cells into larger functional complexes. Gamma-tubulin small complexes are thought to be the repeating unit making up the core of the gamma-tubulin ring complex.
2007-02-16 GO:0000928 gamma-tubulin small complex, spindle pole body Updated DEFINITION A complex composed of two gamma-tubulin molecules and conserved non-tubulin proteins isolated by fractionation from cells. The complex, approximately 6S-9S, is analogous to the small complex in animal cells but contains fewer subunits, and is not thought to multimerize into larger functional units, like complexes in those organisms.
2007-02-16 GO:0010336 gibberellic acid homeostasis Added DEFINITION Maintenance of endogenous concentration of primary gibberellic acid equilibrium, or constant level of gibberellic acid in a biological system by a number of biochemical processes including transport, biosynthesis, catabolism and conjugation.
2007-02-16 GO:0045247 cytosolic electron transfer flavoprotein complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex located in the cytosol containing flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that, together with an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, forms a system that oxidizes an acyl-CoA molecule and reduces ubiquinone and other acceptors.
2007-02-16 GO:0045243 cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase complex (NAD+) Updated DEFINITION Cytosolic complex that possesses isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0045248 cytosolic oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION A cytosolic complex of multiple copies of three enzymatic components: oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) ; EC:1.2.4.2 (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase ; EC:2.3.1.61 (E2) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase ; EC:1.8.1.4 (E3); catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and carbon dioxide (CO2).
2007-02-16 GO:0032931 histone acetyltransferase activity (H3-K56 specific) Added DEFINITION Catalysis of the addition of an acetyl group onto lysine at position 56 of the histone H3 protein.
2007-02-16 GO:0045203 integral component of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Penetrating at least one phospholipid bilayer of the external outer membrane of the cell. May also refer to the state of being buried in the bilayer with no exposure outside the bilayer.
2007-02-16 GO:0031241 periplasmic side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION The side of the outer membrane that faces the periplasm of the cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0031230 intrinsic component of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Located in the cell outer membrane such that some covalently attached portion of the gene product spans or is embedded in one or both leaflets of the membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0031243 intrinsic component of external side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Located in the outer membrane of the cell such that some covalently attached portion of the gene product spans or is embedded in one or both leaflets of the membrane, with the bulk of the gene product located on the side opposite to the side that faces the periplasm.
2007-02-16 GO:0031246 intrinsic component of periplasmic side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Located in the outer membrane of the cell such that some covalently attached portion of the gene product spans or is embedded in one or both leaflets of the membrane, with the bulk of the gene product located on the side that faces the periplasm.
2007-02-16 GO:0051536 iron-sulfur cluster binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with an iron-sulfur cluster, a combination of iron and sulfur atoms.
2007-02-16 GO:0010337 regulation of salicylic acid metabolic process Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions involving salicylic acid.
2007-02-16 GO:0032921 sarcosine oxidase complex Added DEFINITION A complex consisting of 4 protein subunits as a heterotetramer, that possesses sarcosine oxidase activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0051077 secondary cell septum Updated DEFINITION Cell wall structures composed of linear polysaccharides which are deposited at both sides of the primary septum at 90 degrees to the primary septum.
2007-02-16 GO:0010334 sesquiterpene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalyzing the formation of sesquiterpenes (terpene containing 15 carbons = three isoprene units) through the cyclization of trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate (an allylic prenyl diphosphate intermediates of the terpene biosynthesis pathway).
2007-02-16 GO:0005786 signal recognition particle, endoplasmic reticulum targeting Updated DEFINITION A ribonucleoprotein particle of 325 kDa composed of a 7S (300 nucleotide) RNA molecule and a complex of six different polypeptides. This binds both to the N-terminal signal peptide for proteins destined for the endoplasmic reticulum as they emerge from the large ribosomal subunit and also to the ribosome. This binding arrests further translation thereby preventing the proteins from being released into the cytosol. The SRP-ribosome complex then diffuses to the endoplasmic reticulum where it is bound to the signal recognition particle receptor, which allows resumption of protein synthesis and facilitates the passage of the growing polypeptide chain through the translocon. Through a process involving GTP hydrolysis, the SRP-SRP receptor complex dissociates and SRP returns to the cytosol. Of the six polypeptides of SRP the 54 kDa subunit (SRP54) is the central player. It contains an N-terminal GTPase domain and a C-terminal domain that binds directly to the signal peptide and the SRP RNA.
2007-02-16 GO:0048501 signal recognition particle, plasma membrane targeting Updated DEFINITION A complex consisting of a protein and RNA component which binds the signal sequence of some proteins and facilitates their export to or across the plasma membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0032918 spermidine acetylation Added DEFINITION The modification of spermidine by addition of acetyl groups.
2007-02-16 GO:0032919 spermine acetylation Added DEFINITION The modification of spermine by addition of acetyl groups.
2007-02-16 GO:0006994 positive regulation of transcription via sterol regulatory element binding involved in ER-nuclear sterol response pathway Updated DEFINITION The process by which a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) mediates an increase in rate or extent of transcription of nuclear target genes in response to sterol depletion. SREBPs are transcription factors that bind sterol regulatory elements (SREs), DNA motifs found in the promoters of target genes.
2007-02-16 GO:0006992 sterol regulatory element binding protein cleavage involved in ER-nuclear sterol response pathway Updated DEFINITION The proteolytic release of a transcriptionally active sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) from intracellular membranes, freeing it to move to the nucleus and upregulate transcription of target genes, in response to depleted sterol levels.
2007-02-16 GO:0006993 sterol regulatory element binding protein import into nucleus involved in sterol depletion response Updated DEFINITION The transfer of a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) into the nucleus across the nuclear membrane, in response to sterol depletion. SREBPs are transcription factors that bind sterol regulatory elements (SREs), DNA motifs found in the promoters of target genes.
2007-02-16 GO:0035103 sterol regulatory element binding protein cleavage Updated DEFINITION The proteolytic release of a transcriptionally active sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) from intracellular membranes, freeing it to move to the nucleus and upregulate transcription of target genes, in response to altered levels of one or more lipids.
2007-02-16 GO:0035105 sterol regulatory element binding protein import into nucleus Updated DEFINITION The transfer of a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) into the nucleus, across the nuclear membrane, in response to altered levels of one or more lipids. SREBPs are transcription factors that bind sterol regulatory elements (SREs), DNA motifs found in the promoters of target genes.
2007-02-16 GO:0017093 sterol regulatory element-binding protein protease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of peptide bonds within a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). SREBPs are transcription factors that bind sterol regulatory elements (SREs), DNA motifs found in the promoters of target genes.
2007-02-16 GO:0017094 sterol regulatory element-binding protein site 1 protease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage of a Leu-Ser bond within the luminal loop of a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). This activity is the first of two sequential cleavage reactions and cleaves SREBP into two membrane-bound halves.
2007-02-16 GO:0017092 sterol regulatory element-binding protein site 2 protease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage, within the membrane-spanning helix, of the amino-terminal half (the intermediate form) of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). This activity releases the transcription factor domain of SREBP from the membrane, freeing it to enter the nucleus.
2007-02-16 GO:0010333 terpene synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalyzing the formation of cyclic terpenes through the cyclization of linear terpenes containing varying quantities of isoprene units (i.e. isopentenyl-PP, geranyl-PP, farnesyl-PP and geranylgeranyl-PP).
2007-02-16 GO:0043556 regulation of translation in response to oxidative stress Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of translation as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.
2007-02-16 GO:0010332 response to gamma radiation Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a gamma radiation stimulus. Gamma radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) or light emission of a specific frequency produced from sub-atomic particle interaction, such as electron-positron annihilation and radioactive decay. Gamma rays are generally characterised as EMR having the highest frequency and energy, and also the shortest wavelength, within the electromagnetic radiation spectrum.
2007-02-16 GO:0010335 response to non-ionic osmotic stress Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating an increase or decrease in the concentration of non-ionic solutes (e.g. mannitol, sorbitol) in the environment.
2007-02-16 GO:0060041 retina development in camera-type eye Added DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the retina over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The retina is the innermost layer or coating at the back of the eyeball, which is sensitive to light and in which the optic nerve terminates.
2007-02-16 GO:0060042 retina morphogenesis in camera-type eye Added DEFINITION The process by which the anatomical structures of the retina are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form.
2007-02-16 GO:0060040 retinal bipolar neuron differentiation Added DEFINITION The process whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a bipolar cell, the last neuron to be generated in the retina.
2007-02-16 GO:0010338 leaf formation Added DEFINITION The process that gives rise to a leaf. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts.
2007-02-16 GO:0043082 megagametophyte egg cell nucleus Updated DEFINITION The nucleus of a plant egg cell, the female gamete, at the micropylar end of the embryo and its descendents.
2007-02-16 GO:0020026 merozoite dense granule Updated DEFINITION Electron-dense organelle with a granular internal matrix found throughout the merozoite life cycle stage of apicomplexan parasites; contains proteins destined to be secreted into the parasitophorous vacuole following parasite invasion of a host cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0030668 merozoite dense granule membrane Updated DEFINITION The lipid bilayer surrounding a dense granule of the type found in apicomplexan parasites.
2007-02-16 GO:0009434 microtubule-based flagellum Updated DEFINITION A long, whiplike protrusion from the surface of a eukaryotic cell, whose undulations drive the cell through a liquid medium; similar in structure to a cilium. The flagellum is based on a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules.
2007-02-16 GO:0044442 microtubule-based flagellum part Updated DEFINITION Any constituent part of a microtubule-based flagellum, a long, whiplike protrusion from the surface of a eukaryotic cell, whose undulations drive the cell through a liquid medium; similar in structure to a cilium. The flagellum is based on a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules.
2007-02-16 GO:0048196 plant extracellular matrix Updated DEFINITION The matrix external to the cell, composed of the cell wall and middle lamella.
2007-02-16 GO:0005947 mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Mitochondrial complex that possesses alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0042776 mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Updated DEFINITION The transport of protons across a mitochondrial membrane to generate an electrochemical gradient (proton-motive force) that powers ATP synthesis.
2007-02-16 GO:0017133 mitochondrial electron transfer flavoprotein complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex located in the mitochondrion. It contains flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that, together with an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, forms a system that oxidizes an acyl-CoA molecule and reduces ubiquinone and other acceptors in the mitochondrial electron transport system.
2007-02-16 GO:0005962 mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase complex (NAD+) Updated DEFINITION Mitochondrial complex that possesses isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0009353 mitochondrial oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION A complex of multiple copies of three enzymatic components: oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) ; EC:1.2.4.2 (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase ; EC:2.3.1.61 (E2) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase ; EC:1.8.1.4 (E3); catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and carbon dioxide (CO2) within the mitochondrial matrix.
2007-02-16 GO:0005753 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex Updated DEFINITION The mitochondrial complex that catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in mitochondria, during oxidative phosphorylation; it catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and orthophosphate.
2007-02-16 GO:0000275 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) Updated DEFINITION The catalytic sector of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase; it comprises the catalytic core and central stalk, and is peripherally associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane when the entire ATP synthase is assembled.
2007-02-16 GO:0000276 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, coupling factor F(o) Updated DEFINITION All non-F1 subunits of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase, including integral and peripheral mitochondrial inner membrane proteins.
2007-02-16 GO:0005754 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, catalytic core Updated DEFINITION The hexamer that possesses the catalytic activity of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase.
2007-02-16 GO:0005756 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, central stalk Updated DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the mitochondrial membrane-associated F0 proteins; rotates within the catalytic core during catalysis.
2007-02-16 GO:0000274 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, stator stalk Updated DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the mitochondrial membrane-associated F0 proteins; is thought to prevent futile rotation of the catalytic core.
2007-02-16 GO:0019910 mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) phosphatase complex Updated DEFINITION A mitochondrial complex of a regulatory and catalytic subunit that catalyzes the dephosphorylation and concomitant reactivation of the alpha subunit of the E1 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
2007-02-16 GO:0005967 mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Complex that carries out the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl-CoA in eukaryotes; includes subunits possessing three catalytic activities: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (E2), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). Usually contains more subunits than its bacterial counterpart; for example, one known complex contains 30 E1 dimers, 60 E2 monomers, and 6 E3 dimers as well as a few copies of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase.
2007-02-16 GO:0005747 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondrion. It contains about 25 different polypeptide subunits, including NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), flavin mononucleotide and several different iron-sulfur clusters containing non-heme iron. The iron undergoes oxidation-reduction between Fe(II) and Fe(III), and catalyzes proton translocation linked to the oxidation of NADH by ubiquinone.
2007-02-16 GO:0042653 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, membrane segment Updated DEFINITION The mitochondrial membrane segment of respiratory chain complex I. Respiratory chain complex I is an enzyme of the respiratory chain, consisting of at least 34 polypeptide chains. The electrons of NADH enter the chain at this complex. The complete complex is L-shaped, with a horizontal arm lying in the membrane and a vertical arm that projects into the matrix.
2007-02-16 GO:0032926 negative regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any activin receptor signaling pathway.
2007-02-16 GO:0032932 negative regulation of astral microtubule depolymerization Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the depolymerization of astral microtubules.
2007-02-16 GO:0045250 cytosolic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Complex that carries out the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl-CoA; comprises subunits possessing three catalytic activities: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (E2), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). Usually contains fewer subunits than its eukaryotic counterpart; for example, the E. coli complex contains 12 E1 dimers, 8 E2 trimers, and 6 E3 dimers arranged in highly symmetric cubic order.
2007-02-16 GO:0045246 cytosolic tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme complex Updated DEFINITION Any of the heteromeric enzymes, located in the cytosol, that act in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.
2007-02-16 GO:0031205 endoplasmic reticulum Sec complex Updated DEFINITION An endoplasmic reticulum membrane-associated complex involved in the translocation of proteins that are targeted to the ER. In yeast, this complex consists of two subcomplexes, namely, the Sec61 complex and the Sec62/Sec63 complex.
2007-02-16 GO:0042601 endospore-forming forespore Updated DEFINITION Portion of the cell formed during the process of bacterial sporulation that will ultimately become the core of the endospore. An endospore is a type of dormant cell that is resistant to adverse conditions.
2007-02-16 GO:0031240 external side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION The side of the outer membrane that is opposite to the side that faces the periplasm of the cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0031244 extrinsic component of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Loosely bound to one surface of the outer membrane of the cell, but not integrated into the hydrophobic region.
2007-02-16 GO:0031242 extrinsic component of external side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Loosely bound to the surface of the outer membrane of the cell that faces away from the cytoplasm, but not integrated into the hydrophobic region.
2007-02-16 GO:0031245 extrinsic component of periplasmic side of cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION Loosely bound to the surface of the outer membrane of the cell that faces the cytoplasm, but not integrated into the hydrophobic region.
2007-02-16 GO:0001674 female germ cell nucleus Updated DEFINITION MERGED DEFINITION: TARGET DEFINITION: The nucleus of the female germ cell, a cell specialized to produce haploid gametes, and its descendents. -------------------- SOURCE DEFINITION: The nucleus of the female germ cell, a cell specialized to produce haploid gametes, and its descendents. As in, but not restricted to, the multicellular animals (Metazoa, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33208).
2007-02-16 GO:0009433 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, C ring Updated DEFINITION Cytoplasmic ring located at the base of the flagellar basal body; acts as a rotor; includes three switch proteins, which generate torque and can change their conformational state in a bimodal fashion, so that the motor direction can switch between clockwise and counterclockwise.
2007-02-16 GO:0009426 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, distal rod Updated DEFINITION The portion of the central rod of the flagellar basal body that is distal to the cell membrane; spans most of the distance between the inner and outer membranes.
2007-02-16 GO:0009427 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, distal rod, L ring Updated DEFINITION One of the rings of the flagellar basal body; anchors the basal body to the outer membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0009428 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, distal rod, P ring Updated DEFINITION One of the rings of the flagellar basal body; anchors the basal body to the peptidoglycan layer.
2007-02-16 GO:0009431 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, MS ring Updated DEFINITION One of the rings of the flagellar basal body; a double-flanged ring that anchors the basal body to the cytoplasmic membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0009429 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, proximal rod Updated DEFINITION The portion of the central rod of the flagellar basal body that is proximal to the cell membrane; proximal rod connects the distal rod to the flagellar motor.
2007-02-16 GO:0030694 bacterial-type flagellum basal body, rod Updated DEFINITION The central portion of the flagellar basal body, which spans the periplasm and threads through the rings.
2007-02-16 GO:0032928 regulation of superoxide anion generation Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of enzymatic generation of superoxide by a cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0016362 activin receptor activity, type II Updated DEFINITION Combining with activin to initiate a change in cell activity; upon ligand binding, binds to catalyzes the phosphorylation of type I activin receptor.
2007-02-16 GO:0032924 activin receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION A series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of any member of the activin family binding to a cell surface receptor.
2007-02-16 GO:0060038 cardiac muscle cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The rapid expansion of a cardiac muscle cell population by cell division.
2007-02-16 GO:0009279 cell outer membrane Updated DEFINITION A lipid bilayer that forms the outermost layer of the cell envelope; enriched in polysaccharide and protein; the outer leaflet of the membrane contains specific lipopolysaccharide structures.
2007-02-16 GO:0009986 cell surface Updated DEFINITION The external part of the cell wall and/or plasma membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0030287 cell wall-bounded periplasmic space Updated DEFINITION The region between the plasma membrane and the cell wall.
2007-02-16 GO:0007349 cellularization Updated DEFINITION The separation of a multi-nucleate cell or syncytium into individual cells.
2007-02-16 GO:0009831 plant-type cell wall modification involved in multidimensional cell growth Updated DEFINITION The series of events that occur during cell growth that result in chemical or structural changes to existing cell walls of the type composed chiefly of cellulose and pectin.
2007-02-16 GO:0010330 cellulose synthase complex Updated DEFINITION The multimeric protein complex, organized in a rosette, which catalyzes the biosynthesis of cellulose for the plant cell wall.
2007-02-16 GO:0009277 fungal-type cell wall Updated DEFINITION A rigid yet dynamic structure surrounding the plasma membrane that affords protection from stresses and contributes to cell morphogenesis, consisting of an inner layer formed of a network of beta-glucans crosslinked to chitin and an outer layer of mannoproteins and other glycoproteins. The inner layer contains primarily beta1,3-glucans; beta1,6-glucans are present in lower amounts, and in some species alpha-glucans and other carbohydrate polymers are also present. Enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis are also found in the cell wall. Note that some forms of fungi develop a capsule outside of the cell wall under certain circumstances; this is considered a separate structure. As in, but not restricted to, the fungi (Fungi, ncbi_taxonomy_id:4751).
2007-02-16 GO:0001410 chlamydospore formation Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the chlamydospore over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Chlamydospores are thick-walled, spore-like cells borne on the ends of elongated cells attached to hyphae or pseudohyphae, seen in the species Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. Note that although these structures resemble the chlamydospores of other fungi, it is not known whether they are true spores, so this process is not currently considered an instance of spore formation. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Candida albicans (Candida albicans, ncbi_taxonomy_id:5476).
2007-02-16 GO:0045320 chloroplast proton-transporting ATP synthase complex Updated DEFINITION A chloroplast multisubunit hydrogen-translocating F-type ATPase. F-type ATPases have 2 components, CF(1), the catalytic core, and CF(0), the membrane proton channel. CF(1) has five subunits, alpha(3), beta(3), gamma(1), delta(1), and epsilon(1). CF(0) has three main subunits, a, b and c.
2007-02-16 GO:0030093 chloroplast photosystem I Updated DEFINITION Photosystem located in the chloroplast that functions as a light-dependent plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from plastocyanin to ferredoxin.
2007-02-16 GO:0030095 chloroplast photosystem II Updated DEFINITION An integral chloroplast membrane complex containing the P680 reaction center. In the light, PSII functions as a water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from water to plastoquinone.
2007-02-16 GO:0009573 chloroplast ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase complex Updated DEFINITION A complex containing either both large and small subunits or just small subunits which carries out the activity of producing 3-phosphoglycerate from carbon dioxide and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate.
2007-02-16 GO:0009534 chloroplast thylakoid Updated DEFINITION Sac-like membranous structures (cisternae) in a chloroplast combined into stacks (grana) and present singly in the stroma (stroma thylakoids or frets) as interconnections between grana.
2007-02-16 GO:0009543 chloroplast thylakoid lumen Updated DEFINITION The cavity enclosed within the chloroplast thylakoid membrane.
2007-02-16 GO:0009535 chloroplast thylakoid membrane Updated DEFINITION The pigmented membrane of a chloroplast thylakoid.
2007-02-16 GO:0048494 chromatophore ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase complex Updated DEFINITION A complex containing either both large and small subunits or just small subunits which carries out the activity of producing 3-phosphoglycerate from carbon dioxide and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate.
2007-02-16 GO:0032922 circadian regulation of gene expression Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression such that an expression pattern recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
2007-02-16 GO:0055028 cortical microtubule Added DEFINITION Arrays of microtubules underlying and connected to the plasma membrane in the cortical cytosol.
2007-02-16 GO:0010005 cortical microtubule, transverse to long axis Updated DEFINITION Arrays of microtubules underlying and connected to the plasma membrane, in the cortical cytosol, oriented mainly with their axes transverse to the long axis of the cell (and root in plants). In plants it influences the direction of cellulose microfibril deposition.
2007-02-16 GO:0009843 cyanelle thylakoid Updated DEFINITION Photosynthetic membrane resembling that of cyanobacteria found in the cyanelles of certain algae.
2007-02-16 GO:0043598 cytoplasmic DNA replication factor C complex Updated DEFINITION A cytoplasmic complex of two polypeptides that loads the DNA polymerase processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto DNA, thereby permitting processive DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase.
2007-02-16 GO:0043597 cytoplasmic replication fork Updated DEFINITION The Y-shaped region of a cytoplasmic replicating DNA molecule, resulting from the separation of the DNA strands and in which the synthesis of new strands takes place. Also includes associated protein complexes.
2007-02-16 GO:0043600 cytoplasmic replisome Updated DEFINITION A multi-component enzymatic machine at the cytoplasmic replication fork, which mediates DNA replication. Includes DNA primase, DNA polymerase, DNA helicase, and other proteins.
2007-02-16 GO:0045249 cytosol pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) phosphatase complex Updated DEFINITION A cytosolic complex of a regulatory and catalytic subunit that catalyzes the dephosphorylation and concomitant reactivation of the alpha subunit of the E1 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
2007-02-16 GO:0045241 cytosolic alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Cytosolic complex that possesses alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity.
2007-02-16 GO:0000345 cytosolic DNA-directed RNA polymerase complex Updated DEFINITION The eubacterial DNA-directed RNA polymerase is a multisubunit complex with a core composed of the essential subunits beta-prime, beta, and two copies of alpha and a fifth nonessential subunit called omega. An additional subunit, a sigma factor, is required for promoter recognition and specificity.
2007-02-16 GO:0016361 activin receptor activity, type I Updated DEFINITION Combining with activin-bound type II activin receptor to initiate a change in cell activity; upon binding, acts as a downstream transducer of activin signals.
2007-02-16 GO:0032923 organic phosphonate biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of phosphonates, any organic compound containing one or more C-PO(OH)2 or C-PO(OR)2 (with R=alkyl, aryl) groups. Synthesis of phosphonic acid itself, an inorganic compound without the biochemically relevant C-P bond, is not included.
2007-02-16 GO:0019700 organic phosphonate catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of phosphonates, any organic compound containing one or more C-PO(OH)2 or C-PO(OR)2 (with R=alkyl, aryl) groups. Catabolism of phosphonic acid itself, an inorganic compound without the biochemically relevant C-P bond, is not included.
2007-02-16 GO:0019634 organic phosphonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways involving of phosphonates, any organic compound containing one or more C-PO(OH)2 or C-PO(OR)2 (with R=alkyl, aryl) groups. Metabolism of phosphonic acid itself, an inorganic compound without the biochemically relevant C-P bond, is not included.
2007-02-16 GO:0042777 plasma membrane ATP synthesis coupled proton transport Updated DEFINITION The transport of protons across the plasma membrane to generate an electrochemical gradient (proton-motive force) that powers ATP synthesis.
2007-02-16 GO:0045256 plasma membrane hydrogen-translocating F-type ATPase complex Updated DEFINITION A plasma membrane multisubunit hydrogen-translocating F-type ATPase. F-type ATPases have 2 components, CF(1), the catalytic core, and CF(0), the membrane proton channel. CF(1) has five subunits, alpha(3), beta(3), gamma(1), delta(1), and epsilon(1). CF(0) has three main subunits, a, b and c.
2007-02-16 GO:0030077 plasma membrane light-harvesting complex Updated DEFINITION A plasma membrane protein-pigment complex that may be closely or peripherally associated to photosynthetic reaction centers that participate in harvesting and transferring radiant energy to the reaction center.
2007-02-16 GO:0032917 polyamine acetylation Added DEFINITION The modification of polyamines by addition of acetyl groups.
2007-02-16 GO:0042652 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, peripheral segment Updated DEFINITION The peripheral segment of respiratory chain complex I located in the mitochondrion. Respiratory chain complex I is an enzyme of the respiratory chain, consisting of at least 34 polypeptide chains. The electrons of NADH enter the chain at this complex. The complete complex is L-shaped, with a horizontal arm lying in the membrane and a vertical arm that projects into the matrix.
2007-02-16 GO:0005749 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondrion, containing the four polypeptide subunits of succinate dehydrogenase, flavin-adenine dinucleotide and iron-sulfur. Catalyzes the oxidation of succinate by ubiquinone. Connects the TCA cycle with the respiratory chain.
2007-02-16 GO:0005750 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondrion, containing about 10 polypeptide subunits including four redox centers: cytochrome b/b6, cytochrome c1 and an 2Fe-2S cluster. Catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol by oxidized cytochrome c1.
2007-02-16 GO:0005751 mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the mitochondrion, containing the 13 polypeptide subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, including cytochrome a and cytochrome a3. Catalyzes the oxidation of reduced cytochrome c by dioxygen (O2). Found in eukaryotes.
2007-02-16 GO:0045272 plasma membrane respiratory chain complex I Updated DEFINITION A subcomplex of the respiratory chain located in the plasma membrane. It contains about 25 different polypeptide subunits, including NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), flavin mononucleotide and several different iron-sulfur clusters containing non-heme iron. The iron undergoes oxidation-reduction between Fe(II) and Fe(III), and catalyzes proton translocation linked to the oxidation of NADH by ubiquinone.
2007-02-16 GO:0045274 plasma membrane respiratory chain complex II Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the plasma membrane, containing the four polypeptide subunits of succinate dehydrogenase, flavin-adenine dinucleotide and iron-sulfur. Catalyzes the oxidation of succinate by ubiquinone. Connects the TCA cycle with the respiratory chain.
2007-02-16 GO:0045276 plasma membrane respiratory chain complex III Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the plasma membrane, containing about 10 polypeptide subunits including four redox centers: cytochrome b/b6, cytochrome c1 and an 2Fe-2S cluster. Catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol by oxidized cytochrome c1.
2007-02-16 GO:0045278 plasma membrane respiratory chain complex IV Updated DEFINITION A part of the respiratory chain located in the plasma membrane, containing the 13 polypeptide subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, including cytochrome a and cytochrome a3. Catalyzes the oxidation of reduced cytochrome c by dioxygen (O2).
2007-02-16 GO:0048493 plasma membrane-derived thylakoid ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase complex Updated DEFINITION A complex, located in the plasma membrane, containing either both large and small subunits or just small subunits. It carries out the activity of producing 3-phosphoglycerate from carbon dioxide and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate.
2007-02-16 GO:0031522 cell envelope Sec protein transport complex Updated DEFINITION A transmembrane protein complex involved in the translocation of proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. In Gram-negative bacteria, Sec-translocated proteins are subsequently secreted via the type II, IV, or V secretion systems. Sec complex components include SecA, D, E, F, G, Y and YajC.
2007-02-16 GO:0045282 plasma membrane succinate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION A multimeric complex which consists of flavoprotein (subunit A ; InterPro:003952), iron-sulfur protein (subunit B) and membrane-bound cytochrome b560 (subunit C; InterPro:000701). In some Archaea, the membrane-bound subunits (C or C and D) do not necessarily contain heme. Membrane-bound subunits can bind/react with quinones.
2007-02-16 GO:0045258 plasma membrane succinate dehydrogenase complex (ubiquinone) Updated DEFINITION The enzyme, located in the plasma membrane, that catalyzes the oxidation of succinate and ubiquinone to fumarate and ubiquinol; involved in aerobic respiration, repressed in anaerobic respiration.
2007-02-16 GO:0030075 bacterial thylakoid Updated DEFINITION A sac-like vesicle attached to the plasma membrane that bears the photosynthetic pigments in photosynthetic bacteria.
2007-02-16 GO:0031979 plasma membrane-derived thylakoid lumen Updated DEFINITION The volume enclosed by a plasma membrane thylakoid.
2007-02-16 GO:0031676 plasma membrane-derived thylakoid membrane Updated DEFINITION The pigmented membrane of a plasma membrane thylakoid.
2007-02-16 GO:0045286 plasma membrane ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase complex Updated DEFINITION A plasma membrane enzyme complex that contains cytochrome b/b6 and cytochrome c1.
2007-02-16 GO:0010240 plastid pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Complex that carries out the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl-CoA; comprises subunits possessing three catalytic activities: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (E2), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). This complex is found in plant plastids and is distinct from the one found in mitochondria.
2007-02-16 GO:0032927 positive regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any activin receptor signaling pathway.
2007-02-16 GO:0035104 positive regulation of transcription via sterol regulatory element binding Updated DEFINITION The process by which a sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) mediates an increase in rate or extent of transcription of nuclear target genes in response to altered levels of one or more lipids. SREBPs are transcription factors that bind sterol regulatory elements (SREs), DNA motifs in the promoters of target genes.
2007-02-16 GO:0032930 positive regulation of superoxide anion generation Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of enzymatic generation of superoxide by a cell.
2007-02-16 GO:0042764 ascospore-type prospore Updated DEFINITION An immature spore, of the type seen in some species of fungi and protist, undergoing development, usually consisting of nucleic acid, prospore membrane(s) that encase the nucleic acid, and ultimately a cell wall that covers the membrane(s).
2007-02-16 GO:0018347 protein amino acid farnesylation Updated DEFINITION The covalent attachment of a farnesyl moiety to a protein amino acid.
2007-02-16 GO:0018348 protein amino acid geranylgeranylation Updated DEFINITION The covalent attachment of a geranylgeranyl moiety to a protein amino acid.
2007-02-16 GO:0018346 protein amino acid prenylation Updated DEFINITION The covalent attachment of a prenyl moiety to a protein amino acid.
2007-02-16 GO:0005578 proteinaceous extracellular matrix Updated DEFINITION A layer consisting mainly of proteins (especially collagen) and glycosaminoglycans (mostly as proteoglycans) that forms a sheet underlying cells such as endothelial and epithelial cells. The proteins are secreted by cells in the vicinity.
2007-02-16 GO:0032920 putrescine acetylation Added DEFINITION The modification of putrescine by addition of acetyl groups.
2007-02-16 GO:0032925 regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any activin receptor signaling pathway.
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