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GO Term History: Displaying 224 audit records for all terms for the date 2007-01-09

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Introduction

This page displays the differences recorded in the full Gene Ontology OBO v1.2 file as audited by the UniProt-GOA database during its daily update cycle.
If there is any delay in uploading the current OBO file, the changes displayed and the date recorded for these changes may not correspond to when the changes to the OBO file were committed.

All changes

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2007-01-09 GO:0051295 establishment of meiotic spindle localization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the directed movement of the meiotic spindle to a specific location in the cell occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0040001 establishment of mitotic spindle localization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the directed movement of the mitotic spindle to a specific location in the cell occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0007529 establishment of synaptic specificity at neuromuscular junction Added DEFINITION The biological process by which a synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle is initially formed.
2007-01-09 GO:0016321 female meiosis chromosome segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby genetic material, in the form of chromosomes, is organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets during the meiotic cell cycle in a female.
2007-01-09 GO:0007144 female meiosis I Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the first meiotic division occurs in the female germline.
2007-01-09 GO:0007147 female meiosis II Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the second meiotic division occurs in the female germline.
2007-01-09 GO:0021871 forebrain regionalization Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process resulting in the creation of areas within the forebrain that will direct the behavior of cell migration in differentiation as the forebrain develops.
2007-01-09 GO:0010160 formation of animal organ boundary Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that specificies organ primordium boundaries resulting in a restriction of organogenesis to a limited spatial domain and keeping the organ separate from surrounding tissues.
2007-01-09 GO:0051866 general adaptation syndrome Updated DEFINITION General adaptation syndrome is the set of changes in various organ systems of the body, especially the pituitary-endocrine system, in response to a wide range of strong external stimuli, both physiological and psychological. It is described as having three stages: alarm reaction, where the body detects the external stimulus; adaptation, where the body engages defensive countermeasures against the stressor; and exhaustion, where the body begins to run out of defenses.
2007-01-09 GO:0051867 general adaptation syndrome, behavioral process Updated DEFINITION The behavioral processes that occur as part of the general adaptation syndrome, the response of the body to a strong, stressful stimulus.
2007-01-09 GO:0019228 neuronal action potential Added DEFINITION The process that modulates the membrane potential involved in the propagation of a signal in a neuron.
2007-01-09 GO:0000372 Group I intron splicing Updated DEFINITION The splicing of Group I introns. This occurs by a ribozymic mechanism where the intron sequence forms a distinct 3D structure, characteristic of Group I introns and involved in determining the locations of the splice sites (there do not appear to be consensu thes splice site sequences) as well as having a role in catalyzing the splicing reactions, though protein factors are also required in vivo. Splicing occurs by a series of two transesterification reactions, generally with exogenous guanosine as the initiating nucleophile. The intron is excised as a linear piece (though it may subsequently circularize).
2007-01-09 GO:0000373 Group II intron splicing Updated DEFINITION The splicing of Group II introns. This occurs by a ribozymic mechanism where the intron sequence forms a distinct 3D structure, characteristic of Group II introns and containing splice site consensu thes sequences, that is involved in catalyzing the splicing reactions, though protein factors are also required in vivo. Splicing occurs by a series of two transesterification reactions (mechanistically similar to those for splicing of nuclear mRNAs) initiated by a bulged adenosine residue within the intron sequence as the initiating nucleophile. The intron is excised as a lariat.
2007-01-09 GO:0000374 Group III intron splicing Updated DEFINITION The splicing of Group III introns. This occurs by a ribozymic mechanism where the intron sequence forms a distinct 3D structure, characteristic of Group III introns, that is involved in catalyzing the splicing reactions, though protein factors are also required in vivo. Splicing occurs by a series of two transesterification reactions begun by a bulged adenosine residue within the intron sequence as the initiating nucleophile. The intron is excised as a lariat. Though very similar in structure and mechanism to Group II introns, Group III introns are smaller and more streamlined and the splice site consensu thes sequences are not as well conserved.
2007-01-09 GO:0007482 haltere development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the haltere over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The haltere is the club-shaped 'balancers' found on each side of the metathorax among the true flies (Diptera research community). They are the much-modified hind wings.
2007-01-09 GO:0035188 hatching Updated DEFINITION The emergence of an organism from a protective structure.
2007-01-09 GO:0035301 Hedgehog signaling complex Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that binds microtubules in a Hedgehog-dependent manner, and is required for signal transduction by members of the Hedgehog family of proteins. The core components of the complex are the serine/threonine protein kinase Fused, the kinesin motor protein Costal2 (Cos2), and a zinc finger transcription factor (Gli family members in humans, and Cubitus interruptus (Ci) in Drosophila research community).
2007-01-09 GO:0042592 homeostatic process Updated DEFINITION The biological processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium.
2007-01-09 GO:0031619 homologous chromosome orientation involved in meiotic metaphase I plate congression Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the sister centromeres of one chromosome attach to microtubules that emanate from the same spindle pole, which ensures that homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes are pulled in opposite directions at anaphase of meiosis I.
2007-01-09 GO:0045143 homologous chromosome segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby replicated homologous chromosomes are organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two sets during the first division of the meiotic cell cycle. Each replicated chromosome, composed of two sister chromatids, aligns at the cell equator, paired with its homologous partner; this pairing off, referred to as synapsis, permits genetic recombination. One homolog (both sister chromatids) of each morphologic type goes into each of the resulting chromosome sets.
2007-01-09 GO:0030989 dynein-driven meiotic oscillatory nuclear movement Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby oscillatory movement of the nucleus during meiotic prophase I occurs. This oscillatory movement is led by an astral microtubule array emanating from the spindle pole body, which may facilitate synapsis necessary for efficient meiotic recombination; as observed in S. pombe.
2007-01-09 GO:0007447 imaginal disc pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that results in defined areas of the imaginal disc that will undergo specific cell differentaiton. Imaginal discs are epithelial infoldings in the larvae of holometabolous insects that develop into adult appendages (legs, antennae, wings, etc.) during metamorphosis from larval to adult form.
2007-01-09 GO:0002376 immune system process Updated DEFINITION Any multicellular organismal process involved in the development or functioning of the immune system, an organismal system for calibrated responses to potential internal or invasive threats.
2007-01-09 GO:0002030 inhibitory G-protein coupled receptor phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The process that inhibits the signaling function of a G-protein coupled receptor by addition of a phosphoric group to its third intracellular loop consensu thes site.
2007-01-09 GO:0005882 intermediate filament Updated DEFINITION A distinct elongated structure, characteristically 10 nm in diameter, that occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Intermediate filaments form a fibrous system, composed of chemically heterogeneous subunits and involved in mechanically integrating the various components of the cytoplasmic space. Intermediate filaments may be divided into five chemically distinct classes: keratin filaments of mammalian epithelial cells; desmin filaments found in cells of muscles of all types; vimentin filaments found in mesenchymal cells; neurofilaments of neurons; and glial filaments found in all types of glial cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0007078 lamin depolymerization Added DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby lamin is depolymerized.
2007-01-09 GO:0051878 lateral element assembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby lateral elements are formed. Axial elements form a proteinaceous core between the two sister chromatids of each chromosome; the two axial elements then connect along their entire lengths by fine fibers known as transverse filaments, forming the lateral elements.
2007-01-09 GO:0030999 linear element assembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a proteinaceous scaffold, related to the synaptonemal complex, is formed in association with S. pombe chromosomes during meiotic prophase.
2007-01-09 GO:0051179 localization Updated DEFINITION The processes by which a cell, a substance, or a cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is transported to, and/or maintained in a specific location.
2007-01-09 GO:0035148 tube formation Updated DEFINITION Creation of the central hole of a tube in an antomical structure through which gases and/or liquids flow.
2007-01-09 GO:0007551 obsolete maintenance of dosage compensation Added DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2007-01-09 GO:0007489 maintenance of imaginal histoblast diploidy Updated DEFINITION The negative regulation of the differentiation of polytenized larval hypodermal cells from abdominal histoblasts. The abdominal histoblasts remain a small cluster of diploid cells among the polytenized larval hypodermal cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0006588 activation of tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activity Added DEFINITION The process by which the tryptophan hydroxylase enzyme is changed so that is can carry out its enzymatic activity.
2007-01-09 GO:0006990 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in unfolded protein response Updated DEFINITION The activation of genes whose promoters contain a specific sequence elements such as the unfolded protein response element (UPRE; consensu thes CAGCGTG) or the ER stress-response element (ERSE; CCAAN(N)9CCACG), as a result of signaling via the unfolded protein response.
2007-01-09 GO:0010051 xylem and phloem pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that gives rise to the patterning of the conducting tissues, as in, but not restricted to, the vascular plants (Tracheophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:58023).
2007-01-09 GO:0007371 ventral midline determination Added DEFINITION The rgionalization process by which the area where the ventral furrow will begin invagination is specified.
2007-01-09 GO:0007086 vesicle fusion with nuclear membrane involved in mitotic nuclear envelope reassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the joining of the lipid bilayer membrane around a vesicle with the lipid bilayer membrane around the nucleus occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0006903 vesicle targeting Updated DEFINITION The process by which vesicles are directed to specific destination membranes, mediated by microtubules that grow between molecules at the vesicle membrane and target membrane surfaces.
2007-01-09 GO:0016032 viral process Updated DEFINITION The process by which a virus reproduces. Usually, this is by infection of a host cell, replication of the viral genome, and assembly of progeny virus particles. In some cases the viral genetic material may integrate into the host genome and only subsequently, under particular circumstances, 'complete' its life cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0007495 visceral mesoderm-endoderm interaction involved in midgut development Added DEFINITION The process of cell-cell signaling between visceral mesoderm cells and endoderm cells that is involved in the differentiation of cells in the midgut.
2007-01-09 GO:0007296 vitellogenesis Updated DEFINITION The production of yolk. Yolk is a mixture of materials used for embryonic nutrition.
2007-01-09 GO:0035309 wing and notum subfield formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that subdivides the wing imaginal disc into the wing and notum (body wall) subfields, thus determining whether cells ultimately differentiate wing or notum-specific structures.
2007-01-09 GO:0007474 imaginal disc-derived wing vein specification Added DEFINITION The regionalization process by which the area of a wing that will form a wing vein is specified.
2007-01-09 GO:0051314 attachment of spindle microtubules to mitotic chromosome Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle microtubules become physically associated with a chromosome during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0032121 meiotic attachment of telomeric heterochromatin to spindle pole body Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby physical connections are formed between telomeres and the spindle pole body, facilitating bouquet formation.
2007-01-09 GO:0009798 axis specification Updated DEFINITION The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of a pattern along a line or a point.
2007-01-09 GO:0006286 base-excision repair, base-free sugar-phosphate removal Updated DEFINITION Excision of the sugar phosphate residue at an AP site, i.e. a deoxyribose sugar with a missing base, by a phosphodiesterase enzyme.
2007-01-09 GO:0032782 bile acid secretion Updated DEFINITION The regulated release of bile acid, composed of any of a group of steroid carboxylic acids occurring in bile. by a cell or group of cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0008150 biological_process Updated DEFINITION Those processes specifically pertinent to the functioning of integrated living units: cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. A process is a collection of molecular events with a defined beginning and end.
2007-01-09 GO:0008218 bioluminescence Updated DEFINITION The production of light by certain enzyme-catalyzed reactions in cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0019725 cellular homeostasis Updated DEFINITION The processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium at the level of the cell.
2007-01-09 GO:0009920 cell plate formation involved in plant-type cell wall biogenesis Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the cell plate is formed at the equator of the spindle in the dividing cells during early telophase. As in, but not restricted to, the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:3398).
2007-01-09 GO:0007099 centriole replication Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a daughter centriole is formed perpendicular to an existing centriole. An immature centriole contains a ninefold radially symmetric array of single microtubules; mature centrioles consist of a radial array of nine microtubule triplets, doublets, or singlets depending upon the species and cell type.
2007-01-09 GO:0007098 centrosome cycle Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby centrosome duplication and separation takes place. The centrosome cycle can operate with a considerable degree of independence from other processes of the cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0021796 cerebral cortex regionalization Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that results in the creation of areas within the cerebral cortex that will direct the behavior of cell migration and differentiation as the cortex develops.
2007-01-09 GO:0016465 chaperonin ATPase complex Updated DEFINITION Multisubunit protein complex with 2x7 (Type I, in most cells) or 2x8 (Type II, in Archaea research community) ATP-binding sites involved in maintaining an unfolded polypeptide structure before folding or to entry into mitochondria and chloroplasts.
2007-01-09 GO:0006935 chemotaxis Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a motile cell or organism, or the directed growth of a cell guided by a specific chemical concentration gradient. Movement may be towards a higher concentration (positive chemotaxis) or towards a lower concentration (negative chemotaxis).
2007-01-09 GO:0051026 chiasma assembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a connection between chromatids forms, indicating where an exchange of homologous segments has taken place by the crossing-over of non-sister chromatids.
2007-01-09 GO:0051304 chromosome separation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby paired chromosomes are detached from each other. In budding yeast, this includes the cleavage of cohesin complexes along the chromosome arms, followed by the separation of the centromeric regions.
2007-01-09 GO:0048723 clypeus development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the clypeus over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The clypeus is the shield-shaped plate on an insect's head.
2007-01-09 GO:0007386 compartment pattern specification Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which embryonic segments are divided into compartments that will result in differences in cell differentiation.
2007-01-09 GO:0044402 competition with other organism Updated DEFINITION Any process by which an organism within a multispecies research community gains an advantage in growth or survival over another organism of a different species in that research community.
2007-01-09 GO:0048700 acquisition of desiccation tolerance in seed Updated DEFINITION The process by which a seed acquires tolerance to severe drying, before entering into a dry, either dormant or quiescent state.
2007-01-09 GO:0030037 actin filament reorganization involved in cell cycle Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby rearrangement of the spatial distribution of actin filaments and associated proteins occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0019227 neuronal action potential propagation Added DEFINITION A neurological process that causes the sequential depolarization of a neuron's cell membrane along an axon.
2007-01-09 GO:0007072 positive regulation of transcription involved in exit from mitosis Added DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby transcription is positively regulated as the cell leaves M phase. M phase is the part of the mitotic cell cycle during which mitosis and cytokinesis take place.
2007-01-09 GO:0009955 adaxial/abaxial pattern specification Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which differences in cell differentiation along the adaxial (adjacent to the stem) / abaxial (away from the stem) are generated.
2007-01-09 GO:0048910 afferent axon development in anterior lateral line nerve Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an afferent axon in the anterior lateral line nerve over time from its formation to the mature structure. This process includes axonogenesis and pathfinding of the afferent axons in the anterior lateral line nerve.
2007-01-09 GO:0009952 anterior/posterior pattern specification Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which specific areas of cell differentiation are determined along the anterior-posterior axis.
2007-01-09 GO:0008632 apoptotic program Updated DEFINITION The intracellular signaling cascade that results when a cell is triggered to undergo apoptosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0005627 obsolete ascus Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A sac-like fruiting body (ascomycete Fungi research community); contains ascospores (typically eight in number).
2007-01-09 GO:0019954 asexual reproduction Updated DEFINITION The biological process by which new individuals are produced by either a single cell or a group of cells, in the absence of any sexual process.
2007-01-09 GO:0043191 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter complex (sensu Eukaryota) Updated DEFINITION ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter complex (sensu the Eukarya research community) A complex for the transport of metabolites into and out of the cell, typically comprised of four domains; two membrane-associated domains and two ATP-binding domains at the intracellular face of the membrane, that form a central pore through the plasma membrane. Each of the four core domains may be encoded as a separate polypeptide or the domains can be fused in any one of a number of ways into multidomain polypeptides. As in, but not restricted to, the eukaryotes (Eukaryota, ncbi_taxonomy_id:2759).
2007-01-09 GO:0051316 attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochore involved in meiotic chromosome segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle microtubules become physically associated with the proteins making up the kinetochore complex during meiotic chromosome segregation.
2007-01-09 GO:0051315 attachment of mitotic spindle microtubules to kinetochore Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle microtubules become physically associated with the proteins making up the kinetochore complex during mitosis. During mitosis, the kinetochores of sister chromosomes are situated facing opposite spindle poles and bipolar attachment of the sister chromosomes to the spindle occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0051317 attachment of spindle microtubules to meiotic chromosome Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle microtubules become physically associated with a chromosome during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0035017 cuticle pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that gives rise to the patterns of cell differentiation in the cuticle.
2007-01-09 GO:0031566 actomyosin contractile ring maintenance Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the contractile ring is maintained in response to the cytokinesis checkpoint; that is when cytokinesis is delayed awaiting completion of nuclear division or the correct formation of cytokinetic structures.
2007-01-09 GO:0002215 defense response to nematode Updated DEFINITION A response to protect an organism from a directly detected or perceived external threat from a nematode or nematodes, which results in restriction of damage to the organism attacked or prevention/recovery from the infection caused by the attack.
2007-01-09 GO:0032497 detection of lipopolysaccharide Updated DEFINITION The series of events in which a lipopolysaccharide stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. Lipopolysaccharide is a major component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria.
2007-01-09 GO:0016204 determination of muscle attachment site Added DEFINITION The process that mediates the transfer of information from the cells of a muscle to those of its intended target, thereby identifying the target site.
2007-01-09 GO:0048264 determination of ventral identity Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which the determination of the identity of part of an organism or organ where those parts are of the type that occur in the ventral region. Identity is considered to be the aggregate of characteristics by which a structure is recognized.
2007-01-09 GO:0048588 developmental cell growth Updated DEFINITION The growth of a cell, where growth contributes to the progression of the cell over time from one condition to another.
2007-01-09 GO:0007586 digestion Updated DEFINITION The whole of the physical, chemical, and biochemical processes carried out by multicellular organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.
2007-01-09 GO:0032392 DNA geometric change Updated DEFINITION The process by which a transformation is induced in the geometry of a DNA double helix, resulting in a change in twist, writhe, or both, but with no change in linking number. Includes the unwinding of double-stranded DNA by helicases.
2007-01-09 GO:0006260 DNA replication Updated DEFINITION The process whereby new strands of DNA are synthesized. The template for replication can either be an existing DNA molecule or RNA.
2007-01-09 GO:0006271 DNA strand elongation involved in DNA replication Updated DEFINITION The process by which a DNA strand is synthesized from template DNA during replication by the action of polymerases, which add nucleotides to the 3' end of the nascent DNA strand.
2007-01-09 GO:0000419 DNA-directed RNA polymerase V complex Updated DEFINITION RNA polymerase IVb is a multisubunit RNA polymerase complex found in the nucleus of plants and involved in accumulation of siRNAs and in DNA methylation-dependent silencing of endogenous repeated sequences. Two large subunits comprise the most conserved portion including the catalytic site and share similarity with other eukaryotic and bacterial multisubunit RNA polymerases. The second largest subunit is also found in RNA polymerase IVa, while the largest subunit is found only in the IVa complex and contains an extended C-terminal domain (CTD) that includes multiple repeats of a 16 amino-acid consensu thes sequence as well as other sequences. The remainder of the complex is composed of smaller subunits.
2007-01-09 GO:0009953 dorsal/ventral pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which the areas along the dorsal/ventral axis are established that will lead to differences in cell differentiation.
2007-01-09 GO:0007499 ectoderm and mesoderm interaction Added DEFINITION A cell-cell signaling process occuring between the two gastrulation-generated layers of the ectoderm and the mesoderm.
2007-01-09 GO:0030381 chorion-containing eggshell pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that gives rise to the pattern of cell differentiation in the eggshell. As in, but not restricted to, the true insects (Insecta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:50557).
2007-01-09 GO:0007566 embryo implantation Updated DEFINITION Attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine lining.
2007-01-09 GO:0009790 embryo development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo from its formation until the end of its embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic stage is organism-specific. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant.
2007-01-09 GO:0007174 epidermal growth factor catabolic process Added DEFINITION The proteolysis of epidermal growth factor after its internalization via binding to its receptor.
2007-01-09 GO:0016332 establishment or maintenance of polarity of embryonic epithelium Updated DEFINITION The specification, formation and maintenance of anisotropic intracellular organization of epithelial cells in an embryo.
2007-01-09 GO:0007550 obsolete establishment of dosage compensation Added DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2007-01-09 GO:0031413 regulation of buoyancy Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates an organism's tendency or ability to rise or float in a fluid medium such as water or air, often through the use of stored gases.
2007-01-09 GO:0051726 regulation of cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the rate, extent or mode of the cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0050793 regulation of developmental process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of development, the biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a multicellular organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2007-01-09 GO:0051239 regulation of multicellular organismal process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of an organismal process, the processes pertinent to the function of an organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.
2007-01-09 GO:0048832 specification of plant organ number Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that modulates the quantity of a particular type of organ.
2007-01-09 GO:0007347 regulation of preblastoderm mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the progression through the preblastoderm mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0007348 regulation of syncytial blastoderm mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the progression through the syncytial blastoderm mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0007090 obsolete regulation of S phase of mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the progression through the S phase of mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0046017 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase I promoter during mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase I promoter during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0046021 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter during mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0046023 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter during mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase III promoter during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0045896 regulation of transcription during mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0006417 regulation of translation Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of proteins by the translation of mRNA.
2007-01-09 GO:0051440 regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in meiotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ubiquitin ligase activity during the meiotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0051439 regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ubiquitin ligase activity during the mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0019076 viral release from host cell Updated DEFINITION The process by which a virus becomes free of a host cell either by the lysis of the host cell or by a non-lytic mechanism.
2007-01-09 GO:0048610 obsolete cellular process involved in reproduction Updated DEFINITION A process, occurring at the cellular level, that is involved in the reproductive function of a multicellular or single-celled organism.
2007-01-09 GO:0048608 reproductive structure development Updated DEFINITION The reproductive developmental process whose specific outcome is the progression of structures that will be used in the process of creating new individuals from one or more parents, from their formation to the mature structures.
2007-01-09 GO:0042052 rhabdomere development Updated DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of a rhabdomere within a cell. The rhabdomere is the organelle on the apical surface of a photoreceptor cell that contains the visual pigments.
2007-01-09 GO:0042273 ribosomal large subunit biogenesis Updated DEFINITION The formation of the constituents of the large ribosomal subunit, their assembly, and their transport to the sites of protein synthesis.
2007-01-09 GO:0042274 ribosomal small subunit biogenesis Updated DEFINITION The formation of the constituents of the small ribosomal subunit, their assembly, and their transport to the sites of protein synthesis.
2007-01-09 GO:0042254 ribosome biogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process of the formation of the constituents of the ribosome subunits, their assembly, and their transport to the sites of protein synthesis.
2007-01-09 GO:0000509 Rpd3S complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit histone deacetylase complex that is involved in intragenic transcription repression through histone deacetylation. In S. cerevisiae, this complex consists of Rpd3p, Sin3p, Ume1p, Rco1p and Eaf3.
2007-01-09 GO:0000115 obsolete regulation of transcription involved in S phase of mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that regulates transcription such that the target genes are transcribed during the S phase of the mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0007540 sex determination, establishment of X:A ratio Added DEFINITION The developmental process by which an organism senses the number of X chromosomes and autosomes in its genomic complement and responds to it.
2007-01-09 GO:0050918 positive chemotaxis Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a motile cell or organism, or the directed growth of a cell guided by a higher concentration, in a concentration gradient of a specific chemical.
2007-01-09 GO:0051240 positive regulation of multicellular organismal process Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of an organismal process, the processes pertinent to the function of an organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.
2007-01-09 GO:0045727 positive regulation of translation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of proteins by the translation of mRNA.
2007-01-09 GO:0007359 posterior abdomen determination Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which the posterior (abdominal) regions of the embryo are specified by the gap genes.
2007-01-09 GO:0006267 pre-replicative complex assembly involved in nuclear cell cycle DNA replication Updated DEFINITION The assembly of the pre-replicative complex, multiprotein complex that forms at eukaryotic DNA replication origins during late M phase; its presence is required for replication initiation.
2007-01-09 GO:0007542 primary sex determination, germ-line Updated DEFINITION The transmission of information about sexual status, from the initial general determination, to signals specific to the germ-line.
2007-01-09 GO:0000059 protein import into nucleus, docking Added DEFINITION The aggregation and bonding together of the nuclear localization signal of a protein with nuclear envelope proteins such as importins.
2007-01-09 GO:0000061 protein import into nucleus, substrate release Added DEFINITION The disaggregation of a protein complex composed of the nuclear localization sequence and the importin alpha, and importin beta proteins.
2007-01-09 GO:0009954 proximal/distal pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which specific areas of cell differentiation are determined along a proximal/distal axis.
2007-01-09 GO:0045470 R8 cell-mediated photoreceptor organization Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that coordinates the recruitment and organization of other non-R8 photoreceptors by the R8 photoreceptor.
2007-01-09 GO:0009945 radial axis specification Updated DEFINITION The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of an axis that initiates at a point and radiates outward from the point.
2007-01-09 GO:0009956 radial pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that results in defined areas around a point in which specific types of cell differentiation will occur.
2007-01-09 GO:0019953 sexual reproduction Updated DEFINITION The regular alternation, in the life cycle of haplontic, diplontic and diplohaplontic organisms, of meiosis and fertilization which provides for the production offspring. In diplontic organisms there is a life cycle in which the products of meiosis behave directly as gametes, fusing to form a zygote from which the diploid, or sexually reproductive polyploid, adult organism will develop. In diplohaplontic organisms a haploid phase (gametophyte) exists in the life cycle between meiosis and fertilization (e.g. higher plants, many algae and Fungi research community); the products of meiosis are spores that develop as haploid individuals from which haploid gametes develop to form a diploid zygote; diplohaplontic organisms show an alternation of haploid and diploid generations. In haplontic organisms meiosis occurs in the zygote, giving rise to four haploid cells (e.g. many algae and protozoa), only the zygote is diploid and this may form a resistant spore, tiding organisms over hard times.
2007-01-09 GO:0031134 sister chromatid biorientation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby sister chromatids establish stable attachments to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles.
2007-01-09 GO:0007183 SMAD protein complex assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and bonding together of a set of components to form a protein complex that contains SMAD proteins.
2007-01-09 GO:0010092 specification of animal organ identity Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which the identity of an organ primordium is specified. Identity is considered to be the aggregate of characteristics by which a structure is recognized.
2007-01-09 GO:0010159 specification of animal organ position Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which information that determines the correct position at which organ primordia are formed is generated and perceived resulting in correct positioning of the new organ.
2007-01-09 GO:0021511 spinal cord patterning Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that regulates the coordinated growth and establishes the non-random spatial arrangement of the spinal cord.
2007-01-09 GO:0051231 spindle elongation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the distance is lengthened between poles of the spindle.
2007-01-09 GO:0051255 spindle midzone assembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle midzone is formed. The spindle midzone is the area in the center of the spindle where the spindle microtubules from opposite poles overlap.
2007-01-09 GO:0010319 stromule Updated DEFINITION Thin filamentous structure extending from the surface of all plastid types examined so far, including chloroplast, proplastid, etioplast, leucoplast, amyloplast, and chromoplast. In general, stromules are more abundant in tissues containing non-green plastids, and in cells containing smaller plastids. The primary function of stromules is still unresolved, although the presence of stromules markedly increases the plastid surface area, potentially increasing transport to and from the cytosol. Other functions of stromules, such as transfer of macromolecules between plastids and starch granule formation in cereal endosperm, may be restricted to particular tissues and cell types.
2007-01-09 GO:0006932 substrate-dependent cell migration, cell contraction Updated DEFINITION The translocation of the cell body forward during cell migration, mediated by tractional force on its substrate and tension in the cortical cytoskeleton. Adhesions transmit propulsive forces and serve as traction points over which the cell moves.
2007-01-09 GO:0006781 succinyl-CoA pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions that utilize succinyl-CoA in the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX.
2007-01-09 GO:0007129 synapsis Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the side by side pairing and physical juxtaposition of homologous chromosomes is created at the metaphase plate.
2007-01-09 GO:0016080 synaptic vesicle targeting Updated DEFINITION The process by which synaptic vesicles are directed to specific destination membranes, mediated by molecules at the vesicle membrane and target membrane surfaces.
2007-01-09 GO:0007416 synapse assembly Updated DEFINITION The biosynthesis of a synapse.
2007-01-09 GO:0007130 synaptonemal complex assembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the synaptonemal complex is formed. This is a structure that holds paired chromosomes together during prophase I of meiosis and that promotes genetic recombination.
2007-01-09 GO:0010198 synergid death Updated DEFINITION Synergid cells undergo degeneration and death in response to penetration by the pollen tube. It is an active process that involves a dramatic decrease in cell volume, collapse of the vacuoles, and complete disintegration of the plasma membrane and most organelles.
2007-01-09 GO:0021978 telencephalon regionalization Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that creates areas within the forebrain that will direct the behavior of cell migration in differentiation as the telencephalon develops.
2007-01-09 GO:0045141 meiotic telomere clustering Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the dynamic reorganization of telomeres occurs in early meiotic prophase, during which meiotic chromosome ends are gathered in a bouquet arrangement at the inner surface of the nuclear envelope proximal to the spindle pole body. This plays an important role in homologous chromosome pairing and therefore progression through meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0030911 TPR domain binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of a protein, the consensu thes sequence of which is defined by a pattern of small and large hydrophobic amino acids and a structure composed of helices.
2007-01-09 GO:0006352 DNA-templated transcription, initiation Updated DEFINITION Processes involved in the assembly of the RNA polymerase complex at the promoter region of a DNA template resulting in the subsequent synthesis of RNA from that promoter.
2007-01-09 GO:0007181 transforming growth factor beta receptor complex assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and bonding together of a type II transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) receptor dimer with a a type I TGFbeta receptor dimer, following ligand binding, to form a heterotetrameric TGFbeta receptor complex.
2007-01-09 GO:0006412 translation Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a protein. This is a ribosome-mediated process in which the information in messenger RNA (mRNA) is used to specify the sequence of amino acids in the protein.
2007-01-09 GO:0048629 trichome patterning Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process of establishing the non-random spatial arrangement of trichomes on the surface and margin of a leaf. Process involves signaling between adjacent epidermal cells that results in differentiation of some epidermal cells into trichomes. As in, but not restricted to, the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:3398).
2007-01-09 GO:0045214 sarcomere organization Updated DEFINITION The organization of the muscle actomyosin into sarcomeres. The sarcomere is the repeating unit of a myofibril in a muscle cell, composed of an array of overlapping thick and thin filaments between two adjacent Z discs.
2007-01-09 GO:0035282 segmentation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that divides an organism or part of an organism into a series of semi-repetitive parts, or segments, often arranged along a longitudinal axis.
2007-01-09 GO:0007541 sex determination, primary response to X:A ratio Added DEFINITION The developmental process by which an organism interprets its X to autosomal chromosomal complement.
2007-01-09 GO:0007543 sex determination, somatic-gonadal interaction Added DEFINITION The process that mediates the interactions between somatic cells and gonadal cells that ultimately results in the specification of sexual status of the organism.
2007-01-09 GO:0007131 reciprocal meiotic recombination Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby double strand breaks are formed and repaired through a double Holliday junction intermediate. This results in the equal exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes. These reciprocal recombinant products ensure the proper segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I and create genetic diversity.
2007-01-09 GO:0051755 meiotic sister chromatid arm separation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby sister chromatid arms are physically detached from each other during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051756 meiotic sister chromatid centromere separation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the centromeres of sister chromatids are physically detached from each other during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051177 meiotic sister chromatid cohesion Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby sister chromatids of a replicated chromosome are joined along the entire length of the chromosome during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051760 meiotic sister chromatid cohesion, arms Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the sister chromatids of a replicated chromosome are joined along the length of the chromosome arms during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051754 meiotic sister chromatid cohesion, centromeric Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby centromeres of sister chromatids are joined during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0045144 meiotic sister chromatid segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby sister chromatids are organized and then physically separated and randomly apportioned to two sets during the second division of the meiotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0000212 meiotic spindle organization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the microtubule spindle is formed and maintained during a meiotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0043147 meiotic spindle stabilization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle integrity is maintained during M phase of meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0000714 meiotic strand displacement Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the broken 3' single-strand DNA molecule that formed heteroduplex DNA with its complement in an intact duplex DNA is rejected. The Watson-Crick base pairing in the original duplex is restored. The rejected 3' single-strand DNA molecule reanneals with its original complement to reform two intact duplex molecules. This occurs during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0000708 meiotic strand invasion Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the nucleoprotein complex (composed of the broken single-strand DNA and the recombinase) searches and identifies a region of homology in intact duplex DNA. The broken single-strand DNA displaces the like strand and forms Watson-Crick base pairs with its complement, forming a duplex in which each strand is from one of the two recombining DNA molecules. This occurs during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0007509 mesoderm migration involved in gastrulation Added DEFINITION The migration of mesodermal cells during gastrulation to help establish the multilayered body plan of the organism.
2007-01-09 GO:0030106 obsolete MHC class I receptor activity Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A major histocompatibility complex class I receptor. These display processed antigens from the endocytosed bacteria. MHC class I proteins can form complexes with processed antigen peptides only if the antigen is synthesized in the same cell. As a consequence, T lymphocytes can only bind to class-I-positive cells that are synthesizing the antigen (e.g. virus-infected cells).
2007-01-09 GO:0021547 midbrain-hindbrain boundary initiation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that gives rise to the midbrain-hindbrain boundary.The midbrain-hindbrain domain of the embryonic brain is comprised of the mesencephalic vesicle and the first rhombencephalic vesicle at early somitogenesis stages. An organizing center at the boundary patterns the midbrain and hindbrain primordia of the neural plate.
2007-01-09 GO:0035195 gene silencing by miRNA Updated DEFINITION Downregulation of gene expression through the action of microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous 21-24 nucleotide small RNAs processed from stem-loop RNA precursors (pre-miRNAs). Once incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), miRNAs can downregulate gene expression by either of two posttranscriptional mechanisms: mRNA cleavage or translational repression.
2007-01-09 GO:0010074 maintenance of meristem identity Updated DEFINITION The process by which an organism retains a population of meristem cells, preventing the commitment of all stem cell progeny to a differentiated cell fate.
2007-01-09 GO:0007060 male meiosis chromosome segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby genetic material, in the form of chromosomes, is organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets during the meiotic cell cycle in a male.
2007-01-09 GO:0007141 male meiosis I Updated DEFINITION Progression through male meiosis I, the first meiotic division in the male germline.
2007-01-09 GO:0007142 male meiosis II Updated DEFINITION Progression through male meiosis II, the second meiotic division in the male germline.
2007-01-09 GO:0007126 meiotic nuclear division Updated DEFINITION Progression through meiosis, the specialized nuclear and cell division in which a single diploid cell undergoes two nuclear divisions following a single round of DNA replication in order to produce four daughter cells that contain half the number of chromosomes as the diploid cell. Meiosis occurs during the formation of gametes from diploid organisms and at the beginning of haplophase in those organisms that alternate between diploid and haploid generations.
2007-01-09 GO:0051178 meiotic chromosome decondensation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby chromosome structure is altered from the condensed form held during meiosis to the relaxed dispersed form held in resting cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0016344 meiotic chromosome movement towards spindle pole Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the directed movement of chromosomes from the center of the spindle towards the spindle poles takes place, mediated by the shortening of microtubules attached to the chromosomes. This occurs during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0042138 meiotic DNA double-strand break formation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby double-strand breaks are generated at defined hotspots throughout the genome during meiosis I. This results in the initiation of meiotic recombination.
2007-01-09 GO:0000706 meiotic DNA double-strand break processing Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the 5' to 3' exonucleolytic resection of the DNA at the site of the break to form a 3' single-strand DNA overhang occurs. This takes place during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0008315 meiotic G2/MI transition Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a cell progresses from meiotic prophase to metaphase I.
2007-01-09 GO:0006311 meiotic gene conversion Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby genetic information is transferred from one helix to another. It often occurs in association with general genetic recombination events, and is believed to be a straightforward consequence of the mechanisms of general recombination and DNA repair. For example, meiosis might yield three copies of the maternal version of an allele and only one copy of the paternal allele, indicating that one of the two copies of the paternal allele has been changed to a copy of the maternal allele.
2007-01-09 GO:0051311 meiotic metaphase plate congression Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate, a plane halfway between the poles of the meiotic spindle, during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051078 meiotic nuclear envelope disassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the controlled breakdown of the nuclear envelope during meiotic cell division occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0051333 meiotic nuclear envelope reassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the reformation of the nuclear envelope during meiosis occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0035267 NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex Updated DEFINITION A complex having histone acetylase activity on chromatin, as well as ATPase, DNA helicase and structural DNA binding activities. The complex is thought to be involved in double-strand DNA break repair. Subunits of the human complex include HTATIP/TIP60, TRRAP, RUVBL1, BUVBL2, beta-actin and BAF53/ACTL6A. In yeast, the complex has 13 subunits, including the catalytic subunit Esa1 (homologous to human Tip60).
2007-01-09 GO:0000745 nuclear migration involved in conjugation with mutual genetic exchange Updated DEFINITION The net movement of nuclei towards one another, leading to the bilateral transfer of genetic material in organisms undergoing conjugation without cellular fusion.
2007-01-09 GO:0006490 oligosaccharide-lipid intermediate biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The cellular metabolic process by which an intermediate molecule of dolichol-P-man or dolicol-P-Glc is assembled to be used in N-linked glycosylation.
2007-01-09 GO:0007389 pattern specification process Updated DEFINITION The developmental processes that result in the creation of defined areas or spaces within an organism to which cells respond and eventually are instructed to differentiate.
2007-01-09 GO:0018211 peptidyl-tryptophan modification Updated DEFINITION The chemical alteration of a tryptophan residue in a peptide.
2007-01-09 GO:0007365 periodic partitioning Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that divides the spatial regions of an embryo into serially repeated regions.
2007-01-09 GO:0042597 periplasmic space Updated DEFINITION The region between the inner (cytoplasmic) and outer membrane (Gram-negative Bacteria research community) or inner membrane and cell wall (Fungi research community).
2007-01-09 GO:0005052 peroxisome matrix targeting signal-1 binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a type 1 peroxisome targeting signal, a tripeptide with the consensu thes (S/A/C)-(K/R/H)-L.
2007-01-09 GO:0005053 peroxisome matrix targeting signal-2 binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a type 2 peroxisome targeting signal, a nonapeptide with a broad consensu thes sequence of (R/K)-(L/V/I)-(XXXXX)-(H/Q)-(L/A/F).
2007-01-09 GO:0040038 polar body extrusion after meiotic divisions Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby two small cells are generated, as byproducts destined to degenerate, as a result of the first and second meiotic divisions of a primary oocyte during its development to a mature ovum. One polar body is formed in the first division of meiosis and the other in the second division; at each division, the cytoplasm divides unequally, so that the polar body is of much smaller size than the developing oocyte. At the second division in which a polar body is formed, the polar body and the developing oocyte each contain a haploid set of chromosomes.
2007-01-09 GO:0007067 mitotic nuclear division Updated DEFINITION Progression through mitosis, the division of the eukaryotic cell nucleus to produce two daughter nuclei that, usually, contain the identical chromosome complement to their mother.
2007-01-09 GO:0007076 mitotic chromosome condensation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby chromatin structure is compacted prior to mitosis in eukaryotic cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0007083 mitotic chromosome decondensation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby chromosome structure is altered from the condensed form taken on during mitosis to the relaxed disperse form held in resting cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0007079 mitotic chromosome movement towards spindle pole Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the directed movement of chromosomes from the center of the spindle towards the spindle poles occurs. This mediates by the shortening of microtubules attached to the chromosomes, during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0007080 mitotic metaphase plate congression Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate, a plane halfway between the poles of the mitotic spindle, during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0007091 metaphase/anaphase transition of mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a cell progresses from metaphase to anaphase during mitosis, triggered by the destruction of mitotic cyclins.
2007-01-09 GO:0007077 mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the controlled breakdown of the nuclear envelope during mitotic cell division occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0007084 mitotic nuclear envelope reassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the nuclear envelope reforms during mitotic cell division.
2007-01-09 GO:0007087 mitotic nuclear pore complex reassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby nuclear pore complexes reform during mitotic cell division.
2007-01-09 GO:0007064 mitotic sister chromatid cohesion Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the sister chromatids of a replicated chromosome are joined along the entire length of the chromosome during mitosis. This cohesion cycle is critical for high fidelity chromosome transmission.
2007-01-09 GO:0000070 mitotic sister chromatid segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby replicated homologous chromosomes are organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two sets during the mitotic cell cycle. Each replicated chromosome, composed of two sister chromatids, aligns at the cell equator, paired with its homologous partner. One homolog of each morphologic type goes into each of the resulting chromosome sets.
2007-01-09 GO:0007052 mitotic spindle organization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the microtubule spindle is formed and maintained during a mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0043148 mitotic spindle stabilization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle integrity is maintained during M phase of mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051704 multi-organism process Updated DEFINITION The processes by which an organism has an effect on another organism of the same or different species.
2007-01-09 GO:0010259 multicellular organism aging Updated DEFINITION Progression of a multicellular organism from its inception to the end of its lifespan.
2007-01-09 GO:0007275 multicellular organism development Updated DEFINITION The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2007-01-09 GO:0016203 muscle attachment Added DEFINITION The developmental process by which a skeletal muscle attaches to a bone.
2007-01-09 GO:0050919 negative chemotaxis Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a motile cell or organism, or the directed growth of a cell guided by a lower concentration, in a concentration gradient of a specific chemical.
2007-01-09 GO:0051241 negative regulation of multicellular organismal process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of an organismal process, the processes pertinent to the function of an organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.
2007-01-09 GO:0017148 negative regulation of translation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of proteins by the translation of mRNA.
2007-01-09 GO:0021997 neural plate axis specification Updated DEFINITION The pattern specification process whereby the axes of the nervous system are established.
2007-01-09 GO:0021532 neural tube patterning Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that regulates the coordinated growth that establishes the non-random spatial arrangement of the neural tube.
2007-01-09 GO:0031617 NMS complex Updated DEFINITION A supercomplex formed by the association of two subcomplexes (known as MIND and Ndc80 in SchizoSaccharomyces research community) with additional proteins at the kinetochores of condensed nuclear chromosomes.
2007-01-09 GO:0048591 non-developmental cell growth Updated DEFINITION The growth of a cell prior to division, where the growth does not change the cell from one condition to another condition over time.
2007-01-09 GO:0048544 recognition of pollen Updated DEFINITION The process, involving the sharing and interaction of the single locus incompatibility haplotypes, involved in the recognition or rejection of the self pollen by cells in the stigma. This process ensures out-breeding in certain plant species.

Definition/synonyms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2007-01-09 GO:0051295 establishment of meiotic spindle localization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the directed movement of the meiotic spindle to a specific location in the cell occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0040001 establishment of mitotic spindle localization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the directed movement of the mitotic spindle to a specific location in the cell occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0007529 establishment of synaptic specificity at neuromuscular junction Added DEFINITION The biological process by which a synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle is initially formed.
2007-01-09 GO:0016321 female meiosis chromosome segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby genetic material, in the form of chromosomes, is organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets during the meiotic cell cycle in a female.
2007-01-09 GO:0007144 female meiosis I Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the first meiotic division occurs in the female germline.
2007-01-09 GO:0007147 female meiosis II Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the second meiotic division occurs in the female germline.
2007-01-09 GO:0021871 forebrain regionalization Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process resulting in the creation of areas within the forebrain that will direct the behavior of cell migration in differentiation as the forebrain develops.
2007-01-09 GO:0010160 formation of animal organ boundary Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that specificies organ primordium boundaries resulting in a restriction of organogenesis to a limited spatial domain and keeping the organ separate from surrounding tissues.
2007-01-09 GO:0051866 general adaptation syndrome Updated DEFINITION General adaptation syndrome is the set of changes in various organ systems of the body, especially the pituitary-endocrine system, in response to a wide range of strong external stimuli, both physiological and psychological. It is described as having three stages: alarm reaction, where the body detects the external stimulus; adaptation, where the body engages defensive countermeasures against the stressor; and exhaustion, where the body begins to run out of defenses.
2007-01-09 GO:0051867 general adaptation syndrome, behavioral process Updated DEFINITION The behavioral processes that occur as part of the general adaptation syndrome, the response of the body to a strong, stressful stimulus.
2007-01-09 GO:0019228 neuronal action potential Added DEFINITION The process that modulates the membrane potential involved in the propagation of a signal in a neuron.
2007-01-09 GO:0000372 Group I intron splicing Updated DEFINITION The splicing of Group I introns. This occurs by a ribozymic mechanism where the intron sequence forms a distinct 3D structure, characteristic of Group I introns and involved in determining the locations of the splice sites (there do not appear to be consensu thes splice site sequences) as well as having a role in catalyzing the splicing reactions, though protein factors are also required in vivo. Splicing occurs by a series of two transesterification reactions, generally with exogenous guanosine as the initiating nucleophile. The intron is excised as a linear piece (though it may subsequently circularize).
2007-01-09 GO:0000373 Group II intron splicing Updated DEFINITION The splicing of Group II introns. This occurs by a ribozymic mechanism where the intron sequence forms a distinct 3D structure, characteristic of Group II introns and containing splice site consensu thes sequences, that is involved in catalyzing the splicing reactions, though protein factors are also required in vivo. Splicing occurs by a series of two transesterification reactions (mechanistically similar to those for splicing of nuclear mRNAs) initiated by a bulged adenosine residue within the intron sequence as the initiating nucleophile. The intron is excised as a lariat.
2007-01-09 GO:0000374 Group III intron splicing Updated DEFINITION The splicing of Group III introns. This occurs by a ribozymic mechanism where the intron sequence forms a distinct 3D structure, characteristic of Group III introns, that is involved in catalyzing the splicing reactions, though protein factors are also required in vivo. Splicing occurs by a series of two transesterification reactions begun by a bulged adenosine residue within the intron sequence as the initiating nucleophile. The intron is excised as a lariat. Though very similar in structure and mechanism to Group II introns, Group III introns are smaller and more streamlined and the splice site consensu thes sequences are not as well conserved.
2007-01-09 GO:0007482 haltere development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the haltere over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The haltere is the club-shaped 'balancers' found on each side of the metathorax among the true flies (Diptera research community). They are the much-modified hind wings.
2007-01-09 GO:0035188 hatching Updated DEFINITION The emergence of an organism from a protective structure.
2007-01-09 GO:0035301 Hedgehog signaling complex Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that binds microtubules in a Hedgehog-dependent manner, and is required for signal transduction by members of the Hedgehog family of proteins. The core components of the complex are the serine/threonine protein kinase Fused, the kinesin motor protein Costal2 (Cos2), and a zinc finger transcription factor (Gli family members in humans, and Cubitus interruptus (Ci) in Drosophila research community).
2007-01-09 GO:0042592 homeostatic process Updated DEFINITION The biological processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium.
2007-01-09 GO:0031619 homologous chromosome orientation involved in meiotic metaphase I plate congression Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the sister centromeres of one chromosome attach to microtubules that emanate from the same spindle pole, which ensures that homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes are pulled in opposite directions at anaphase of meiosis I.
2007-01-09 GO:0045143 homologous chromosome segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby replicated homologous chromosomes are organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two sets during the first division of the meiotic cell cycle. Each replicated chromosome, composed of two sister chromatids, aligns at the cell equator, paired with its homologous partner; this pairing off, referred to as synapsis, permits genetic recombination. One homolog (both sister chromatids) of each morphologic type goes into each of the resulting chromosome sets.
2007-01-09 GO:0030989 dynein-driven meiotic oscillatory nuclear movement Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby oscillatory movement of the nucleus during meiotic prophase I occurs. This oscillatory movement is led by an astral microtubule array emanating from the spindle pole body, which may facilitate synapsis necessary for efficient meiotic recombination; as observed in S. pombe.
2007-01-09 GO:0007447 imaginal disc pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that results in defined areas of the imaginal disc that will undergo specific cell differentaiton. Imaginal discs are epithelial infoldings in the larvae of holometabolous insects that develop into adult appendages (legs, antennae, wings, etc.) during metamorphosis from larval to adult form.
2007-01-09 GO:0002376 immune system process Updated DEFINITION Any multicellular organismal process involved in the development or functioning of the immune system, an organismal system for calibrated responses to potential internal or invasive threats.
2007-01-09 GO:0002030 inhibitory G-protein coupled receptor phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The process that inhibits the signaling function of a G-protein coupled receptor by addition of a phosphoric group to its third intracellular loop consensu thes site.
2007-01-09 GO:0005882 intermediate filament Updated DEFINITION A distinct elongated structure, characteristically 10 nm in diameter, that occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Intermediate filaments form a fibrous system, composed of chemically heterogeneous subunits and involved in mechanically integrating the various components of the cytoplasmic space. Intermediate filaments may be divided into five chemically distinct classes: keratin filaments of mammalian epithelial cells; desmin filaments found in cells of muscles of all types; vimentin filaments found in mesenchymal cells; neurofilaments of neurons; and glial filaments found in all types of glial cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0007078 lamin depolymerization Added DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby lamin is depolymerized.
2007-01-09 GO:0051878 lateral element assembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby lateral elements are formed. Axial elements form a proteinaceous core between the two sister chromatids of each chromosome; the two axial elements then connect along their entire lengths by fine fibers known as transverse filaments, forming the lateral elements.
2007-01-09 GO:0030999 linear element assembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a proteinaceous scaffold, related to the synaptonemal complex, is formed in association with S. pombe chromosomes during meiotic prophase.
2007-01-09 GO:0051179 localization Updated DEFINITION The processes by which a cell, a substance, or a cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is transported to, and/or maintained in a specific location.
2007-01-09 GO:0035148 tube formation Updated DEFINITION Creation of the central hole of a tube in an antomical structure through which gases and/or liquids flow.
2007-01-09 GO:0007551 obsolete maintenance of dosage compensation Added DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2007-01-09 GO:0007489 maintenance of imaginal histoblast diploidy Updated DEFINITION The negative regulation of the differentiation of polytenized larval hypodermal cells from abdominal histoblasts. The abdominal histoblasts remain a small cluster of diploid cells among the polytenized larval hypodermal cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0006588 activation of tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activity Added DEFINITION The process by which the tryptophan hydroxylase enzyme is changed so that is can carry out its enzymatic activity.
2007-01-09 GO:0006990 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter involved in unfolded protein response Updated DEFINITION The activation of genes whose promoters contain a specific sequence elements such as the unfolded protein response element (UPRE; consensu thes CAGCGTG) or the ER stress-response element (ERSE; CCAAN(N)9CCACG), as a result of signaling via the unfolded protein response.
2007-01-09 GO:0010051 xylem and phloem pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that gives rise to the patterning of the conducting tissues, as in, but not restricted to, the vascular plants (Tracheophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:58023).
2007-01-09 GO:0007371 ventral midline determination Added DEFINITION The rgionalization process by which the area where the ventral furrow will begin invagination is specified.
2007-01-09 GO:0007086 vesicle fusion with nuclear membrane involved in mitotic nuclear envelope reassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the joining of the lipid bilayer membrane around a vesicle with the lipid bilayer membrane around the nucleus occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0006903 vesicle targeting Updated DEFINITION The process by which vesicles are directed to specific destination membranes, mediated by microtubules that grow between molecules at the vesicle membrane and target membrane surfaces.
2007-01-09 GO:0016032 viral process Updated DEFINITION The process by which a virus reproduces. Usually, this is by infection of a host cell, replication of the viral genome, and assembly of progeny virus particles. In some cases the viral genetic material may integrate into the host genome and only subsequently, under particular circumstances, 'complete' its life cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0007495 visceral mesoderm-endoderm interaction involved in midgut development Added DEFINITION The process of cell-cell signaling between visceral mesoderm cells and endoderm cells that is involved in the differentiation of cells in the midgut.
2007-01-09 GO:0007296 vitellogenesis Updated DEFINITION The production of yolk. Yolk is a mixture of materials used for embryonic nutrition.
2007-01-09 GO:0035309 wing and notum subfield formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that subdivides the wing imaginal disc into the wing and notum (body wall) subfields, thus determining whether cells ultimately differentiate wing or notum-specific structures.
2007-01-09 GO:0007474 imaginal disc-derived wing vein specification Added DEFINITION The regionalization process by which the area of a wing that will form a wing vein is specified.
2007-01-09 GO:0051314 attachment of spindle microtubules to mitotic chromosome Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle microtubules become physically associated with a chromosome during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0032121 meiotic attachment of telomeric heterochromatin to spindle pole body Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby physical connections are formed between telomeres and the spindle pole body, facilitating bouquet formation.
2007-01-09 GO:0009798 axis specification Updated DEFINITION The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of a pattern along a line or a point.
2007-01-09 GO:0006286 base-excision repair, base-free sugar-phosphate removal Updated DEFINITION Excision of the sugar phosphate residue at an AP site, i.e. a deoxyribose sugar with a missing base, by a phosphodiesterase enzyme.
2007-01-09 GO:0032782 bile acid secretion Updated DEFINITION The regulated release of bile acid, composed of any of a group of steroid carboxylic acids occurring in bile. by a cell or group of cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0008150 biological_process Updated DEFINITION Those processes specifically pertinent to the functioning of integrated living units: cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. A process is a collection of molecular events with a defined beginning and end.
2007-01-09 GO:0008218 bioluminescence Updated DEFINITION The production of light by certain enzyme-catalyzed reactions in cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0019725 cellular homeostasis Updated DEFINITION The processes involved in the maintenance of an internal equilibrium at the level of the cell.
2007-01-09 GO:0009920 cell plate formation involved in plant-type cell wall biogenesis Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the cell plate is formed at the equator of the spindle in the dividing cells during early telophase. As in, but not restricted to, the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:3398).
2007-01-09 GO:0007099 centriole replication Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a daughter centriole is formed perpendicular to an existing centriole. An immature centriole contains a ninefold radially symmetric array of single microtubules; mature centrioles consist of a radial array of nine microtubule triplets, doublets, or singlets depending upon the species and cell type.
2007-01-09 GO:0007098 centrosome cycle Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby centrosome duplication and separation takes place. The centrosome cycle can operate with a considerable degree of independence from other processes of the cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0021796 cerebral cortex regionalization Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that results in the creation of areas within the cerebral cortex that will direct the behavior of cell migration and differentiation as the cortex develops.
2007-01-09 GO:0016465 chaperonin ATPase complex Updated DEFINITION Multisubunit protein complex with 2x7 (Type I, in most cells) or 2x8 (Type II, in Archaea research community) ATP-binding sites involved in maintaining an unfolded polypeptide structure before folding or to entry into mitochondria and chloroplasts.
2007-01-09 GO:0006935 chemotaxis Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a motile cell or organism, or the directed growth of a cell guided by a specific chemical concentration gradient. Movement may be towards a higher concentration (positive chemotaxis) or towards a lower concentration (negative chemotaxis).
2007-01-09 GO:0051026 chiasma assembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a connection between chromatids forms, indicating where an exchange of homologous segments has taken place by the crossing-over of non-sister chromatids.
2007-01-09 GO:0051304 chromosome separation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby paired chromosomes are detached from each other. In budding yeast, this includes the cleavage of cohesin complexes along the chromosome arms, followed by the separation of the centromeric regions.
2007-01-09 GO:0048723 clypeus development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the clypeus over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The clypeus is the shield-shaped plate on an insect's head.
2007-01-09 GO:0007386 compartment pattern specification Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which embryonic segments are divided into compartments that will result in differences in cell differentiation.
2007-01-09 GO:0044402 competition with other organism Updated DEFINITION Any process by which an organism within a multispecies research community gains an advantage in growth or survival over another organism of a different species in that research community.
2007-01-09 GO:0048700 acquisition of desiccation tolerance in seed Updated DEFINITION The process by which a seed acquires tolerance to severe drying, before entering into a dry, either dormant or quiescent state.
2007-01-09 GO:0030037 actin filament reorganization involved in cell cycle Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby rearrangement of the spatial distribution of actin filaments and associated proteins occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0019227 neuronal action potential propagation Added DEFINITION A neurological process that causes the sequential depolarization of a neuron's cell membrane along an axon.
2007-01-09 GO:0007072 positive regulation of transcription involved in exit from mitosis Added DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby transcription is positively regulated as the cell leaves M phase. M phase is the part of the mitotic cell cycle during which mitosis and cytokinesis take place.
2007-01-09 GO:0009955 adaxial/abaxial pattern specification Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which differences in cell differentiation along the adaxial (adjacent to the stem) / abaxial (away from the stem) are generated.
2007-01-09 GO:0048910 afferent axon development in anterior lateral line nerve Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an afferent axon in the anterior lateral line nerve over time from its formation to the mature structure. This process includes axonogenesis and pathfinding of the afferent axons in the anterior lateral line nerve.
2007-01-09 GO:0009952 anterior/posterior pattern specification Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which specific areas of cell differentiation are determined along the anterior-posterior axis.
2007-01-09 GO:0008632 apoptotic program Updated DEFINITION The intracellular signaling cascade that results when a cell is triggered to undergo apoptosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0005627 obsolete ascus Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A sac-like fruiting body (ascomycete Fungi research community); contains ascospores (typically eight in number).
2007-01-09 GO:0019954 asexual reproduction Updated DEFINITION The biological process by which new individuals are produced by either a single cell or a group of cells, in the absence of any sexual process.
2007-01-09 GO:0043191 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter complex (sensu Eukaryota) Updated DEFINITION ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter complex (sensu the Eukarya research community) A complex for the transport of metabolites into and out of the cell, typically comprised of four domains; two membrane-associated domains and two ATP-binding domains at the intracellular face of the membrane, that form a central pore through the plasma membrane. Each of the four core domains may be encoded as a separate polypeptide or the domains can be fused in any one of a number of ways into multidomain polypeptides. As in, but not restricted to, the eukaryotes (Eukaryota, ncbi_taxonomy_id:2759).
2007-01-09 GO:0051316 attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochore involved in meiotic chromosome segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle microtubules become physically associated with the proteins making up the kinetochore complex during meiotic chromosome segregation.
2007-01-09 GO:0051315 attachment of mitotic spindle microtubules to kinetochore Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle microtubules become physically associated with the proteins making up the kinetochore complex during mitosis. During mitosis, the kinetochores of sister chromosomes are situated facing opposite spindle poles and bipolar attachment of the sister chromosomes to the spindle occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0051317 attachment of spindle microtubules to meiotic chromosome Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle microtubules become physically associated with a chromosome during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0035017 cuticle pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that gives rise to the patterns of cell differentiation in the cuticle.
2007-01-09 GO:0031566 actomyosin contractile ring maintenance Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the contractile ring is maintained in response to the cytokinesis checkpoint; that is when cytokinesis is delayed awaiting completion of nuclear division or the correct formation of cytokinetic structures.
2007-01-09 GO:0002215 defense response to nematode Updated DEFINITION A response to protect an organism from a directly detected or perceived external threat from a nematode or nematodes, which results in restriction of damage to the organism attacked or prevention/recovery from the infection caused by the attack.
2007-01-09 GO:0032497 detection of lipopolysaccharide Updated DEFINITION The series of events in which a lipopolysaccharide stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. Lipopolysaccharide is a major component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria.
2007-01-09 GO:0016204 determination of muscle attachment site Added DEFINITION The process that mediates the transfer of information from the cells of a muscle to those of its intended target, thereby identifying the target site.
2007-01-09 GO:0048264 determination of ventral identity Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which the determination of the identity of part of an organism or organ where those parts are of the type that occur in the ventral region. Identity is considered to be the aggregate of characteristics by which a structure is recognized.
2007-01-09 GO:0048588 developmental cell growth Updated DEFINITION The growth of a cell, where growth contributes to the progression of the cell over time from one condition to another.
2007-01-09 GO:0007586 digestion Updated DEFINITION The whole of the physical, chemical, and biochemical processes carried out by multicellular organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.
2007-01-09 GO:0032392 DNA geometric change Updated DEFINITION The process by which a transformation is induced in the geometry of a DNA double helix, resulting in a change in twist, writhe, or both, but with no change in linking number. Includes the unwinding of double-stranded DNA by helicases.
2007-01-09 GO:0006260 DNA replication Updated DEFINITION The process whereby new strands of DNA are synthesized. The template for replication can either be an existing DNA molecule or RNA.
2007-01-09 GO:0006271 DNA strand elongation involved in DNA replication Updated DEFINITION The process by which a DNA strand is synthesized from template DNA during replication by the action of polymerases, which add nucleotides to the 3' end of the nascent DNA strand.
2007-01-09 GO:0000419 DNA-directed RNA polymerase V complex Updated DEFINITION RNA polymerase IVb is a multisubunit RNA polymerase complex found in the nucleus of plants and involved in accumulation of siRNAs and in DNA methylation-dependent silencing of endogenous repeated sequences. Two large subunits comprise the most conserved portion including the catalytic site and share similarity with other eukaryotic and bacterial multisubunit RNA polymerases. The second largest subunit is also found in RNA polymerase IVa, while the largest subunit is found only in the IVa complex and contains an extended C-terminal domain (CTD) that includes multiple repeats of a 16 amino-acid consensu thes sequence as well as other sequences. The remainder of the complex is composed of smaller subunits.
2007-01-09 GO:0009953 dorsal/ventral pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which the areas along the dorsal/ventral axis are established that will lead to differences in cell differentiation.
2007-01-09 GO:0007499 ectoderm and mesoderm interaction Added DEFINITION A cell-cell signaling process occuring between the two gastrulation-generated layers of the ectoderm and the mesoderm.
2007-01-09 GO:0030381 chorion-containing eggshell pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that gives rise to the pattern of cell differentiation in the eggshell. As in, but not restricted to, the true insects (Insecta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:50557).
2007-01-09 GO:0007566 embryo implantation Updated DEFINITION Attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine lining.
2007-01-09 GO:0009790 embryo development Updated DEFINITION The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo from its formation until the end of its embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic stage is organism-specific. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant.
2007-01-09 GO:0007174 epidermal growth factor catabolic process Added DEFINITION The proteolysis of epidermal growth factor after its internalization via binding to its receptor.
2007-01-09 GO:0016332 establishment or maintenance of polarity of embryonic epithelium Updated DEFINITION The specification, formation and maintenance of anisotropic intracellular organization of epithelial cells in an embryo.
2007-01-09 GO:0007550 obsolete establishment of dosage compensation Added DEFINITION OBSOLETE (was not defined before being made obsolete).
2007-01-09 GO:0031413 regulation of buoyancy Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates an organism's tendency or ability to rise or float in a fluid medium such as water or air, often through the use of stored gases.
2007-01-09 GO:0051726 regulation of cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the rate, extent or mode of the cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0050793 regulation of developmental process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of development, the biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a multicellular organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2007-01-09 GO:0051239 regulation of multicellular organismal process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of an organismal process, the processes pertinent to the function of an organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.
2007-01-09 GO:0048832 specification of plant organ number Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that modulates the quantity of a particular type of organ.
2007-01-09 GO:0007347 regulation of preblastoderm mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the progression through the preblastoderm mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0007348 regulation of syncytial blastoderm mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the progression through the syncytial blastoderm mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0007090 obsolete regulation of S phase of mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the progression through the S phase of mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0046017 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase I promoter during mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase I promoter during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0046021 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter during mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0046023 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter during mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase III promoter during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0045896 regulation of transcription during mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0006417 regulation of translation Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of proteins by the translation of mRNA.
2007-01-09 GO:0051440 regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in meiotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ubiquitin ligase activity during the meiotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0051439 regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ubiquitin ligase activity during the mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0019076 viral release from host cell Updated DEFINITION The process by which a virus becomes free of a host cell either by the lysis of the host cell or by a non-lytic mechanism.
2007-01-09 GO:0048610 obsolete cellular process involved in reproduction Updated DEFINITION A process, occurring at the cellular level, that is involved in the reproductive function of a multicellular or single-celled organism.
2007-01-09 GO:0048608 reproductive structure development Updated DEFINITION The reproductive developmental process whose specific outcome is the progression of structures that will be used in the process of creating new individuals from one or more parents, from their formation to the mature structures.
2007-01-09 GO:0042052 rhabdomere development Updated DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of a rhabdomere within a cell. The rhabdomere is the organelle on the apical surface of a photoreceptor cell that contains the visual pigments.
2007-01-09 GO:0042273 ribosomal large subunit biogenesis Updated DEFINITION The formation of the constituents of the large ribosomal subunit, their assembly, and their transport to the sites of protein synthesis.
2007-01-09 GO:0042274 ribosomal small subunit biogenesis Updated DEFINITION The formation of the constituents of the small ribosomal subunit, their assembly, and their transport to the sites of protein synthesis.
2007-01-09 GO:0042254 ribosome biogenesis Updated DEFINITION The process of the formation of the constituents of the ribosome subunits, their assembly, and their transport to the sites of protein synthesis.
2007-01-09 GO:0000509 Rpd3S complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit histone deacetylase complex that is involved in intragenic transcription repression through histone deacetylation. In S. cerevisiae, this complex consists of Rpd3p, Sin3p, Ume1p, Rco1p and Eaf3.
2007-01-09 GO:0000115 obsolete regulation of transcription involved in S phase of mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION A cell cycle process that regulates transcription such that the target genes are transcribed during the S phase of the mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0007540 sex determination, establishment of X:A ratio Added DEFINITION The developmental process by which an organism senses the number of X chromosomes and autosomes in its genomic complement and responds to it.
2007-01-09 GO:0050918 positive chemotaxis Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a motile cell or organism, or the directed growth of a cell guided by a higher concentration, in a concentration gradient of a specific chemical.
2007-01-09 GO:0051240 positive regulation of multicellular organismal process Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of an organismal process, the processes pertinent to the function of an organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.
2007-01-09 GO:0045727 positive regulation of translation Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of proteins by the translation of mRNA.
2007-01-09 GO:0007359 posterior abdomen determination Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which the posterior (abdominal) regions of the embryo are specified by the gap genes.
2007-01-09 GO:0006267 pre-replicative complex assembly involved in nuclear cell cycle DNA replication Updated DEFINITION The assembly of the pre-replicative complex, multiprotein complex that forms at eukaryotic DNA replication origins during late M phase; its presence is required for replication initiation.
2007-01-09 GO:0007542 primary sex determination, germ-line Updated DEFINITION The transmission of information about sexual status, from the initial general determination, to signals specific to the germ-line.
2007-01-09 GO:0000059 protein import into nucleus, docking Added DEFINITION The aggregation and bonding together of the nuclear localization signal of a protein with nuclear envelope proteins such as importins.
2007-01-09 GO:0000061 protein import into nucleus, substrate release Added DEFINITION The disaggregation of a protein complex composed of the nuclear localization sequence and the importin alpha, and importin beta proteins.
2007-01-09 GO:0009954 proximal/distal pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which specific areas of cell differentiation are determined along a proximal/distal axis.
2007-01-09 GO:0045470 R8 cell-mediated photoreceptor organization Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that coordinates the recruitment and organization of other non-R8 photoreceptors by the R8 photoreceptor.
2007-01-09 GO:0009945 radial axis specification Updated DEFINITION The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of an axis that initiates at a point and radiates outward from the point.
2007-01-09 GO:0009956 radial pattern formation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that results in defined areas around a point in which specific types of cell differentiation will occur.
2007-01-09 GO:0019953 sexual reproduction Updated DEFINITION The regular alternation, in the life cycle of haplontic, diplontic and diplohaplontic organisms, of meiosis and fertilization which provides for the production offspring. In diplontic organisms there is a life cycle in which the products of meiosis behave directly as gametes, fusing to form a zygote from which the diploid, or sexually reproductive polyploid, adult organism will develop. In diplohaplontic organisms a haploid phase (gametophyte) exists in the life cycle between meiosis and fertilization (e.g. higher plants, many algae and Fungi research community); the products of meiosis are spores that develop as haploid individuals from which haploid gametes develop to form a diploid zygote; diplohaplontic organisms show an alternation of haploid and diploid generations. In haplontic organisms meiosis occurs in the zygote, giving rise to four haploid cells (e.g. many algae and protozoa), only the zygote is diploid and this may form a resistant spore, tiding organisms over hard times.
2007-01-09 GO:0031134 sister chromatid biorientation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby sister chromatids establish stable attachments to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles.
2007-01-09 GO:0007183 SMAD protein complex assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and bonding together of a set of components to form a protein complex that contains SMAD proteins.
2007-01-09 GO:0010092 specification of animal organ identity Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which the identity of an organ primordium is specified. Identity is considered to be the aggregate of characteristics by which a structure is recognized.
2007-01-09 GO:0010159 specification of animal organ position Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process by which information that determines the correct position at which organ primordia are formed is generated and perceived resulting in correct positioning of the new organ.
2007-01-09 GO:0021511 spinal cord patterning Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that regulates the coordinated growth and establishes the non-random spatial arrangement of the spinal cord.
2007-01-09 GO:0051231 spindle elongation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the distance is lengthened between poles of the spindle.
2007-01-09 GO:0051255 spindle midzone assembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle midzone is formed. The spindle midzone is the area in the center of the spindle where the spindle microtubules from opposite poles overlap.
2007-01-09 GO:0010319 stromule Updated DEFINITION Thin filamentous structure extending from the surface of all plastid types examined so far, including chloroplast, proplastid, etioplast, leucoplast, amyloplast, and chromoplast. In general, stromules are more abundant in tissues containing non-green plastids, and in cells containing smaller plastids. The primary function of stromules is still unresolved, although the presence of stromules markedly increases the plastid surface area, potentially increasing transport to and from the cytosol. Other functions of stromules, such as transfer of macromolecules between plastids and starch granule formation in cereal endosperm, may be restricted to particular tissues and cell types.
2007-01-09 GO:0006932 substrate-dependent cell migration, cell contraction Updated DEFINITION The translocation of the cell body forward during cell migration, mediated by tractional force on its substrate and tension in the cortical cytoskeleton. Adhesions transmit propulsive forces and serve as traction points over which the cell moves.
2007-01-09 GO:0006781 succinyl-CoA pathway Added DEFINITION The chemical reactions that utilize succinyl-CoA in the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX.
2007-01-09 GO:0007129 synapsis Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the side by side pairing and physical juxtaposition of homologous chromosomes is created at the metaphase plate.
2007-01-09 GO:0016080 synaptic vesicle targeting Updated DEFINITION The process by which synaptic vesicles are directed to specific destination membranes, mediated by molecules at the vesicle membrane and target membrane surfaces.
2007-01-09 GO:0007416 synapse assembly Updated DEFINITION The biosynthesis of a synapse.
2007-01-09 GO:0007130 synaptonemal complex assembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the synaptonemal complex is formed. This is a structure that holds paired chromosomes together during prophase I of meiosis and that promotes genetic recombination.
2007-01-09 GO:0010198 synergid death Updated DEFINITION Synergid cells undergo degeneration and death in response to penetration by the pollen tube. It is an active process that involves a dramatic decrease in cell volume, collapse of the vacuoles, and complete disintegration of the plasma membrane and most organelles.
2007-01-09 GO:0021978 telencephalon regionalization Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that creates areas within the forebrain that will direct the behavior of cell migration in differentiation as the telencephalon develops.
2007-01-09 GO:0045141 meiotic telomere clustering Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the dynamic reorganization of telomeres occurs in early meiotic prophase, during which meiotic chromosome ends are gathered in a bouquet arrangement at the inner surface of the nuclear envelope proximal to the spindle pole body. This plays an important role in homologous chromosome pairing and therefore progression through meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0030911 TPR domain binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of a protein, the consensu thes sequence of which is defined by a pattern of small and large hydrophobic amino acids and a structure composed of helices.
2007-01-09 GO:0006352 DNA-templated transcription, initiation Updated DEFINITION Processes involved in the assembly of the RNA polymerase complex at the promoter region of a DNA template resulting in the subsequent synthesis of RNA from that promoter.
2007-01-09 GO:0007181 transforming growth factor beta receptor complex assembly Added DEFINITION The aggregation and bonding together of a type II transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) receptor dimer with a a type I TGFbeta receptor dimer, following ligand binding, to form a heterotetrameric TGFbeta receptor complex.
2007-01-09 GO:0006412 translation Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a protein. This is a ribosome-mediated process in which the information in messenger RNA (mRNA) is used to specify the sequence of amino acids in the protein.
2007-01-09 GO:0048629 trichome patterning Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process of establishing the non-random spatial arrangement of trichomes on the surface and margin of a leaf. Process involves signaling between adjacent epidermal cells that results in differentiation of some epidermal cells into trichomes. As in, but not restricted to, the flowering plants (Magnoliophyta, ncbi_taxonomy_id:3398).
2007-01-09 GO:0045214 sarcomere organization Updated DEFINITION The organization of the muscle actomyosin into sarcomeres. The sarcomere is the repeating unit of a myofibril in a muscle cell, composed of an array of overlapping thick and thin filaments between two adjacent Z discs.
2007-01-09 GO:0035282 segmentation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that divides an organism or part of an organism into a series of semi-repetitive parts, or segments, often arranged along a longitudinal axis.
2007-01-09 GO:0007541 sex determination, primary response to X:A ratio Added DEFINITION The developmental process by which an organism interprets its X to autosomal chromosomal complement.
2007-01-09 GO:0007543 sex determination, somatic-gonadal interaction Added DEFINITION The process that mediates the interactions between somatic cells and gonadal cells that ultimately results in the specification of sexual status of the organism.
2007-01-09 GO:0007131 reciprocal meiotic recombination Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby double strand breaks are formed and repaired through a double Holliday junction intermediate. This results in the equal exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes. These reciprocal recombinant products ensure the proper segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I and create genetic diversity.
2007-01-09 GO:0051755 meiotic sister chromatid arm separation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby sister chromatid arms are physically detached from each other during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051756 meiotic sister chromatid centromere separation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the centromeres of sister chromatids are physically detached from each other during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051177 meiotic sister chromatid cohesion Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby sister chromatids of a replicated chromosome are joined along the entire length of the chromosome during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051760 meiotic sister chromatid cohesion, arms Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the sister chromatids of a replicated chromosome are joined along the length of the chromosome arms during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051754 meiotic sister chromatid cohesion, centromeric Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby centromeres of sister chromatids are joined during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0045144 meiotic sister chromatid segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby sister chromatids are organized and then physically separated and randomly apportioned to two sets during the second division of the meiotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0000212 meiotic spindle organization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the microtubule spindle is formed and maintained during a meiotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0043147 meiotic spindle stabilization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle integrity is maintained during M phase of meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0000714 meiotic strand displacement Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the broken 3' single-strand DNA molecule that formed heteroduplex DNA with its complement in an intact duplex DNA is rejected. The Watson-Crick base pairing in the original duplex is restored. The rejected 3' single-strand DNA molecule reanneals with its original complement to reform two intact duplex molecules. This occurs during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0000708 meiotic strand invasion Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the nucleoprotein complex (composed of the broken single-strand DNA and the recombinase) searches and identifies a region of homology in intact duplex DNA. The broken single-strand DNA displaces the like strand and forms Watson-Crick base pairs with its complement, forming a duplex in which each strand is from one of the two recombining DNA molecules. This occurs during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0007509 mesoderm migration involved in gastrulation Added DEFINITION The migration of mesodermal cells during gastrulation to help establish the multilayered body plan of the organism.
2007-01-09 GO:0030106 obsolete MHC class I receptor activity Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A major histocompatibility complex class I receptor. These display processed antigens from the endocytosed bacteria. MHC class I proteins can form complexes with processed antigen peptides only if the antigen is synthesized in the same cell. As a consequence, T lymphocytes can only bind to class-I-positive cells that are synthesizing the antigen (e.g. virus-infected cells).
2007-01-09 GO:0021547 midbrain-hindbrain boundary initiation Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that gives rise to the midbrain-hindbrain boundary.The midbrain-hindbrain domain of the embryonic brain is comprised of the mesencephalic vesicle and the first rhombencephalic vesicle at early somitogenesis stages. An organizing center at the boundary patterns the midbrain and hindbrain primordia of the neural plate.
2007-01-09 GO:0035195 gene silencing by miRNA Updated DEFINITION Downregulation of gene expression through the action of microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous 21-24 nucleotide small RNAs processed from stem-loop RNA precursors (pre-miRNAs). Once incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), miRNAs can downregulate gene expression by either of two posttranscriptional mechanisms: mRNA cleavage or translational repression.
2007-01-09 GO:0010074 maintenance of meristem identity Updated DEFINITION The process by which an organism retains a population of meristem cells, preventing the commitment of all stem cell progeny to a differentiated cell fate.
2007-01-09 GO:0007060 male meiosis chromosome segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby genetic material, in the form of chromosomes, is organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets during the meiotic cell cycle in a male.
2007-01-09 GO:0007141 male meiosis I Updated DEFINITION Progression through male meiosis I, the first meiotic division in the male germline.
2007-01-09 GO:0007142 male meiosis II Updated DEFINITION Progression through male meiosis II, the second meiotic division in the male germline.
2007-01-09 GO:0007126 meiotic nuclear division Updated DEFINITION Progression through meiosis, the specialized nuclear and cell division in which a single diploid cell undergoes two nuclear divisions following a single round of DNA replication in order to produce four daughter cells that contain half the number of chromosomes as the diploid cell. Meiosis occurs during the formation of gametes from diploid organisms and at the beginning of haplophase in those organisms that alternate between diploid and haploid generations.
2007-01-09 GO:0051178 meiotic chromosome decondensation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby chromosome structure is altered from the condensed form held during meiosis to the relaxed dispersed form held in resting cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0016344 meiotic chromosome movement towards spindle pole Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the directed movement of chromosomes from the center of the spindle towards the spindle poles takes place, mediated by the shortening of microtubules attached to the chromosomes. This occurs during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0042138 meiotic DNA double-strand break formation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby double-strand breaks are generated at defined hotspots throughout the genome during meiosis I. This results in the initiation of meiotic recombination.
2007-01-09 GO:0000706 meiotic DNA double-strand break processing Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the 5' to 3' exonucleolytic resection of the DNA at the site of the break to form a 3' single-strand DNA overhang occurs. This takes place during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0008315 meiotic G2/MI transition Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a cell progresses from meiotic prophase to metaphase I.
2007-01-09 GO:0006311 meiotic gene conversion Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby genetic information is transferred from one helix to another. It often occurs in association with general genetic recombination events, and is believed to be a straightforward consequence of the mechanisms of general recombination and DNA repair. For example, meiosis might yield three copies of the maternal version of an allele and only one copy of the paternal allele, indicating that one of the two copies of the paternal allele has been changed to a copy of the maternal allele.
2007-01-09 GO:0051311 meiotic metaphase plate congression Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate, a plane halfway between the poles of the meiotic spindle, during meiosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051078 meiotic nuclear envelope disassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the controlled breakdown of the nuclear envelope during meiotic cell division occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0051333 meiotic nuclear envelope reassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the reformation of the nuclear envelope during meiosis occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0035267 NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex Updated DEFINITION A complex having histone acetylase activity on chromatin, as well as ATPase, DNA helicase and structural DNA binding activities. The complex is thought to be involved in double-strand DNA break repair. Subunits of the human complex include HTATIP/TIP60, TRRAP, RUVBL1, BUVBL2, beta-actin and BAF53/ACTL6A. In yeast, the complex has 13 subunits, including the catalytic subunit Esa1 (homologous to human Tip60).
2007-01-09 GO:0000745 nuclear migration involved in conjugation with mutual genetic exchange Updated DEFINITION The net movement of nuclei towards one another, leading to the bilateral transfer of genetic material in organisms undergoing conjugation without cellular fusion.
2007-01-09 GO:0006490 oligosaccharide-lipid intermediate biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The cellular metabolic process by which an intermediate molecule of dolichol-P-man or dolicol-P-Glc is assembled to be used in N-linked glycosylation.
2007-01-09 GO:0007389 pattern specification process Updated DEFINITION The developmental processes that result in the creation of defined areas or spaces within an organism to which cells respond and eventually are instructed to differentiate.
2007-01-09 GO:0018211 peptidyl-tryptophan modification Updated DEFINITION The chemical alteration of a tryptophan residue in a peptide.
2007-01-09 GO:0007365 periodic partitioning Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that divides the spatial regions of an embryo into serially repeated regions.
2007-01-09 GO:0042597 periplasmic space Updated DEFINITION The region between the inner (cytoplasmic) and outer membrane (Gram-negative Bacteria research community) or inner membrane and cell wall (Fungi research community).
2007-01-09 GO:0005052 peroxisome matrix targeting signal-1 binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a type 1 peroxisome targeting signal, a tripeptide with the consensu thes (S/A/C)-(K/R/H)-L.
2007-01-09 GO:0005053 peroxisome matrix targeting signal-2 binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a type 2 peroxisome targeting signal, a nonapeptide with a broad consensu thes sequence of (R/K)-(L/V/I)-(XXXXX)-(H/Q)-(L/A/F).
2007-01-09 GO:0040038 polar body extrusion after meiotic divisions Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby two small cells are generated, as byproducts destined to degenerate, as a result of the first and second meiotic divisions of a primary oocyte during its development to a mature ovum. One polar body is formed in the first division of meiosis and the other in the second division; at each division, the cytoplasm divides unequally, so that the polar body is of much smaller size than the developing oocyte. At the second division in which a polar body is formed, the polar body and the developing oocyte each contain a haploid set of chromosomes.
2007-01-09 GO:0007067 mitotic nuclear division Updated DEFINITION Progression through mitosis, the division of the eukaryotic cell nucleus to produce two daughter nuclei that, usually, contain the identical chromosome complement to their mother.
2007-01-09 GO:0007076 mitotic chromosome condensation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby chromatin structure is compacted prior to mitosis in eukaryotic cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0007083 mitotic chromosome decondensation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby chromosome structure is altered from the condensed form taken on during mitosis to the relaxed disperse form held in resting cells.
2007-01-09 GO:0007079 mitotic chromosome movement towards spindle pole Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the directed movement of chromosomes from the center of the spindle towards the spindle poles occurs. This mediates by the shortening of microtubules attached to the chromosomes, during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0007080 mitotic metaphase plate congression Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate, a plane halfway between the poles of the mitotic spindle, during mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0007091 metaphase/anaphase transition of mitotic cell cycle Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby a cell progresses from metaphase to anaphase during mitosis, triggered by the destruction of mitotic cyclins.
2007-01-09 GO:0007077 mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the controlled breakdown of the nuclear envelope during mitotic cell division occurs.
2007-01-09 GO:0007084 mitotic nuclear envelope reassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the nuclear envelope reforms during mitotic cell division.
2007-01-09 GO:0007087 mitotic nuclear pore complex reassembly Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby nuclear pore complexes reform during mitotic cell division.
2007-01-09 GO:0007064 mitotic sister chromatid cohesion Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the sister chromatids of a replicated chromosome are joined along the entire length of the chromosome during mitosis. This cohesion cycle is critical for high fidelity chromosome transmission.
2007-01-09 GO:0000070 mitotic sister chromatid segregation Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby replicated homologous chromosomes are organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two sets during the mitotic cell cycle. Each replicated chromosome, composed of two sister chromatids, aligns at the cell equator, paired with its homologous partner. One homolog of each morphologic type goes into each of the resulting chromosome sets.
2007-01-09 GO:0007052 mitotic spindle organization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby the microtubule spindle is formed and maintained during a mitotic cell cycle.
2007-01-09 GO:0043148 mitotic spindle stabilization Updated DEFINITION The cell cycle process whereby spindle integrity is maintained during M phase of mitosis.
2007-01-09 GO:0051704 multi-organism process Updated DEFINITION The processes by which an organism has an effect on another organism of the same or different species.
2007-01-09 GO:0010259 multicellular organism aging Updated DEFINITION Progression of a multicellular organism from its inception to the end of its lifespan.
2007-01-09 GO:0007275 multicellular organism development Updated DEFINITION The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2007-01-09 GO:0016203 muscle attachment Added DEFINITION The developmental process by which a skeletal muscle attaches to a bone.
2007-01-09 GO:0050919 negative chemotaxis Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a motile cell or organism, or the directed growth of a cell guided by a lower concentration, in a concentration gradient of a specific chemical.
2007-01-09 GO:0051241 negative regulation of multicellular organismal process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of an organismal process, the processes pertinent to the function of an organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.
2007-01-09 GO:0017148 negative regulation of translation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of proteins by the translation of mRNA.
2007-01-09 GO:0021997 neural plate axis specification Updated DEFINITION The pattern specification process whereby the axes of the nervous system are established.
2007-01-09 GO:0021532 neural tube patterning Updated DEFINITION The regionalization process that regulates the coordinated growth that establishes the non-random spatial arrangement of the neural tube.
2007-01-09 GO:0031617 NMS complex Updated DEFINITION A supercomplex formed by the association of two subcomplexes (known as MIND and Ndc80 in SchizoSaccharomyces research community) with additional proteins at the kinetochores of condensed nuclear chromosomes.
2007-01-09 GO:0048591 non-developmental cell growth Updated DEFINITION The growth of a cell prior to division, where the growth does not change the cell from one condition to another condition over time.
2007-01-09 GO:0048544 recognition of pollen Updated DEFINITION The process, involving the sharing and interaction of the single locus incompatibility haplotypes, involved in the recognition or rejection of the self pollen by cells in the stigma. This process ensures out-breeding in certain plant species.
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