spacer

GO Term History: Displaying 500 audit records for all terms for the date 2005-01-21

From (YYYY-MM-DD):
To (YYYY-MM-DD):
Period:
Category:
Terms:
Limit:
Date Specification

You can specify an explicit date range that you are interested in by setting the "From" and "To" parameters; this will limit the data displayed to those changes that were recorded within that (inclusive) date range.

Alternatively, you can use the "Period" parameter to view the GO term changes that occurred over a specific number of Day(s), Week(s), Month(s) or Year(s) before a specified date.

If you do not enter a "To" date, then the period will be relative to the current date. If, however, you do specify a "To" value, then the "Period" value will display records in the timeframe up to and including that specified date.

Category

You can use this field to specify what types of term changes you are interested in seeing.

Terms

You can enter a list of GO Terms in this field to limit the changes displayed. Please note that only changes made to directly listed terms will be displayed, not term descendants.

Limit

The default number of records returned is 500, however you can increase or decrease this limit. In order to prevent possible browser problems, the maximum upper limit is 10,000.

Introduction

This page displays the differences recorded in the full Gene Ontology OBO v1.2 file as audited by the UniProt-GOA database during its daily update cycle.
If there is any delay in uploading the current OBO file, the changes displayed and the date recorded for these changes may not correspond to when the changes to the OBO file were committed.

All changes

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2005-01-21 GO:0031133 regulation of axon diameter Added TERM regulation of axon diameter
2005-01-21 GO:0031134 sister chromatid biorientation Added TERM sister chromatid biorientation
2005-01-21 GO:0031135 negative regulation of conjugation Added TERM negative regulation of conjugation
2005-01-21 GO:0031136 positive regulation of conjugation Added TERM positive regulation of conjugation
2005-01-21 GO:0031137 regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion Added TERM regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion
2005-01-21 GO:0031138 negative regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion Added TERM negative regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion
2005-01-21 GO:0031139 positive regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion Added TERM positive regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion
2005-01-21 GO:0031140 induction of conjugation upon nutrient starvation Added TERM induction of conjugation upon nutrient starvation
2005-01-21 GO:0031141 induction of conjugation upon carbon starvation Added TERM induction of conjugation upon carbon starvation
2005-01-21 GO:0031142 induction of conjugation upon nitrogen starvation Added TERM induction of conjugation upon nitrogen starvation
2005-01-21 GO:0006051 N-acetylmannosamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving N-acetylmannosamine, the acetylated derivative of mannosamine, 2-amino-2-deoxymannose.
2005-01-21 GO:0006054 N-acetylneuraminate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving N-acetylneuraminate, the anion of 5-(acetylamino)-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-3-ulosonic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0042201 N-cyclopropylmelamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving N-cyclopropylmelamine, a triazine compound commonly used as an insect growth regulator insecticide.
2005-01-21 GO:0031135 negative regulation of conjugation Added DEFINITION Any process that decreases the rate of conjugation.
2005-01-21 GO:0031138 negative regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion Added DEFINITION Any process that decreases the rate or frequency of conjugation with cellular fusion.
2005-01-21 GO:0018939 n-octane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving n-octane, the 8 carbon straight chain alkane used in organic syntheses, calibrations, and azeotropic distillations. It is a common component of gasoline and other petroleum products and the engine fuel antiknocking properties of an isomer of n-octane are used as a comparative standard in the Octane Rating System.
2005-01-21 GO:0019674 NAD metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006734 NADH metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving NADH, the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0045168 cell-cell signaling involved in cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION Signaling at long or short range between cells that results in the commitment of a cell to a certain fate.
2005-01-21 GO:0044262 cellular carbohydrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y, as carried out by individual cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0044255 cellular lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipids, as carried out by individual cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0044260 cellular macromolecule metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving macromolecules, large molecules including proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates, as carried out by individual cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0044264 cellular polysaccharide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving polysaccharides, polymers of more than 10 monosaccharide residues joined by glycosidic linkages, as carried out by individual cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0006080 substituted mannan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannan, the main hemicellulose of soft (coniferous) wood, made up of D-mannose, D-glucose and D-galactose. Mannans also occur in ferns, high plants, algae and some yeasts where they may function as the main structural component of the cell wall.
2005-01-21 GO:0006056 mannoprotein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound mannose residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006050 mannosamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannosomine, 2-amino-2-deoxymannose; the D-isomer is a constituent of neuraminic acids as well as mucolipids and mucoproteins.
2005-01-21 GO:0006675 mannosyl-inositol phosphorylceramide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannose inositol phosphoceramide, any lipid with a phosphodiester bridge between an inositol residue and the ceramide moiety which contains a phosphoryl (-P(O)=) groups and a mannose derivative.
2005-01-21 GO:0006013 mannose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannose, the aldohexose manno-hexose, the C-2 epimer of glucose. The D-(+)-form is widely distributed in mannans and hemicelluloses and is of major importance in the core oligosaccharide of N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins.
2005-01-21 GO:0006676 mannosyl diphosphorylinositol ceramide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannosyl diphosphorylinositol ceramide, any lipid with a phosphodiester bridge between an inositol residue and the ceramide moiety which contains two phosphoryl (-P(O)=) groups and a mannose derivative.
2005-01-21 GO:0030219 megakaryocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specializes features of a megakaryocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0006582 melanin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving melanins, pigments largely of animal origin. High molecular weight polymers of indole quinone, they are irregular polymeric structures and are divided into three groups: allomelanins in the plant kingdom and eumelanins and phaeomelanins in the animal kingdom.
2005-01-21 GO:0030318 melanocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a melanocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0030186 melatonin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine).
2005-01-21 GO:0005994 melibiose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving melibiose, the disaccharide 6-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0006643 membrane lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving membrane lipids, any lipid found in or associated with a biological membrane.
2005-01-21 GO:0009233 menaquinone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any of the menaquinones, quinone-derived compounds synthesized by intestinal bacteria. Structurally, menaquinones consist of a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure and side chains composed of a variable number of unsaturated isoprenoid residues. Menaquinones have vitamin K activity and are known as vitamin K2.
2005-01-21 GO:0048333 mesodermal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a mesoderm cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0001557 metabolic process resulting in cell growth Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions that occur in living organisms that result in an increase in the mass (size) of a cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0015947 methane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methane, a colorless, odorless, flammable gas with the formula CH4. It is the simplest of the alkanes.
2005-01-21 GO:0018926 methanesulfonic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methanesulfonic acid, a strong acid produced by the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide.
2005-01-21 GO:0015945 methanol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methanol, CH3-OH, a colorless, flammable, mobile, poisonous liquid, widely used as a solvent.
2005-01-21 GO:0006555 methionine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methionine (2-amino-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid), a sulfur-containing, essential amino acid found in peptide linkage in proteins.
2005-01-21 GO:0018928 methyl ethyl ketone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methyl ethyl ketone, a clear, colorless liquid with a fragrant, mint-like odor. It is used as a solvent and in making plastics, textiles and paints.
2005-01-21 GO:0018929 methyl fluoride metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methyl fluoride, fluorine-substituted methane, a gaseous halogenated hydrocarbon that has been investigated as an inhibitor of methanotrophy and nitrification in soils.
2005-01-21 GO:0018906 methyl tert-butyl ether metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methyl tert-butyl ether, 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane. Methyl tert-butyl ether is a synthetic chemical which is mixed with gasoline for use in reformulated gasoline. It was first introduced as an additive for unleaded gasoline in the 1980s. It is also used as a laboratory reagent and a pharmaceutical agent.
2005-01-21 GO:0030416 methylamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methylamine (CH3NH2), a flammable, explosive gas, used in tanning and in organic synthesis and produced naturally in some decaying fish, certain plants, and crude methanol.
2005-01-21 GO:0019489 methylgallate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methylgallate, trihydroxymethylbenzoate, the anion of methylgallic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0009438 methylglyoxal metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methylglyoxal, CH3-CO-CHO, the aldehyde of pyruvic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0042191 methylmercury metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methylmercury (MeHg+), a highly toxic organometal which can accumulate in tissues, particularly in fish species.
2005-01-21 GO:0008212 mineralocorticoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mineralocorticoids, hormonal C21 corticosteroids synthesized from cholesterol. Mineralocorticoids act primarily on water and electrolyte balance.
2005-01-21 GO:0019720 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving Mo-molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e.g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum coordinated by the dithiolene moiety of a family of tricyclic pyranopterins containing a cis-dithiolene group in their pyran ring. Enzymes containing a pyranopterin cofactor and either Mo or W are found in all phyla and some of these catalyze important transformations in the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycle. These reactions generally involve redox chemistry at the active site with the metal cycling between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. The formation from simpler components of the Mo/W-cofactor is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and genes involved in Moco biosynthesis have been identified in eubacteria, Archaea and eukaryotes.
2005-01-21 GO:0046462 monoacylglycerol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving monoacylglycerol, any ester of glycerol in which any one of its hydroxyl groups has been acylated with a fatty acid, the other being non-esterified.
2005-01-21 GO:0030224 monocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized myeloid precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a monocyte cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0005996 monosaccharide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving monosaccharides, the simplest carbohydrates. They are polyhydric alcohols containing either an aldehyde or a keto group and between three to ten or more carbon atoms. They form the constitutional repeating units of oligo- and polysaccharides.
2005-01-21 GO:0016098 monoterpenoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving monoterpenoid compounds, terpenoids with 10 isoprenoid units.
2005-01-21 GO:0016071 mRNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mRNA, messenger RNA, which is responsible for carrying the coded genetic 'message', transcribed from DNA, to sites of protein assembly at the ribosomes.
2005-01-21 GO:0010191 mucilage metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mucilage, a gelatinous substance secreted by plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0010126 mycothiol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mycothiol, which consists of N-acetyl-L-cysteine linked to a pseudodisaccharide, D-glucosamine and myo-inositol. Mycothiol is produced in actinomycetes like mycobacteria and serves similar functions to glutathione.
2005-01-21 GO:0030099 myeloid cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized myeloid precursor cell acquires the specialized features of an erythrocyte, megakaryocyte, platelet, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, monocyte, macrophage, or osteoclast cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0006020 inositol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving myo-inositol, 1,2,3,4,5/4,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0045445 myoblast differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myoblast, a cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2005-01-21 GO:0006044 N-acetylglucosamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving N-acetylglucosamine. The D isomer is a common structural unit of glycoproteins in plants, bacteria and animals; it is often the terminal sugar of an oligosaccharide moiety of a glycoprotein.
2005-01-21 GO:0042196 chlorinated hydrocarbon metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chlorinated hydrocarbons, any hydrocarbon with one or more chlorine atoms attached to it.
2005-01-21 GO:0018914 chlorobenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chlorobenzene, a derivative of benzene with a chlorine atoms attached to the ring. It is a colorless liquid that is manufactured for use as a solvent. It quickly evaporates in the air and is degraded by hydroxyl radicals that are produced photochemically. The gas acts as a source of ClOx, which helps in the breakdown of stratospheric ozone.
2005-01-21 GO:0015994 chlorophyll metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chlorophyll, any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment.
2005-01-21 GO:0008203 cholesterol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones. It is a component of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer and of plasma lipoproteins and can be found in all animal tissues.
2005-01-21 GO:0019695 choline metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium), an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
2005-01-21 GO:0030204 chondroitin sulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chondroitin sulfate, any member of a group of 10-60 kDa glycosaminoglycans, widely distributed in cartilage and other mammalian connective tissues, the repeat units of which consist of beta-(1,4)-linked D-glucuronyl beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine sulfate. They usually occur linked to a protein to form proteoglycans. Two subgroups exist, one in which the sulfate is on the 4-position (chondroitin sulfate A) and the second in which it is in the 6-position (chondroitin sulfate C). They often are polydisperse and often differ in the degree of sulfation from tissue to tissue. The chains of repeating disaccharide are covalently linked to the side chains of serine residues in the polypeptide backbone of a protein by a glycosidic attachment through the trisaccharide unit galactosyl-galactosyl-xylosyl. Chondroitin sulfate B is more usually known as dermatan sulfate.
2005-01-21 GO:0050654 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, any glycoprotein whose glycosaminoglycan units are chondroitin sulfate. Chondroitin sulfates are a group of 10-60 kDa glycosaminoglycans, widely distributed in cartilage and other mammalian connective tissues; the repeat units consist of beta-(1,4)-linked D-glucuronyl beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine sulfate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046417 chorismate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chorismate, the anion of (3R-trans)-3-((1-carboxyethenyl)oxy)-4-hydroxy-1,5-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0042857 chrysobactin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving the siderophore chrysobactin (alpha-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-D-lysyl-L-serine).
2005-01-21 GO:0009801 cinnamic acid ester metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ester derivatives of cinnamic acid, phenylpropenoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0009803 cinnamic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cinnamic acid, 3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006101 citrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving citrate, 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboyxlate. Citrate is widely distributed in nature and is an important intermediate in the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate cycle.
2005-01-21 GO:0000052 citrulline metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving citrulline, N5-carbamoyl-L-ornithine, an alpha amino acid not found in proteins.
2005-01-21 GO:0046035 CMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving CMP, cytidine monophosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046381 CMP-N-acetylneuraminate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving CMP-N-acetylneuraminate, a substance composed of 5-(acetylamino)-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-3-ulosonic acid in glycosidic linkage with cytidine monophosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0009235 cobalamin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cobalamin (vitamin B12), a water-soluble vitamin characterized by possession of a corrin nucleus containing a cobalt atom.
2005-01-21 GO:0050783 cocaine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cocaine, an alkaloid obtained from the dried leaves of the shrub Erythroxylon coca. It is a cerebral stimulant and narcotic.
2005-01-21 GO:0015936 coenzyme A metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving coenzyme A, 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine, an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester.
2005-01-21 GO:0019297 coenzyme B metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate), a coenzyme involved in the utilization of methane by methanogenic prokaryotes.
2005-01-21 GO:0019296 coenzyme M metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving coenzyme M (2-thioethansulfonate), a coenzyme involved in the utilization of methane by methanogenic prokaryotes.
2005-01-21 GO:0006732 coenzyme metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving coenzymes, any of various nonprotein organic cofactors that are required, in addition to an enzyme and a substrate, for an enzymatic reaction to proceed.
2005-01-21 GO:0051186 cofactor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions of a cofactor, a substance that is required for the activity of an enzyme or other protein. Cofactors may be inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in certain forms, or organic, in which case they are referred to as coenzymes. Cofactors may either be bound tightly to active sites or bind loosely with the substrate.
2005-01-21 GO:0045934 negative regulation of nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0045978 negative regulation of nucleoside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving nucleosides.
2005-01-21 GO:0045980 negative regulation of nucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving nucleotides.
2005-01-21 GO:0044267 cellular protein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a specific protein, rather than of proteins in general, occurring at the level of an individual cell. Includes protein modification.
2005-01-21 GO:0030243 cellulose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cellulose, a linear beta1-4 glucan of molecular mass 50-400 kDa with the pyranose units in the -4C1 conformation.
2005-01-21 GO:0006672 ceramide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ceramides, any N-acylated sphingoid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046068 cGMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyclic GMP, guanosine 3',5'-phosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0009714 chalcone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chalcones, phenyl steryl ketone or its hydroxylated derivatives.
2005-01-21 GO:0050755 chemokine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chemokines, any of a subgroup of cytokines which act primarily on hemopoietic cells in acute and inflammatory processes and other immunoregulatory functions.
2005-01-21 GO:0006030 chitin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0006739 NADP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving NADPH, reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, a coenzyme involved in many redox and biosynthetic reactions.
2005-01-21 GO:0018931 naphthalene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving naphthalene, a fused ring bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbon commonly found in crude oil and oil products. Naphthalene is familiar as the compound that gives mothballs their odor; it is used in the manufacture of plastics, dyes, solvents, and other chemicals, as well as being used as an antiseptic and insecticide.
2005-01-21 GO:0018984 naphthalenesulfonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving naphthalenesulfonate, sulfonated derivatives of naphthalene.
2005-01-21 GO:0001779 natural killer cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a natural killer cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0045763 negative regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving amino acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0045912 negative regulation of carbohydrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving carbohydrate.
2005-01-21 GO:0045914 negative regulation of catecholamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving catecholamine.
2005-01-21 GO:0051198 negative regulation of coenzyme metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions of a coenzyme.
2005-01-21 GO:0051195 negative regulation of cofactor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions of a cofactor.
2005-01-21 GO:0051053 negative regulation of DNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0045963 negative regulation of dopamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving dopamine.
2005-01-21 GO:0045965 negative regulation of ecdysteroid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving ecdysteroids.
2005-01-21 GO:0045922 negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving fatty acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0050669 negative regulation of homocysteine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving homocysteine.
2005-01-21 GO:0045827 negative regulation of isoprenoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving isoprenoid.
2005-01-21 GO:0045928 negative regulation of juvenile hormone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving juvenile hormone.
2005-01-21 GO:0045833 negative regulation of lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving lipids.
2005-01-21 GO:0050748 negative regulation of lipoprotein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving lipoproteins, any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2005-01-21 GO:0009892 negative regulation of metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of chemical reactions involving a substance.
2005-01-21 GO:0051172 negative regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving nitrogen or nitrogenous compounds.
2005-01-21 GO:0016131 brassinosteroid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving brassinosteroids, any of a group of steroid derivatives that occur at very low concentrations in plant tissues and may have hormone-like effects.
2005-01-21 GO:0018881 bromoxynil metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving bromoxynil, C7H3Br2NO, a dibrominated phenol derivative with a cyano (-CN) group attached. Bromoxynil is used as a herbicide for post-emergent control of annual broadleaf weeds and works by inhibiting photosynthesis in the target plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0050873 brown fat cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a brown adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell involved in adaptive thermogenesis. Brown adipocytes contain multiple small droplets of triglycerides and a high number of mitochondria.
2005-01-21 GO:0019605 butyrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any butyrate, the anions of butyric acid (butanoic acid), a saturated, unbranched aliphatic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0008207 C21-steroid hormone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving C21-steroid hormones, steroid compounds containing 21 carbons which function as hormones.
2005-01-21 GO:0046058 cAMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyclic AMP, adenosine 3',5'-phosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0018883 caprolactam metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving caprolactam, hexahydro-2h-azepin-2-one, a cyclic amide of caproic acid used in manufacture of synthetic fibers of the polyamide type. It can cause local irritation.
2005-01-21 GO:0018884 carbazole metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carbazole, a heterocyclic aromatic compound containing a dibenzopyrrole system that is produced during coal gasification and is present in cigarette smoke. Coal tar produced at high temperature contains an average of 1.5% carbazole. It is used widely in synthesis of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and plastics and is a suspected carcinogen.
2005-01-21 GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.
2005-01-21 GO:0018885 carbon tetrachloride metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carbon tetrachloride, a toxic, carcinogenic compound which is used as a general solvent in industrial degreasing operations. It is also used as grain fumigant and a chemical intermediate in the production of refrigerants.
2005-01-21 GO:0019752 carboxylic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).
2005-01-21 GO:0010002 cardioblast differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized mesodermal cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardioblast.
2005-01-21 GO:0009437 carnitine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carnitine (hydroxy-trimethyl aminobutyric acid), a compound that participates in the transfer of acyl groups across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
2005-01-21 GO:0019254 carnitine metabolic process, CoA-linked Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carnitine, where metabolism is linked to CoA.
2005-01-21 GO:0016119 carotene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carotenes, hydrocarbon carotenoids.
2005-01-21 GO:0016116 carotenoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carotenoids, tetraterpenoid compounds in which two units of 4 isoprenoid residues joined head-to-tail are themselves joined tail-to-tail.
2005-01-21 GO:0009712 catechol-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a compound containing a pyrocatechol (1,2-benzenediol) nucleus or substituent.
2005-01-21 GO:0006584 catecholamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
2005-01-21 GO:0046704 CDP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving CDP, cytidine (5'-)diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046341 CDP-diacylglycerol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving CDP-diacylglycerol, CDP-1,2-diacylglycerol, a substance composed of diacylglycerol in glycosidic linkage with cytidine diphosphate. It is a common intermediate in phospholipid biosynthesis.
2005-01-21 GO:0006037 cell wall chitin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cell wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0019525 keto-D-gluconate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-dehydro-D-gluconate, the anion of D-dehydro-D-gluconic acid, an aldonic acid derived from glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046393 D-galactarate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-galactarate, the dextrorotatory isomer of galactarate, the anion of galactaric acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046396 D-galacturonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-galacturonate, the dextrorotatory isomer of galacturonate, the anion of galacturonic acid. D-galacturonic acid is a component of plant gums and bacterial cell walls.
2005-01-21 GO:0042836 D-glucarate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-glucarate, the dextrorotatory isomer of glucarate. D-glucarate is derived from either D-glucose or L-gulose.
2005-01-21 GO:0019521 D-gluconate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-gluconate, the anion of D-gluconic acid, the aldonic acid derived from glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0050935 iridophore differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an iridophore. Iridophores are iridescent or reflective pigment cells derived from the neural crest containing guanidine-based reflective platelets responsible for their silver or gold appearance.
2005-01-21 GO:0006102 isocitrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isocitrate, the anion of isocitric acid, 1-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid. Isocitrate is an important intermediate in the TCA cycle and the glycoxylate cycle.
2005-01-21 GO:0046287 isoflavonoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isoflavonoids, a group of water-soluble phenolic derivatives, isomeric with flavonoids, containing a flavan skeleton. They are differentiated from flavonoids by the point of attachment of the aromatic ring moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0046289 isoflavonoid phytoalexin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isoflavonoid phytoalexins, a group of water-soluble phenolic derivatives isomeric with flavonoids, which possess antibiotic activity and are produced by plant tissues in response to infection.
2005-01-21 GO:0006549 isoleucine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isoleucine, (2R*,3R*)-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046490 isopentenyl diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isopentenyl diphosphate, an isomer of dimethylallyl diphosphate and the key precursor of all isoprenoids.
2005-01-21 GO:0006720 isoprenoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isoprenoid compounds, isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) or compounds containing or derived from linked isoprene (3-methyl-2-butenylene) residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0046041 ITP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ITP, inosine triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0009694 jasmonic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving jasmonic acid, a fatty acid derivative with the formula (1R-(1 alpha, 2 beta(Z)))-3-oxo-2-(2-pentenyl)cyclopentaneacetic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006716 juvenile hormone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2005-01-21 GO:0046375 K antigen metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving K antigen, a capsular polysaccharide antigen carried on the surface of bacterial capsules that masks somatic (O) antigens.
2005-01-21 GO:0035321 maintenance of imaginal disc-derived wing hair orientation Added DEFINITION Ensuring that hairs in the wing continue to point distally during development, following the initial establishment of wing hair polarity.
2005-01-21 GO:0042339 keratan sulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving keratan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan with repeat units consisting of beta-1,4-linked D-galactopyranosyl-beta-(1,4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-sulfate and with variable amounts of fucose, sialic acid and mannose units; keratan sulfate chains are covalently linked by a glycosidic attachment through the trisaccharide galactosyl-galactosyl-xylose to peptidyl-threonine or serine residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0030216 keratinocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a keratinocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0046400 keto-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ketodeoxyoctanoate, 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-octaonate, an acid present in lipopolysaccharides of the outer membranes of some Gram-negative bacteria.
2005-01-21 GO:0019522 ketogluconate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ketogluconate, the anion of ketogluconic acid, an aldonic acid derived from glucose containing a ketonic carbonyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0046950 cellular ketone body metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ketone bodies, any one of the three substances: acetoacetate, D-3-hydroxybutyrate (beta-hydroxybutyrate) or acetone. Although 3-hydroxybutyrate is not a ketone, it is classed as a ketone body because it exists in an equilibrium with acetoacetate. Ketone bodies may accumulate in excessive amounts in the body in starvation, diabetes mellitus or in other defects of carbohydrate metabolism.
2005-01-21 GO:0042180 cellular ketone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, CO, and in which the carbonyl group is bonded only to carbon atoms. The general formula for a ketone is RCOR, where R and R are alkyl or aryl groups.
2005-01-21 GO:0042851 L-alanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-alanine, the levorotatory isomer of 2-aminopropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046373 L-arabinose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-arabinose, the levorotatory isomer of arabino-pentose. L-arabinose occurs free, e.g. in the heartwood of many conifers, and in the combined state, in both furanose and pyranose forms, as a constituent of various plant hemicelluloses, bacterial polysaccharides etc.
2005-01-21 GO:0051162 L-arabitol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-arabitol, the pentitol derived from arabinose or lyxose by reduction of the aldehyde group.
2005-01-21 GO:0019852 L-ascorbic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-ascorbic acid, a carbohydrate-like vitamin containing six carbon atoms per molecule. Widely distributed in fruit and vegetables.
2005-01-21 GO:0046439 L-cysteine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-cysteine, the levorotatory isomer of 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0042354 L-fucose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-fucose, 6-deoxy-L-galactose, a sugar that occurs in fucans, a class of polysaccharides in seaweeds, especially Fucus species, and in the cell wall matrix of higher plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0019523 L-idonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-idonate, the anion of idonic acid, an aldonic acid derived from L-idose, an aldohexose which is epimeric with D-glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046440 L-lysine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-lysine, the levorotatory isomer of (S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0042674 cone cell differentiation (sensu Endopterygota) Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a cone cell. As in, but not restricted to, the Holometabola (Endopterygota, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33392).
2005-01-21 GO:0015009 corrin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving corrin, C19H22N4, the fundamental heterocyclic skeleton of the corrinoids. It consists of four reduced pyrrole rings joined into a macrocyclic ring. Corrin is the core of the vitamin B12 molecule.
2005-01-21 GO:0009804 coumarin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving coumarins, compounds derived from the phenylacrylic skeleton of cinnamic acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0006600 creatine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving creatine (N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N-methylglycine), a compound synthesized from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine that occurs in muscle.
2005-01-21 GO:0046449 creatinine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving creatinine, 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-1-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one, an end product of creatine metabolism and a normal constituent of urine.
2005-01-21 GO:0042453 deoxyguanosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyguanosine, a nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046094 deoxyinosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyinosine, hypoxanthine deoxyriboside.
2005-01-21 GO:0009186 deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate, a glycosamine consisting of a base linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with diphosphate on its glycose moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0009120 deoxyribonucleoside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any one of a family of organic molecules consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base covalently bonded to a sugar deoxyribose (a deoxyribonucleoside).
2005-01-21 GO:0009162 deoxyribonucleoside monophosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a deoxyribonucleoside monophosphate, a glycosamine consisting of a base linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with phosphate on its glycose moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0009200 deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, a glycosamine consisting of a base linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with triphosphate on its glycose moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0009262 deoxyribonucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a deoxyribonucleotide, a compound consisting of deoxyribonucleoside (a base linked to a deoxyribose sugar) esterified with a phosphate moiety at either the 3' or 5'-hydroxyl group of its glycose moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0046387 deoxyribose 1,5-bisphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyribose 1,5-bisphosphate, the diphosphorylated sugar 1,5-diphospho-2-deoxyribose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046388 deoxyribose 1-phosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyribose 1-phosphate, the phosphorylated sugar 1-phospho-2-deoxyribose.
2005-01-21 GO:0019324 L-lyxose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-lyxose, the levorotatory isomer of aldopentose lyxo-pentose, the C-2 epimer of xylose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046491 L-methylmalonyl-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-methylmalonyl-CoA, the levorotatory isomer of 2-carboxypropanoyl-CoA. S-methylmalonyl-CoA is an intermediate in the beta oxidation of odd-numbered fatty acids in animals.
2005-01-21 GO:0006558 L-phenylalanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-phenylalanine, the levorotatory isomer of 2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006563 L-serine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-serine, the levorotatory isomer of 2-amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0019312 L-sorbose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving sorbose, the levorotatory isomer of the ketohexose xylo-2-hexulose. L-sorbose is formed by bacterial oxidation of sorbitol.
2005-01-21 GO:0051164 L-xylitol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-xylitol, a five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from xylose by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and is used as a noncariogenic sweetner and as a sugar substitute in diabetic diets.
2005-01-21 GO:0006089 lactate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lactate, the anion of lactic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0005988 lactose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lactose, the disaccharide galactopyranosyl-glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0031130 creation of an inductive signal Added DEFINITION The process by which one cell or group of cells sends a signal over a short range to another cell or group of cells of different ancestry and developmental potential, thereby effecting a developmental change in the latter.
2005-01-21 GO:0042212 cresol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cresol, a mixture of the aromatic alcohol isoforms o-, p-, and m-cresol, which is obtained from coal tar or petroleum. The isomers are used as disinfectants, textile scouring agents, surfactants and as intermediates in the manufacture of salicylaldehyde, coumarin, and herbicides as well as being a major component of creosote.
2005-01-21 GO:0046036 CTP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving CTP, cytidine triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0006034 cuticle chitin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cuticle chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in cuticles.
2005-01-21 GO:0018890 cyanamide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanamide, NCNH2, a cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
2005-01-21 GO:0009439 cyanate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanate, NCO-, the anion of cyanic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0019499 cyanide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanide, NC-, the anion of hydrocyanic acid. Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of respiration, reacting with the ferric form of cytochrome aa3 and thus blocking the electron transport chain.
2005-01-21 GO:0042341 cyanogenic glycoside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanogenic glycosides, any glycoside containing a cyano group that is released as hydrocyanic acid on acid hydrolysis; such compounds occur in the kernels of various fruits.
2005-01-21 GO:0042199 cyanuric acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanuric acid, a suspected gastrointestinal or liver toxicant, and a potential degradation product of triazine herbicides, such as atrazine and simazine. It is widely used for the stabilization of available chlorine in swimming pool water and is also the starting compound for the synthesis of many organic derivatives.
2005-01-21 GO:0009187 cyclic nucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue.
2005-01-21 GO:0008054 cyclin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of cyclins, proteins whose levels in a cell varies markedly during the cell cycle, and which play key roles in regulating cell cycle phase transitions.
2005-01-21 GO:0018891 cyclohexanol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyclohexanol, the monohydroxy derivative of cyclohexane. It is used as a solvent and blending agent.
2005-01-21 GO:0018892 cyclohexylsulfamate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyclohexylsulfamate, also known as cyclamic acid. Sodium cyclohexylsulfamate (CHS-Na) was a widely used sweetening agent but was banned because of the suspicion of carcinogenicity and metabolic conversion to cyclohexylamine (CHA), a toxic substance. It is now used as a fungicide.
2005-01-21 GO:0006534 cysteine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cysteine, 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046087 cytidine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cytidine, cytosine riboside, a widely distributed nucleoside.
2005-01-21 GO:0042107 cytokine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cytokines, any of a group of proteins that function to control the survival, growth and differentiation of tissues and cells, and which have autocrine and paracrine activity.
2005-01-21 GO:0009690 cytokinin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cytokinins, a class of adenine-derived compounds that can function in plants as growth regulators.
2005-01-21 GO:0019858 cytosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cytosine, 4-amino-2-hydroxypyrimidine, a pyrimidine derivative that is one of the five main bases found in nucleic acids; it occurs widely in cytidine derivatives.
2005-01-21 GO:0046144 D-alanine family amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-alanine and related amino acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0046436 D-alanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-alanine, the dextrorotatory isomer of the amino acid alanine.
2005-01-21 GO:0019314 D-allose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-allose, the dextrorotatory isomer of D-allo-hexose, an aldohexose similar to glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046416 D-amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-amino acids, the dextrorotatory isomers of amino acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0046372 D-arabinose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-arabinose, the dextrorotatory isomer of arabino-pentose. D-arabinose occurs in plant glycosides and is a constituent of arabinonucleosides.
2005-01-21 GO:0051163 D-arabitol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-arabitol, the pentitol derived from arabinose or lyxose by reduction of the aldehyde group. The D enantiomer is present in lichens and mushrooms.
2005-01-21 GO:0046438 D-cysteine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-cysteine, (S)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid, which occurs naturally in firefly luciferin.
2005-01-21 GO:0009806 lignan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lignans, any member of a class of plant metabolites related to lignins. Lignans are usually found as phenylpropanoid dimers in which the phenylpropanoid units are linked tail to tail and thus having a 2,3 dibenzylbutane skeleton, but higher oligomers can also exist.
2005-01-21 GO:0009808 lignin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lignins, a class of polymers of phenylpropanoid units.
2005-01-21 GO:0018923 limonene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving limonene (4-isopropenyl-1-methyl-cyclohexene), a monocyclic monoterpene. It is the most widespread terpene in the world and is synthesized by more than 300 plants. (+)-(4R)-limonene is its most widespread form.
2005-01-21 GO:0046493 lipid A metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipid A, the glycolipid moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, consisting of six fatty acyl chains linked to two glucosamine residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent. Includes fatty acids; neutral fats, other fatty-acid esters, and soaps; long-chain (fatty) alcohols and waxes; sphingoids and other long-chain bases; glycolipids, phospholipids and sphingolipids; and carotenes, polyprenols, sterols, terpenes and other isoprenoids.
2005-01-21 GO:0006748 lipoamide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipoamide, the functional form of lipoic acid in which the carboxyl group is attached to protein by an amide linkage to a lysine amino group.
2005-01-21 GO:0009106 lipoate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipoate, 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoate, the anion derived from lipoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0000273 lipoic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipoic acid, 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid, a coenzyme involved in oxidative decarboxylation of keto acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0008653 lipopolysaccharide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipopolysaccharides, any of a group of related, structurally complex components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharides consist three covalently linked regions, lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and an O side chain. Lipid A is responsible for the toxicity of the lipopolysaccharide.
2005-01-21 GO:0042157 lipoprotein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2005-01-21 GO:0001676 long-chain fatty acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving long-chain fatty acids, aliphatic compounds having a terminal carboxyl group and with a chain length of C12-18.
2005-01-21 GO:0035170 lymph gland crystal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized larval lymph gland-derived hemocyte precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a crystal cell. Crystal cells are a class of cells that contain crystalline inclusions and are involved in the melanization of pathogenic material in the hemolymph.
2005-01-21 GO:0035168 larval lymph gland hemocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell derived from the larval lymph gland acquires the specialized features of a mature hemocyte cell. As in, but not restricted to, arthropods (Arthropoda, ncbi_taxonomy_id:6656).
2005-01-21 GO:0035169 lymph gland plasmatocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized larval lymph gland-derived hemocyte precursor cell acquires the specialized features of the phagocytic blood-cell type, the plasmatocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0006553 lysine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0018925 m-cresol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving m-cresol (3-hydroxytoluene), the meta-isoform of cresol. Used to produce agricultural chemicals, and in specialty resins, pharmaceuticals and pressure-sensitive dyes.
2005-01-21 GO:0018949 m-xylene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving m-xylene, (1,3-dimethylbenzene) a colorless, liquid aromatic hydrocarbon.
2005-01-21 GO:0043170 macromolecule metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving macromolecules, large molecules including proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates.
2005-01-21 GO:0030225 macrophage differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized monocyte cell acquires the specialized features of a macrophage cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0006108 malate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving malate, the anion of hydroxybutanedioic acid, a chiral hydroxydicarboxylic acid. The (+) enantiomer is an important intermediate in metabolism as a component of both the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate cycle.
2005-01-21 GO:0048235 pollen sperm cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a haploid sperm cell within the plant gametophyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0000023 maltose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving the disaccharide maltose (4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose), an intermediate in the catabolism of glycogen and starch.
2005-01-21 GO:0018924 mandelate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mandelate, the anion of mandelic acid. Mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid) is an 8-carbon alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) that is used in organic chemistry and as a urinary antiseptic.
2005-01-21 GO:0018882 (+)-camphor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving (+)-camphor, a bicyclic monoterpene ketone which is one of the major components in the leaves of common sage. Camphor exists in two enantiomers, but the (+)-isomer is more widely distributed.
2005-01-21 GO:0046431 (R)-4-hydroxymandelate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving (R)-4-hydroxymandelate, the anion of a hydroxylated derivative of mandelate (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetate).
2005-01-21 GO:0018977 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), a chlorinated broad spectrum contact insecticide.
2005-01-21 GO:0018976 1,2,3-tribromopropane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,2,3-tribromopropane, a toxic and volatile organic compound commonly used as a nematocide in agriculture.
2005-01-21 GO:0018911 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, a derivative of benzene with chlorine atoms attached to positions 1, 2 and 4 of the ring. It is a colorless liquid used as a solvent in chemical manufacturing, in dyes and intermediates, dielectric fluid, synthetic transformer oils, lubricants, heat-transfer medium and insecticides.
2005-01-21 GO:0018899 1,2-dichloroethane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,2-dichloroethane, a major commodity chemical used, for example, in the manufacture of vinyl chloride.
2005-01-21 GO:0042839 D-glucuronate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-glucuronate, the dextrorotatory isomer of glucuronate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046441 D-lysine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-lysine, the dextrorotatory isomer of (S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006014 D-ribose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-ribose (ribo-pentose). As beta-D-ribofuranose, D-ribose forms the glycose moiety of all ribonucleosides, ribonucleotides and ribonucleic acids, and also of ribose phosphates, various glycosides, some coenzymes and some forms of vitamin B12.
2005-01-21 GO:0042732 D-xylose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-xylose, a naturally occurring plant polysaccharide.
2005-01-21 GO:0046056 dADP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dADP, deoxyadenosine diphosphate (2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-diphosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046053 dAMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dAMP, deoxyadenosine monophosphate (2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-phosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046060 dATP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dATP, deoxyadenosine triphosphate (2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046062 dCDP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dCDP, deoxycytidine 5'-diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046063 dCMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dCMP, deoxycytidine monophosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046065 dCTP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dCTP, deoxycytidine triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046090 deoxyadenosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyadenosine, 2-deoxyribosyladenine, one of the four major nucleosides of DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0046092 deoxycytidine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxycytidine, 2-deoxyribosylcytosine, one of the four major nucleosides of DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0018921 3-hydroxybenzyl alcohol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, an aromatic compound which is an intermediate in several metabolic pathways, including the biosynthesis of patulin, a toxin and antiviral agent produced by some moulds such as Penicillium patulinum.
2005-01-21 GO:0019609 3-hydroxyphenylacetate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-hydroxyphenylacetate, 1,3-benzenediol monoacetate, also known as resorcinol monoacetate.
2005-01-21 GO:0006666 3-keto-sphinganine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-keto-sphinganine, a derivative of sphinganine with a ketone group at C3. It is an intermediate in the synthesis of sphingosine.
2005-01-21 GO:0018930 3-methylquinoline metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-methylquinoline, C10H9N, an aromatic compound composed of a benzene ring and a heterocyclic N-containing ring.
2005-01-21 GO:0018962 3-phenylpropionate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-phenylpropionate, the anion of phenylpropanoic acid. It is produced from putrefaction of proteins in soil or breakdown of several constituents of plants, such as lignin, various oils and resins.
2005-01-21 GO:0018902 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (DCP), a halohydrin suspected of being carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic. DCP is used as a general solvent, as an intermediate in organic synthesis and in paints, varnishes, lacquers, water colors, binders and photographic lacquers.
2005-01-21 GO:0018903 1,3-dichloropropene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving members of the 1,3-dichloropropene family, which includes cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene. The 1,3-dichloropropenes are chlorinated hydrocarbons and the major active ingredients of commercial products for control of plant-parasitic nematodes.
2005-01-21 GO:0018912 1,4-dichlorobenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-dichlorobenzene or paramoth), a derivative of benzene with two chlorine atoms attached at opposite positions on the ring. It forms white crystals at room temperature and is used as an insecticidal fumigant, particularly in mothballs.
2005-01-21 GO:0018871 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, the anion of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, a natural product found in plant tissues. It is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of ethylene (ethene), a fruit-ripening hormone in plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0009256 10-formyltetrahydrofolate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, the formylated derivative of tetrahydrofolate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046432 2'-(5''-triphosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2'-(5''-triphosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA, a derivative of coenzyme A.
2005-01-21 GO:0046389 deoxyribose 5-phosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyribose 5-phosphate, the phosphorylated sugar 5-phospho-2-deoxyribose.
2005-01-21 GO:0019692 deoxyribose phosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyribose phosphate, the phosphorylated sugar 2-deoxy-erythro-pentose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046096 deoxyuridine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyuridine, 2-deoxyribosyluracil, one of the four major nucleosides of DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0050761 depsipeptide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving depsipeptides, a linear or cyclic compound composed of both amino acids and hydroxy acids in peptide and ester bonds respectively.
2005-01-21 GO:0030205 dermatan sulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dermatan sulfate, any of a group of glycosaminoglycans with repeats consisting of beta-(1,4)-linked L-iduronyl-beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units. They are important components of ground substance or intercellular cement of skin and some connective tissues.
2005-01-21 GO:0050655 dermatan sulfate proteoglycan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dermatan sulfate proteoglycan, any glycoprotein whose glycosaminoglycan units are dermatan sulfate (chondroitin sulfate B). Dermatan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan with repeats consisting of beta-(1,4)-linked L-iduronyl-beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units.
2005-01-21 GO:0046450 dethiobiotin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dethiobiotin, a derivative of biotin formed by replacing the sulfur atom by two hydrogen atoms.
2005-01-21 GO:0046066 dGDP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dGDP, deoxyguanosine diphosphate, (2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-diphosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046054 dGMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dGMP, deoxyguanosine monophosphate (2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-phosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046070 dGTP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dGTP, guanosine triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046339 diacylglycerol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diacylglycerol, a glycerol molecule substituted on the 1 and 2 hydroxyl groups with long chain fatty acyl residues. DAG is a normal intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidyl phospholipids and is released from them by phospholipase C activity. DAG from phosphatidyl inositol polyphosphates is important in signal transduction.
2005-01-21 GO:0015959 diadenosine polyphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diadenosine polyphosphate, a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine with phosphate groups attached.
2005-01-21 GO:0015965 diadenosine tetraphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diadenosine tetraphosphate, a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine with four phosphate groups attached.
2005-01-21 GO:0015962 diadenosine triphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diadenosine triphosphate, a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine with three phosphate groups attached.
2005-01-21 GO:0046451 diaminopimelate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diaminopimelate, the anion of the dicarboxylic acid 2,6-diaminoheptanedioic acid. It is an intermediate in lysine biosynthesis and as a component (as meso-diaminopimelate) of the peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls.
2005-01-21 GO:0018894 dibenzo-p-dioxin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dibenzo-p-dioxin, a substance composed of two benzene rings linked by two ether bonds. Dibenzo-p-dioxins are generated as by-products in the manufacturing of herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, paper pulp bleaching, and in incineration, and can accumulate in milk and throughout the food chain, creating significant health concern.
2005-01-21 GO:0046478 lactosylceramide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lactosylceramides, Gal beta(1,4)Glc beta(1,1') ceramides, any compound formed by the replacement of the glycosidic C1 hydroxyl group of lactose by a ceramide group. They are the precursors of both gangliosides and globosides.
2005-01-21 GO:0035171 lamellocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which a a relatively unspecialized hemocyte precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a lamellocyte. Lamellocytes are a hemocyte lineage that exists only in larvae, but are seldom observed in healthy animals. Lamellocytes differentiate massively in the lymph glands after parasitization and are large flat cells devoted to encapsulation of invaders too large to be phagocytosed by plasmatocytes.
2005-01-21 GO:0050934 late stripe melanocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a late stripe melanocyte (LSM). In zebrafish, LSMs develop during the second phase (3-4 weeks of development) of the larva-to-adult transition (2-4 weeks of development).
2005-01-21 GO:0046331 lateral inhibition Updated DEFINITION Signaling between cells of equivalent developmental potential that results in these cells adopting different developmental fates. An example is the suppression by cells with a particular fate of the adoption of the same fate by surrounding cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0048371 lateral mesodermal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a lateral mesoderm cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0048252 lauric acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lauric acid, a fatty acid with the formula CH3(CH2)10COOH. Derived from vegetable sources.
2005-01-21 GO:0006653 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lecithin, any 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine.
2005-01-21 GO:0006551 leucine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving leucine, 2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006691 leukotriene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving leukotriene, a pharmacologically active substance derived from a polyunsaturated fatty acid, such as arachidonic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046391 5-phosphoribose 1-diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 5-phosphoribose 1-diphosphate, also known as 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0019638 6-hydroxycineole metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 6-hydroxycineole (6-hydroxy-1,8-epoxy-p-menthane), a hydrocarbon with the formula C10H18O2.
2005-01-21 GO:0008618 7-methylguanosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 7-methylguanosine, a modified nucleoside that forms a cap at the 5'-terminus of eukaryotic mRNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0042905 9-cis-retinoic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 9-cis-retinoic acid, a metabolically active vitamin A derivative.
2005-01-21 GO:0009687 abscisic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving abscisic acid, 5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6,trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-y1)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006117 acetaldehyde metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetaldehyde, a colorless, flammable liquid intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol.
2005-01-21 GO:0030635 acetate derivative metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving derivatives of acetic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0051071 4,6-pyruvylated galactose residue metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving the pyruvylated galactose residue 4-6-O-[(R)(1-carboxyethylidine)]-Gal-beta-1,3-. The galactose residue is part of a larger polysaccharide chain.
2005-01-21 GO:0018887 4-carboxy-4'-sulfoazobenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-carboxy-4'-sulfoazobenzene, a sulfonated azo compound synthesized by nitro-amine condensation from sulfanilic acid and 4-nitrobenzoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0018893 dibenzofuran metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dibenzofuran, a substance composed of two benzene rings linked by one ether bond and one carbon-carbon bond. Dibenzofuran is a white crystalline solid created from the production of coal tar and used as an insecticide and an intermediate in the production of other chemicals.
2005-01-21 GO:0018895 dibenzothiophene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dibenzothiophene, a substance composed of two benzene rings linked by one sulfide bond and one carbon-carbon bond. Dibenzothiophene derivatives can be detected in diesel oil following hydrodesulfurization treatment to remove sulfur compounds that would otherwise generate sulfur oxides during combustion.
2005-01-21 GO:0018900 dichloromethane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dichloromethane, a dichlorinated derivative of methane. It is a colorless organic liquid with a sweet, chloroform-like odor, often used as a paint remover.
2005-01-21 GO:0051066 dihydrobiopterin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dihydrobiopterin, a reduced pteridine derivative related to folic acid; it acts as an electron carrier in tyrosine biosynthesis and its quinoid form is produced by oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin in several biological hydroxylation reactions.
2005-01-21 GO:0046452 dihydrofolate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dihydrofolate, the dihydroxylated derivative of folate.
2005-01-21 GO:0051068 dihydrolipoamide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dihydrolipoamide, the reduced form of lipoamide, produced as an intermediate in the reactions in which lipoamide acts as a cofactor.
2005-01-21 GO:0009352 dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Complex that possesses dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity.
2005-01-21 GO:0051067 dihydropteridine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dihydropteridine, a bicyclic compound with the formula C6H6N4.
2005-01-21 GO:0018905 dimethyl ether metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dimethyl ether, CH3-O-CH3, the simplest ether. Dimethyl ether, also known wood ether and methyl ether, is a colorless gas that has been used in refrigeration applications.
2005-01-21 GO:0018907 dimethyl sulfoxide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO (C2H6OS), an alkyl sulfoxide that is practically odorless in its purified form. As a highly polar organic liquid, it is a powerful solvent. Its biological activities include the ability to penetrate plant and animal tissues and to preserve living cells during freezing.
2005-01-21 GO:0050993 dimethylallyl diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dimethylallyl diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046454 dimethylsilanediol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dimethylsilanediol, the smallest member of the dialkylsilanediols. Dimethylsilanediol is the monomer of polydimethylsiloxane, a compound which can be found in a wide range of industrial and consumer products.
2005-01-21 GO:0046453 dipyrrin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dipyrrins (pyrromethanes), compounds containing two pyrrole rings linked through a methine, -CH=, group.
2005-01-21 GO:0005984 disaccharide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any disaccharide, sugars composed of two monosaccharide units.
2005-01-21 GO:0016101 diterpenoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diterpenoid compounds, terpenoids with 20 isoprenoid units.
2005-01-21 GO:0006259 DNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, one of the two main types of nucleic acid, consisting of a long, unbranched macromolecule formed from one, or more commonly, two, strands of linked deoxyribonucleotides.
2005-01-21 GO:0018909 dodecyl sulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dodecyl sulfate, commonly found as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a component of a variety of synthetic surfactants.
2005-01-21 GO:0019348 dolichol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dolichols, any 2,3-dihydropolyprenol derived from four or more linked isoprene units.
2005-01-21 GO:0046465 dolichyl diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dolichyl diphosphate, a diphosphorylated dolichol derivative. In eukaryotes, these function as carriers of mono- and oligosaccharide residues in the glycosylation of lipids and proteins within intracellular membranes.
2005-01-21 GO:0042417 dopamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dopamine, a catecholamine neurotransmitter and a metabolic precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline.
2005-01-21 GO:0046663 dorsal closure, leading edge cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a leading edge cell, the dorsal-most cells of the epidermis that migrates during dorsal closure.
2005-01-21 GO:0017144 drug metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a drug, a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease; as used here antibiotic substances (see antibiotic metabolism) are considered to be drugs, even if not used in medical or veterinary practice.
2005-01-21 GO:0046072 dTDP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dTDP, deoxyribosylthymine diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046371 dTDP-mannose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dTDP-mannose, a substance composed of mannose in glycosidic linkage with deoxyribosylthymine diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046383 dTDP-rhamnose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dTDP-rhamnose, a substance composed of rhamnose in glycosidic linkage with deoxyribosylthymine diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046073 dTMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dTMP, deoxyribosylthymine monophosphate (2'-deoxyribosylthymine 5'-phosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046075 dTTP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dTTP, deoxyribosylthymine triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046077 dUDP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dUDP, deoxyuridine (5'-)diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046078 dUMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dUMP, deoxyuridine (5'-)monophosphate (2'-deoxyuridine 5'-phosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046080 dUTP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dUTP, deoxyuridine (5'-)triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0050933 early stripe melanocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an early stripe melanocyte (ESM). In zebrafish, ESMs develop during the first phase (2-3 weeks of development) of the larva to adult transition (2-4 weeks of development).
2005-01-21 GO:0008205 ecdysone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ecdysone, (22R)-2-beta,3-beta,14,22,25-pentahydroxycholest-7-en-6-one, an ecdysteroid found in insects. It is the inactive prohormone of the moulting hormone ecdysterone and may have intrinsic hormonal activity at other stages of insect development.
2005-01-21 GO:0045455 ecdysteroid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ecdysteroids, a group of polyhydroxylated ketosteroids ubiquitous in insects and other arthropods, in which they initiate post-embryonic development, including the metamorphosis of immature forms and the development of the reproductive system and the maturation of oocytes in adult females.
2005-01-21 GO:0042399 ectoine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid), a tetrahydropyrimidine commonly synthesized by halophilic bacteria.
2005-01-21 GO:0009394 2'-deoxyribonucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a 2'-deoxyribonucleotide, a compound consisting of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside (a base linked to a 2'-deoxyribose sugar) esterified with a phosphate moiety at either the 3' or 5'-hydroxyl group of its glycose moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0018980 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a chlorinated aromatic compound which is widely used as a herbicide, often as a weed killer for home lawns.
2005-01-21 GO:0018974 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 1-methyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, a highly explosive pale yellow crystalline solid. It is prepared from toluene treated with concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids and is used in shells, bombs, and blasting explosives.
2005-01-21 GO:0018898 2,4-dichlorobenzoate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,4-dichlorobenzoate, a chlorinated aromatic compound which is a key intermediate in the aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
2005-01-21 GO:0018901 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a chlorinated phenoxy compound which functions as a systemic herbicide and is used to control many types of broadleaf weeds.
2005-01-21 GO:0051166 2,5-dihydroxypyridine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,5-dihydroxypyridine.
2005-01-21 GO:0051165 2,5-dihydroxypyridine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,5-dihydroxypyridine.
2005-01-21 GO:0018868 2-aminobenzenesulfonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-aminobenzenesulfonate, aniline-o-sulfonic acid, an aromatic sulfonate used in organic synthesis and in the manufacture of various dyes and medicines.
2005-01-21 GO:0018869 2-aminobenzoate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-aminobenzoate, a derivative of benzoic acid with an NH2 group attached to C2.
2005-01-21 GO:0046433 2-aminoethylphosphonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-aminoethylphosphonate, most abundant and ubiquitous of naturally occurring phosphonates. It is typically found as a conjugate of glycans, lipids, and proteins, which in turn perform essential biochemical functions in specialized lower organisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0018889 2-chloro-N-isopropylacetanilide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-chloro-N-isopropylacetanilide, an acylanide herbicide widely used to protect corn, onion, cabbage, rose bushes, and ornamental plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0046384 2-deoxyribose 1-phosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-deoxyribose 1-phosphate, the phosphorylated sugar 1-phospho-2-deoxyribose.
2005-01-21 GO:0018938 2-nitropropane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-nitropropane, a clear, colorless liquid with a mild, fruity odor. 2-nitropropane is used principally as a solvent and chemical intermediate. As a solvent, it is used in inks, paints, adhesives, varnishes, polymers, and synthetic materials. It is a feedstock for the manufacture of 2-nitro-2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol.
2005-01-21 GO:0046361 2-oxobutyrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-oxobutyrate, the anion of the organic acid 2-oxobutyric acid, which contains a ketone group on carbon 2.
2005-01-21 GO:0006103 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving oxoglutarate, the dianion of 2-oxoglutaric acid. It is a key constituent of the TCA cycle and a key intermediate in amino-acid metabolism.
2005-01-21 GO:0050427 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), a naturally occurring mixed anhydride. It is an intermediate in the formation of a variety of sulfo compounds in biological systems.
2005-01-21 GO:0046435 3-(3-hydroxy)phenylpropionate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-(3-hydroxy)phenylpropionate, a hydroxylated derivative of phenylpropionate.
2005-01-21 GO:0018888 3-chloroacrylic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-chloroacrylic acid, ClHC=CHCOOH, a chlorinated derivative of acrylic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0018864 acetylene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetylene, a colorless, volatile, explosive gas; it is the simplest of a class of unsaturated (triple-bonded) hydrocarbons, the alkynes.
2005-01-21 GO:0042860 achromobactin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving achromobactin, a citrate siderophore.
2005-01-21 GO:0018865 acrylonitrile metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acrylonitrile, a colorless, volatile liquid with a pungent odor. Acrylonitrile is used in the production of acrylic fibers, plastics, and synthetic rubbers.
2005-01-21 GO:0048181 activin A complex Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A homodimer of inhibin beta-A is termed 'activin A complex'. This protein complex is secreted.
2005-01-21 GO:0048182 activin B complex Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A homodimer of inhibin beta-B is termed 'activin B complex'. This protein complex is secreted.
2005-01-21 GO:0006637 acyl-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acyl-CoA, any derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is in thioester linkage with a fatty-acyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0006639 acylglycerol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acylglycerol, any mono-, di- or triester of glycerol with (one or more) fatty acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0018866 adamantanone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving adamantanone, tricyclo(3.3.1.13,7)decanone, a white crystalline solid used as an intermediate for microelectronics in the production of photoresists.
2005-01-21 GO:0046083 adenine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving adenine, 6-aminopurine, one of the five main bases found in nucleic acids and a component of numerous important derivatives of its corresponding ribonucleoside, adenosine.
2005-01-21 GO:0046085 adenosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving adenosine, adenine riboside, a ribonucleoside found widely distributed in cells of every type as the free nucleoside and in combination in nucleic acids and various nucleoside coenzymes.
2005-01-21 GO:0045444 fat cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat.
2005-01-21 GO:0046031 ADP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ADP, adenosine 5'-diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046442 aerobactin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aerobactin (C22H36N4O13), a hydroxamate iron transport compound. It is a conjugate of 6-(N-acetyl-N-hydroxylamine)-2-aminohexanoic acid and citric acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0019620 aerobic benzoate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving benzoate, the anion of benzoic acid (benzenecarboxylic acid) that occur in the presence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018878 aerobic beta-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving beta-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane that occur in presence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018935 aerobic nitrilotriacetate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nitrilotriacetate, the aminotricarboxylic acid N(CH2COO-)3, that occur in the presence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018946 aerobic organosilicon metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving organosilicons, organic compounds that contain silicon, in the presence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018959 aerobic phenol-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving phenol, any compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups directly attached to an aromatic carbon ring, in the presence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0046222 aflatoxin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aflatoxin, a fungal metabolite found as a contaminant in moldy grains that induces liver cancer. Aflatoxin induces a G to T transversion at codon 249 of p53, leading to its inactivation. Aflatoxin is converted to a chemical carcinogen by P450.
2005-01-21 GO:0006522 alanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alanine, 2-aminopropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006066 alcohol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alcohols, any of a class of alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0019577 aldaric acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aldaric acid, any dicarboxylic acid formed by oxidation of by the terminal groups of an aldose to carboxyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0035165 embryonic crystal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby an embryonic mesoderm-derived hemocyte precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a crystal cell. Crystal cells are a class of cells that contain crystalline inclusions and are involved in the melanization of pathogenic material in the hemolymph.
2005-01-21 GO:0035163 embryonic hemocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell derived from the embryonic head mesoderm acquires the specialized features of a mature hemocyte. As in, but not restricted to, arthropods (Arthropoda, ncbi_taxonomy_id:6656).
2005-01-21 GO:0035164 embryonic plasmatocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby an embryonic mesoderm-derived hemocyte precursor cell acquires the specialized features of the phagocytic blood-cell type, the plasmatocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0045446 endothelial cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an endothelial cell, a thin flattened cell. A layer of such cells lines the inside surfaces of body cavities, blood vessels, and lymph vessels, making up the endothelium.
2005-01-21 GO:0001935 endothelial cell proliferation Updated DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of endothelial cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of a cell population. Endothelial cells are thin flattened cells which line the inside surfaces of body cavities, blood vessels, and lymph vessels, making up the endothelium.
2005-01-21 GO:0046584 enniatin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving enniatins, any of various cyclodepsipeptide antibiotics from Fusarium species that function as ionophores.
2005-01-21 GO:0046378 enterobacterial common antigen metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving enterobacterial common antigen, an acidic polysaccharide containing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-mannosaminouronic acid, and 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose. A major component of the cell wall outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
2005-01-21 GO:0009238 enterobactin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving enterobactin, a catechol-derived siderochrome of Enterobacteria; enterobactin (N',N',N''-(2,6,10-trioxo-1,5,9-triacyclodecane-3,7,11-triyl)tris(2,3-dihydroxy)benzamide) is a self-triester of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine and a product of the shikimate pathway.
2005-01-21 GO:0030222 eosinophil differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which a relatively unspecialized myeloid precursor cell acquires the specializes features of an eosinophil.
2005-01-21 GO:0009913 epidermal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an epidermal cell, any of the cells making up the epidermis.
2005-01-21 GO:0042414 epinephrine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving epinephrine, a hormone produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands that increases heart activity, improves the power and prolongs the action of muscles, and increases the rate and depth of breathing. It is synthesized by the methylation of norepinephrine.
2005-01-21 GO:0030855 epithelial cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an epithelial cell, any of the cells making up an epithelium.
2005-01-21 GO:0050813 epothilone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving epothilone, a drug obtained from the myxobacteria Sporangium cellulosum that interferes with cell division. Some epothilones are being studied as treatments for cancer.
2005-01-21 GO:0008204 ergosterol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ergosterol, (22E)-ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3-beta-ol, a sterol found in ergot, yeast and moulds. It is the most important of the D provitamins and is converted to vitamin D2 on irradiation with UV light.
2005-01-21 GO:0030218 erythrocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specializes features of an erythrocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0008210 estrogen metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving estrogens, C18 steroid hormones that can stimulate the development of female sexual characteristics. Also found in plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0006067 ethanol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ethanol, CH3-CH2-OH, a colorless, water-miscible, flammable liquid produced by alcoholic fermentation.
2005-01-21 GO:0006580 ethanolamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ethanolamine (2-aminoethanol), an important water-soluble base of phospholipid (phosphatidylethanolamine).
2005-01-21 GO:0046485 ether lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ether lipids, lipids that contain (normally) one fatty alcohol in ether linkage to one of the carbon atoms (normally C-1) of glycerol.
2005-01-21 GO:0018915 ethylbenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ethylbenzene (phenylethane), a benzene derivative with an ethyl group attached to the ring. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor used as a solvent and as a component of automotive and aviation fuels.
2005-01-21 GO:0009692 ethylene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ethylene (C2-H4, ethene), a simple hydrocarbon gas that can function in plants as a growth regulator.
2005-01-21 GO:0042854 eugenol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving eugenol, a colorless, aromatic, liquid hydrocarbon (C10H12O2) found in clove oil.
2005-01-21 GO:0046379 extracellular polysaccharide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving polysaccharides used in extracellular structures.
2005-01-21 GO:0001754 eye photoreceptor cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a photoreceptor cell, as found in the eye, the primary visual organ of most organisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0001751 compound eye photoreceptor cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an eye photoreceptor cell. As in, but not restricted to, the Holometabola (Endopterygota, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33392).
2005-01-21 GO:0042441 eye pigment metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving eye pigments, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms, found or utilized in the eye.
2005-01-21 GO:0046443 FAD metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving FAD, flavin-adenine dinucleotide, the coenzyme or the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes.
2005-01-21 GO:0006746 FADH2 metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving the reduced form of flavin-adenine dinucleotide.
2005-01-21 GO:0016487 farnesol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving the sesquiterpenoid alcohol farnesol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10,dodecatrien-1-ol.
2005-01-21 GO:0045338 farnesyl diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving farnesyl diphosphate, an intermediate in carotenoid, sesquiterpene, squalene and sterol biosynthesis, as well as a substrate in protein farnesylation.
2005-01-21 GO:0006775 fat-soluble vitamin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving of any of a diverse group of vitamins that are soluble in organic solvents and relatively insoluble in water.
2005-01-21 GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fatty acids, aliphatic monocarboxylic acids liberated from naturally occurring fats and oils by hydrolysis.
2005-01-21 GO:0009812 flavonoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving flavonoids, a group of water-soluble phenolic derivatives containing a flavan skeleton including flavones, flavonols and flavanoids, and anthocyanins.
2005-01-21 GO:0006083 acetate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetate, the anion of acetic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0045149 acetoin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetoin, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, often as part of a fermentation pathway or for use as a carbon source.
2005-01-21 GO:0006084 acetyl-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetyl-CoA, a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e.g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2005-01-21 GO:0018880 4-chlorobiphenyl metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-chlorobiphenyl, a member of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) group of compounds, a very stable group of synthetic organic compounds composed of a biphenyl nucleus with 1-10 chlorine substituents. 4-chlorobiphenyl has been used as a model substrate to investigate PCB degradation.
2005-01-21 GO:0019471 4-hydroxyproline metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-hydroxyproline, C5H9NO3, a derivative of the amino acid proline. The presence of hydroxyproline is essential to produce stable triple helical tropocollagen, hence the problems caused by ascorbate deficiency in scurvy. This unusual amino acid is also present in considerable amounts in the major glycoprotein of primary plant cell walls.
2005-01-21 GO:0018960 4-nitrophenol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-nitrophenol, a nitroaromatic compound which is used in the production of dyes, leather treatment agents, fungicides and as an intermediate in the production of the insecticide parathion.
2005-01-21 GO:0019257 4-nitrotoluene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-nitrotoluene, 1-methyl-4-nitrobenzene. It is a light yellow liquid with a weak aromatic odor.
2005-01-21 GO:0019611 4-toluenecarboxylate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-toluenecarboxylate, 4-methylbenzenecarboxylate, the anion of carboxylic acid attached to a methylbenzene molecule.
2005-01-21 GO:0019857 5-methylcytosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 5-methylcytosine, a methylated base of DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0006106 fumarate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fumarate, the anion of trans-1,2-ethenedicarboxylic acid, the diastereoisomer of maleate. It is a key intermediate in metabolism and is formed in the TCA cycle from succinate and converted into malate.
2005-01-21 GO:0019580 galactarate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactarate, the anion of galactaric acid, the meso-aldaric acid derived from both D- and L-galactose.
2005-01-21 GO:0019402 galactitol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactitol, the hexitol derived by the reduction of the aldehyde group of either D- or L-galactose.
2005-01-21 GO:0019374 galactolipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactolipids, any glycolipid containing one of more residues of galactose and/or N-acetylgalactosamine.
2005-01-21 GO:0051069 galactomannan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactomannan, a polysaccharide composed of D-galactosyl and D-mannosyl. The mannosyl units form the backbone structure (a linear main chain) with the D-galactosyl as single side units.
2005-01-21 GO:0019583 galactonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactonate, the anion of galactonic acid, an organic acid derived from the sugar galactose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046350 galactosaminoglycan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactosaminoglycans, any one of a group of polysaccharides that contain amino sugars derived from the galactose.
2005-01-21 GO:0006012 galactose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactose, the aldohexose galacto-hexose. D-galactose is widely distributed in combined form in plants, animals and microorganisms as a constituent of oligo- and polysaccharides; it also occurs in galactolipids and as its glucoside in lactose and melibiose.
2005-01-21 GO:0006681 galactosylceramide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactosylceramides, any compound formed by the replacement of the glycosidic hydroxyl group of a cyclic form of galactose by a ceramide group.
2005-01-21 GO:0019586 galacturonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galacturonate, the anion of galacturonic acid, the uronic acid formally derived from galactose by oxidation of the hydroxymethylene group at C-6 to a carboxyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0018918 gallate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving gallate, the anion of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid). The esters and polyesters are widely distributed in angiosperms.
2005-01-21 GO:0005760 gamma DNA polymerase complex Added DEFINITION A heterodimer consisting of a large subunit, responsible for the catalytic activities, and a small accessory subunit. Functions in the replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0018919 gamma-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving gamma-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (also known as Lindane), the most common form of hexachlorohexane, a halogenated organic insecticide that has been used worldwide for agriculture and public health.
2005-01-21 GO:0009448 gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 4-aminobutyrate), an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in some organisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0042492 gamma-delta T cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized hemopoietic cell acquires specialized features of a gamma-delta T-cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0001573 ganglioside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ceramide oligosaccharides carrying in addition to other sugar residues, one or more sialic acid residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0006022 aminoglycan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aminoglycans, any polymer containing amino groups that consists of more than about 10 monosaccharide residues joined to each other by glycosidic linkages.
2005-01-21 GO:0030647 aminoglycoside antibiotic metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving an aminoglycoside antibiotic, any member of a group of broad spectrum antibiotics, of similar toxicity and pharmacology, that contain an aminodeoxysugar, an amino- or guanidino-substituted inositol ring, and one or more residues of other sugars. The group includes streptomycin, neomycin, framycetin, kanamycin, paromomycin, and gentamicin.
2005-01-21 GO:0046033 AMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving AMP, adenosine monophosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0042982 amyloid precursor protein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving amyloid precursor protein (APP), the precursor of beta-amyloid, a glycoprotein associated with Alzheimer's disease.
2005-01-21 GO:0018978 anaerobic 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), a chlorinated, broad spectrum, contact insecticide, in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018975 anaerobic 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 1-methyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, a highly explosive pale yellow crystalline solid, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0019487 anaerobic acetylene catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetylene, a colorless, volatile, explosive gas, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018875 anaerobic benzoate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving benzoate, the anion of benzoic acid (benzenecarboxylic acid) that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018886 anaerobic carbon tetrachloride metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carbon tetrachloride, a toxic, carcinogenic compound which is used as a general solvent in industrial degreasing operations, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018913 anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ethylbenzene (phenylethane), a benzene derivative with an ethyl group attached to the ring, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018936 anaerobic nitrilotriacetate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nitrilotriacetate, the aminotricarboxylic acid N(CH2COO-)3, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018947 anaerobic organosilicon metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving organosilicons, organic compounds that contain silicon, in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0042215 anaerobic phenol-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving phenol, any compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups directly attached to an aromatic carbon ring, in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018971 anaerobic toluene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving toluene, a volatile monoaromatic hydrocarbon found in crude petroleum and petroleum products, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0007092 activation of mitotic anaphase-promoting complex activity Added DEFINITION Upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase promoting complex.
2005-01-21 GO:0008209 androgen metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving androgens, C19 steroid hormones that can stimulate the development of male sexual characteristics.
2005-01-21 GO:0046283 anthocyanin-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving anthocyanins, any member of a group of intensely colored soluble glycosides of anthocyanidins that occur in plants. They are responsible from most of the scarlet, purple, mauve and blue coloring in higher plants, especially of flowers.
2005-01-21 GO:0016999 antibiotic metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving an antibiotic, a substance produced by or derived from certain fungi, bacteria, and other organisms, that can destroy or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0009557 antipodal cell differentiation Added DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an antipodal cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0042868 antisense RNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving antisense RNA, an RNA molecule complementary in sequence to another RNA or DNA molecule, which, by binding the latter, acts to inhibit its function and/or completion of synthesis.
2005-01-21 GO:0046285 flavonoid phytoalexin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving flavonoid phytoalexins, a group of water-soluble phenolic derivatives containing a flavan skeleton, which possess antibiotic activity and are produced by plant tissues in response to infection.
2005-01-21 GO:0018917 fluorene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fluorene, a tricyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon containing a five-membered ring. It is a major component of fossil fuels and their derivatives and is also a by-product of coal-conversion and energy-related industries. It is commonly found in vehicle exhaust emissions, crude oils, motor oils, coal and oil combustion products, waste incineration, and industrial effluents.
2005-01-21 GO:0046444 FMN metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving FMN, riboflavin 5'-(dihydrogen phosphate), a coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH dehydrogenase.
2005-01-21 GO:0006760 folic acid-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving folic acid and its derivatives.
2005-01-21 GO:0046655 folic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving folic acid, pteroylglutamic acid. Folic acid is widely distributed as a member of the vitamin B complex and is essential for the synthesis of purine and pyrimidines.
2005-01-21 GO:0046292 formaldehyde metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving formaldehyde (methanal, H2C=O), a colorless liquid or gas with a pungent odor, commonly used as a fixative or an antibacterial agent.
2005-01-21 GO:0015942 formate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving formate, also known as methanoate, the anion HCOO- derived from methanoic (formic) acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0050756 fractalkine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fractalkine, a chemokine involved in the control of the key regulatory mechanisms of cell trafficking at sites of inflammation. It exists as a secreted protein and in a membrane-bound form, and exhibits a novel C-X-X-X-C cysteine signature motif. The counterpart of human fractalkine is murine neurotactin; fractalkine is also referred to as CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine or ABCD-3 and has been renamed CX3CL1.
2005-01-21 GO:0010145 fructan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fructan, a polysaccharide consisting of fructose residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0030389 fructosamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fructosamine, a fructose molecule containing an amino group in place of a hydroxyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0030388 fructose 1,6-bisphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, also known as FBP. The D enantiomer is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.
2005-01-21 GO:0006003 fructose 2,6-bisphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. The D enantiomer is an important regulator of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. It inhibits fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and activates phosphofructokinase.
2005-01-21 GO:0006081 cellular aldehyde metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aldehydes, any organic compound with the formula R-CH=O.
2005-01-21 GO:0019400 alditol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alditols, any polyhydric alcohol derived from the acyclic form of a monosaccharide by reduction of its aldehyde or keto group to an alcoholic group.
2005-01-21 GO:0019520 aldonic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aldonic acid, a monocarboxylic acid with a chain of three or more carbon atoms, derived from an aldose by oxidation of the aldehydic group.
2005-01-21 GO:0019330 aldoxime metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aldoximes, compounds derived by the reaction of an aldose with hydroxylamine, thus containing the aldoxime group -HC=NOH.
2005-01-21 GO:0042120 alginic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alginic acid, a hydrophilic polysaccharide occurring in, for example, the cell walls of brown algae (brown seaweeds).
2005-01-21 GO:0009820 alkaloid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alkaloids, nitrogen containing natural products which are not otherwise classified as peptides, nonprotein amino acids, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones or primary metabolites (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).
2005-01-21 GO:0019694 alkanesulfonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alkanesulfonates, the anion of alkanesulfonic acids, sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0000255 allantoin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving allantoin, (2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)urea, an intermediate or end product of purine catabolism.
2005-01-21 GO:0019313 allose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving allose, allo-hexose, an aldohexose similar to glucose, differing only in the configuration of the hydroxyl group of C-3.
2005-01-21 GO:0046632 alpha-beta T cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized hemopoietic stem cell acquires the specialized features of an alpha-beta T-cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0018867 alpha-pinene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alpha-pinene, a monoterpene that may be a significant factor affecting bacterial activities in nature. It is a major component in tea-tree oils, and gives off a piney smelling odor.
2005-01-21 GO:0009308 amine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any organic compound that is weakly basic in character and contains an amino or a substituted amino group. Amines are called primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether one, two, or three carbon atoms are attached to the nitrogen atom.
2005-01-21 GO:0006519 cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents, and compounds derived from amino acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0006575 cellular modified amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving compounds derived from amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents.
2005-01-21 GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents.
2005-01-21 GO:0006040 amino sugar metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any amino sugar, sugars containing an amino group in place of a hydroxyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0051201 negative regulation of prosthetic group metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions of a prosthetic group.
2005-01-21 GO:0051248 negative regulation of protein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of chemical reactions involving a protein.
2005-01-21 GO:0045863 negative regulation of pteridine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving pteridine.
2005-01-21 GO:0045982 negative regulation of purine nucleobase metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving purine bases.
2005-01-21 GO:0045984 negative regulation of pyrimidine nucleobase metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving pyrimidine bases.
2005-01-21 GO:0051280 negative regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the release into the cytoplasmic compartment of calcium ions sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria.
2005-01-21 GO:0051253 negative regulation of RNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving RNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0051283 negative regulation of sequestering of calcium ion Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the binding or confining calcium ions such that they are separated from other components of a biological system.
2005-01-21 GO:0045939 negative regulation of steroid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving steroids.
2005-01-21 GO:0051175 negative regulation of sulfur metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving sulfur or compounds containing sulfur.
2005-01-21 GO:0046137 negative regulation of vitamin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving a vitamin, one of a number of unrelated organic substances that occur in many foods in small amounts and that are necessary in trace amounts for the normal metabolic functioning of the body.
2005-01-21 GO:0030182 neuron differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuron.
2005-01-21 GO:0042133 neurotransmitter metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving neurotransmitters, any of a group of substances that are released on excitation from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron of the central or peripheral nervous system and travel across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0045213 neurotransmitter receptor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving neurotransmitter receptors.
2005-01-21 GO:0006638 neutral lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving neutral lipids, lipids only soluble in solvents of very low polarity.
2005-01-21 GO:0030223 neutrophil differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which a myeloid precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a neutrophil.
2005-01-21 GO:0030417 nicotianamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotianamine, 2(S),3'2(S),3''(S)-N-(N-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006769 nicotinamide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotinamide, pyridine-3-carboxamide, the amide of nicotinic acid. It is a member of the B complex of vitamins and occurs widely in living organisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0046496 nicotinamide nucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotinamide nucleotides, any nucleotide that contains combined nicotinamide.
2005-01-21 GO:0046495 nicotinamide riboside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotinamide riboside, the product of the formation of a glycosidic bond between ribose and nicotinamide.
2005-01-21 GO:0046497 nicotinate nucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotinamide nucleotides, any nucleotide that contains combined nicotinate (pyridine 3-carboxylic acid, or niacin).

Terms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2005-01-21 GO:0031133 regulation of axon diameter Added TERM regulation of axon diameter
2005-01-21 GO:0031134 sister chromatid biorientation Added TERM sister chromatid biorientation
2005-01-21 GO:0031135 negative regulation of conjugation Added TERM negative regulation of conjugation
2005-01-21 GO:0031136 positive regulation of conjugation Added TERM positive regulation of conjugation
2005-01-21 GO:0031137 regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion Added TERM regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion
2005-01-21 GO:0031138 negative regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion Added TERM negative regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion
2005-01-21 GO:0031139 positive regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion Added TERM positive regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion
2005-01-21 GO:0031140 induction of conjugation upon nutrient starvation Added TERM induction of conjugation upon nutrient starvation
2005-01-21 GO:0031141 induction of conjugation upon carbon starvation Added TERM induction of conjugation upon carbon starvation
2005-01-21 GO:0031142 induction of conjugation upon nitrogen starvation Added TERM induction of conjugation upon nitrogen starvation

Definition/synonyms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2005-01-21 GO:0006051 N-acetylmannosamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving N-acetylmannosamine, the acetylated derivative of mannosamine, 2-amino-2-deoxymannose.
2005-01-21 GO:0006054 N-acetylneuraminate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving N-acetylneuraminate, the anion of 5-(acetylamino)-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-3-ulosonic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0042201 N-cyclopropylmelamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving N-cyclopropylmelamine, a triazine compound commonly used as an insect growth regulator insecticide.
2005-01-21 GO:0031135 negative regulation of conjugation Added DEFINITION Any process that decreases the rate of conjugation.
2005-01-21 GO:0031138 negative regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion Added DEFINITION Any process that decreases the rate or frequency of conjugation with cellular fusion.
2005-01-21 GO:0018939 n-octane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving n-octane, the 8 carbon straight chain alkane used in organic syntheses, calibrations, and azeotropic distillations. It is a common component of gasoline and other petroleum products and the engine fuel antiknocking properties of an isomer of n-octane are used as a comparative standard in the Octane Rating System.
2005-01-21 GO:0019674 NAD metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006734 NADH metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving NADH, the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0045168 cell-cell signaling involved in cell fate commitment Updated DEFINITION Signaling at long or short range between cells that results in the commitment of a cell to a certain fate.
2005-01-21 GO:0044262 cellular carbohydrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y, as carried out by individual cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0044255 cellular lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipids, as carried out by individual cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0044260 cellular macromolecule metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving macromolecules, large molecules including proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates, as carried out by individual cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0044264 cellular polysaccharide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving polysaccharides, polymers of more than 10 monosaccharide residues joined by glycosidic linkages, as carried out by individual cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0006080 substituted mannan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannan, the main hemicellulose of soft (coniferous) wood, made up of D-mannose, D-glucose and D-galactose. Mannans also occur in ferns, high plants, algae and some yeasts where they may function as the main structural component of the cell wall.
2005-01-21 GO:0006056 mannoprotein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound mannose residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006050 mannosamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannosomine, 2-amino-2-deoxymannose; the D-isomer is a constituent of neuraminic acids as well as mucolipids and mucoproteins.
2005-01-21 GO:0006675 mannosyl-inositol phosphorylceramide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannose inositol phosphoceramide, any lipid with a phosphodiester bridge between an inositol residue and the ceramide moiety which contains a phosphoryl (-P(O)=) groups and a mannose derivative.
2005-01-21 GO:0006013 mannose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannose, the aldohexose manno-hexose, the C-2 epimer of glucose. The D-(+)-form is widely distributed in mannans and hemicelluloses and is of major importance in the core oligosaccharide of N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins.
2005-01-21 GO:0006676 mannosyl diphosphorylinositol ceramide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mannosyl diphosphorylinositol ceramide, any lipid with a phosphodiester bridge between an inositol residue and the ceramide moiety which contains two phosphoryl (-P(O)=) groups and a mannose derivative.
2005-01-21 GO:0030219 megakaryocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specializes features of a megakaryocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0006582 melanin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving melanins, pigments largely of animal origin. High molecular weight polymers of indole quinone, they are irregular polymeric structures and are divided into three groups: allomelanins in the plant kingdom and eumelanins and phaeomelanins in the animal kingdom.
2005-01-21 GO:0030318 melanocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a melanocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0030186 melatonin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine).
2005-01-21 GO:0005994 melibiose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving melibiose, the disaccharide 6-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0006643 membrane lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving membrane lipids, any lipid found in or associated with a biological membrane.
2005-01-21 GO:0009233 menaquinone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any of the menaquinones, quinone-derived compounds synthesized by intestinal bacteria. Structurally, menaquinones consist of a methylated naphthoquinone ring structure and side chains composed of a variable number of unsaturated isoprenoid residues. Menaquinones have vitamin K activity and are known as vitamin K2.
2005-01-21 GO:0048333 mesodermal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a mesoderm cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0001557 metabolic process resulting in cell growth Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions that occur in living organisms that result in an increase in the mass (size) of a cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0015947 methane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methane, a colorless, odorless, flammable gas with the formula CH4. It is the simplest of the alkanes.
2005-01-21 GO:0018926 methanesulfonic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methanesulfonic acid, a strong acid produced by the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide.
2005-01-21 GO:0015945 methanol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methanol, CH3-OH, a colorless, flammable, mobile, poisonous liquid, widely used as a solvent.
2005-01-21 GO:0006555 methionine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methionine (2-amino-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid), a sulfur-containing, essential amino acid found in peptide linkage in proteins.
2005-01-21 GO:0018928 methyl ethyl ketone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methyl ethyl ketone, a clear, colorless liquid with a fragrant, mint-like odor. It is used as a solvent and in making plastics, textiles and paints.
2005-01-21 GO:0018929 methyl fluoride metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methyl fluoride, fluorine-substituted methane, a gaseous halogenated hydrocarbon that has been investigated as an inhibitor of methanotrophy and nitrification in soils.
2005-01-21 GO:0018906 methyl tert-butyl ether metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methyl tert-butyl ether, 2-methoxy-2-methylpropane. Methyl tert-butyl ether is a synthetic chemical which is mixed with gasoline for use in reformulated gasoline. It was first introduced as an additive for unleaded gasoline in the 1980s. It is also used as a laboratory reagent and a pharmaceutical agent.
2005-01-21 GO:0030416 methylamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methylamine (CH3NH2), a flammable, explosive gas, used in tanning and in organic synthesis and produced naturally in some decaying fish, certain plants, and crude methanol.
2005-01-21 GO:0019489 methylgallate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methylgallate, trihydroxymethylbenzoate, the anion of methylgallic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0009438 methylglyoxal metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methylglyoxal, CH3-CO-CHO, the aldehyde of pyruvic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0042191 methylmercury metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving methylmercury (MeHg+), a highly toxic organometal which can accumulate in tissues, particularly in fish species.
2005-01-21 GO:0008212 mineralocorticoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mineralocorticoids, hormonal C21 corticosteroids synthesized from cholesterol. Mineralocorticoids act primarily on water and electrolyte balance.
2005-01-21 GO:0019720 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving Mo-molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e.g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum coordinated by the dithiolene moiety of a family of tricyclic pyranopterins containing a cis-dithiolene group in their pyran ring. Enzymes containing a pyranopterin cofactor and either Mo or W are found in all phyla and some of these catalyze important transformations in the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycle. These reactions generally involve redox chemistry at the active site with the metal cycling between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. The formation from simpler components of the Mo/W-cofactor is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and genes involved in Moco biosynthesis have been identified in eubacteria, Archaea and eukaryotes.
2005-01-21 GO:0046462 monoacylglycerol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving monoacylglycerol, any ester of glycerol in which any one of its hydroxyl groups has been acylated with a fatty acid, the other being non-esterified.
2005-01-21 GO:0030224 monocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized myeloid precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a monocyte cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0005996 monosaccharide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving monosaccharides, the simplest carbohydrates. They are polyhydric alcohols containing either an aldehyde or a keto group and between three to ten or more carbon atoms. They form the constitutional repeating units of oligo- and polysaccharides.
2005-01-21 GO:0016098 monoterpenoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving monoterpenoid compounds, terpenoids with 10 isoprenoid units.
2005-01-21 GO:0016071 mRNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mRNA, messenger RNA, which is responsible for carrying the coded genetic 'message', transcribed from DNA, to sites of protein assembly at the ribosomes.
2005-01-21 GO:0010191 mucilage metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mucilage, a gelatinous substance secreted by plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0010126 mycothiol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mycothiol, which consists of N-acetyl-L-cysteine linked to a pseudodisaccharide, D-glucosamine and myo-inositol. Mycothiol is produced in actinomycetes like mycobacteria and serves similar functions to glutathione.
2005-01-21 GO:0030099 myeloid cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized myeloid precursor cell acquires the specialized features of an erythrocyte, megakaryocyte, platelet, basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, monocyte, macrophage, or osteoclast cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0006020 inositol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving myo-inositol, 1,2,3,4,5/4,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0045445 myoblast differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myoblast, a cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
2005-01-21 GO:0006044 N-acetylglucosamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving N-acetylglucosamine. The D isomer is a common structural unit of glycoproteins in plants, bacteria and animals; it is often the terminal sugar of an oligosaccharide moiety of a glycoprotein.
2005-01-21 GO:0042196 chlorinated hydrocarbon metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chlorinated hydrocarbons, any hydrocarbon with one or more chlorine atoms attached to it.
2005-01-21 GO:0018914 chlorobenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chlorobenzene, a derivative of benzene with a chlorine atoms attached to the ring. It is a colorless liquid that is manufactured for use as a solvent. It quickly evaporates in the air and is degraded by hydroxyl radicals that are produced photochemically. The gas acts as a source of ClOx, which helps in the breakdown of stratospheric ozone.
2005-01-21 GO:0015994 chlorophyll metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chlorophyll, any compound of magnesium complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring and which functions as a photosynthetic pigment.
2005-01-21 GO:0008203 cholesterol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones. It is a component of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer and of plasma lipoproteins and can be found in all animal tissues.
2005-01-21 GO:0019695 choline metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium), an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
2005-01-21 GO:0030204 chondroitin sulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chondroitin sulfate, any member of a group of 10-60 kDa glycosaminoglycans, widely distributed in cartilage and other mammalian connective tissues, the repeat units of which consist of beta-(1,4)-linked D-glucuronyl beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine sulfate. They usually occur linked to a protein to form proteoglycans. Two subgroups exist, one in which the sulfate is on the 4-position (chondroitin sulfate A) and the second in which it is in the 6-position (chondroitin sulfate C). They often are polydisperse and often differ in the degree of sulfation from tissue to tissue. The chains of repeating disaccharide are covalently linked to the side chains of serine residues in the polypeptide backbone of a protein by a glycosidic attachment through the trisaccharide unit galactosyl-galactosyl-xylosyl. Chondroitin sulfate B is more usually known as dermatan sulfate.
2005-01-21 GO:0050654 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, any glycoprotein whose glycosaminoglycan units are chondroitin sulfate. Chondroitin sulfates are a group of 10-60 kDa glycosaminoglycans, widely distributed in cartilage and other mammalian connective tissues; the repeat units consist of beta-(1,4)-linked D-glucuronyl beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine sulfate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046417 chorismate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chorismate, the anion of (3R-trans)-3-((1-carboxyethenyl)oxy)-4-hydroxy-1,5-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0042857 chrysobactin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving the siderophore chrysobactin (alpha-N-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-D-lysyl-L-serine).
2005-01-21 GO:0009801 cinnamic acid ester metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ester derivatives of cinnamic acid, phenylpropenoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0009803 cinnamic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cinnamic acid, 3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006101 citrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving citrate, 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboyxlate. Citrate is widely distributed in nature and is an important intermediate in the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate cycle.
2005-01-21 GO:0000052 citrulline metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving citrulline, N5-carbamoyl-L-ornithine, an alpha amino acid not found in proteins.
2005-01-21 GO:0046035 CMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving CMP, cytidine monophosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046381 CMP-N-acetylneuraminate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving CMP-N-acetylneuraminate, a substance composed of 5-(acetylamino)-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-3-ulosonic acid in glycosidic linkage with cytidine monophosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0009235 cobalamin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cobalamin (vitamin B12), a water-soluble vitamin characterized by possession of a corrin nucleus containing a cobalt atom.
2005-01-21 GO:0050783 cocaine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cocaine, an alkaloid obtained from the dried leaves of the shrub Erythroxylon coca. It is a cerebral stimulant and narcotic.
2005-01-21 GO:0015936 coenzyme A metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving coenzyme A, 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine, an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester.
2005-01-21 GO:0019297 coenzyme B metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate), a coenzyme involved in the utilization of methane by methanogenic prokaryotes.
2005-01-21 GO:0019296 coenzyme M metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving coenzyme M (2-thioethansulfonate), a coenzyme involved in the utilization of methane by methanogenic prokaryotes.
2005-01-21 GO:0006732 coenzyme metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving coenzymes, any of various nonprotein organic cofactors that are required, in addition to an enzyme and a substrate, for an enzymatic reaction to proceed.
2005-01-21 GO:0051186 cofactor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions of a cofactor, a substance that is required for the activity of an enzyme or other protein. Cofactors may be inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in certain forms, or organic, in which case they are referred to as coenzymes. Cofactors may either be bound tightly to active sites or bind loosely with the substrate.
2005-01-21 GO:0045934 negative regulation of nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0045978 negative regulation of nucleoside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving nucleosides.
2005-01-21 GO:0045980 negative regulation of nucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving nucleotides.
2005-01-21 GO:0044267 cellular protein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a specific protein, rather than of proteins in general, occurring at the level of an individual cell. Includes protein modification.
2005-01-21 GO:0030243 cellulose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cellulose, a linear beta1-4 glucan of molecular mass 50-400 kDa with the pyranose units in the -4C1 conformation.
2005-01-21 GO:0006672 ceramide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ceramides, any N-acylated sphingoid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046068 cGMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyclic GMP, guanosine 3',5'-phosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0009714 chalcone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chalcones, phenyl steryl ketone or its hydroxylated derivatives.
2005-01-21 GO:0050755 chemokine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chemokines, any of a subgroup of cytokines which act primarily on hemopoietic cells in acute and inflammatory processes and other immunoregulatory functions.
2005-01-21 GO:0006030 chitin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0006739 NADP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving NADPH, reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, a coenzyme involved in many redox and biosynthetic reactions.
2005-01-21 GO:0018931 naphthalene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving naphthalene, a fused ring bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbon commonly found in crude oil and oil products. Naphthalene is familiar as the compound that gives mothballs their odor; it is used in the manufacture of plastics, dyes, solvents, and other chemicals, as well as being used as an antiseptic and insecticide.
2005-01-21 GO:0018984 naphthalenesulfonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving naphthalenesulfonate, sulfonated derivatives of naphthalene.
2005-01-21 GO:0001779 natural killer cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a natural killer cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0045763 negative regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving amino acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0045912 negative regulation of carbohydrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving carbohydrate.
2005-01-21 GO:0045914 negative regulation of catecholamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving catecholamine.
2005-01-21 GO:0051198 negative regulation of coenzyme metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions of a coenzyme.
2005-01-21 GO:0051195 negative regulation of cofactor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions of a cofactor.
2005-01-21 GO:0051053 negative regulation of DNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0045963 negative regulation of dopamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving dopamine.
2005-01-21 GO:0045965 negative regulation of ecdysteroid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving ecdysteroids.
2005-01-21 GO:0045922 negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving fatty acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0050669 negative regulation of homocysteine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving homocysteine.
2005-01-21 GO:0045827 negative regulation of isoprenoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving isoprenoid.
2005-01-21 GO:0045928 negative regulation of juvenile hormone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving juvenile hormone.
2005-01-21 GO:0045833 negative regulation of lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving lipids.
2005-01-21 GO:0050748 negative regulation of lipoprotein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving lipoproteins, any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2005-01-21 GO:0009892 negative regulation of metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of chemical reactions involving a substance.
2005-01-21 GO:0051172 negative regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving nitrogen or nitrogenous compounds.
2005-01-21 GO:0016131 brassinosteroid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving brassinosteroids, any of a group of steroid derivatives that occur at very low concentrations in plant tissues and may have hormone-like effects.
2005-01-21 GO:0018881 bromoxynil metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving bromoxynil, C7H3Br2NO, a dibrominated phenol derivative with a cyano (-CN) group attached. Bromoxynil is used as a herbicide for post-emergent control of annual broadleaf weeds and works by inhibiting photosynthesis in the target plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0050873 brown fat cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a brown adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell involved in adaptive thermogenesis. Brown adipocytes contain multiple small droplets of triglycerides and a high number of mitochondria.
2005-01-21 GO:0019605 butyrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any butyrate, the anions of butyric acid (butanoic acid), a saturated, unbranched aliphatic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0008207 C21-steroid hormone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving C21-steroid hormones, steroid compounds containing 21 carbons which function as hormones.
2005-01-21 GO:0046058 cAMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyclic AMP, adenosine 3',5'-phosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0018883 caprolactam metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving caprolactam, hexahydro-2h-azepin-2-one, a cyclic amide of caproic acid used in manufacture of synthetic fibers of the polyamide type. It can cause local irritation.
2005-01-21 GO:0018884 carbazole metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carbazole, a heterocyclic aromatic compound containing a dibenzopyrrole system that is produced during coal gasification and is present in cigarette smoke. Coal tar produced at high temperature contains an average of 1.5% carbazole. It is used widely in synthesis of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and plastics and is a suspected carcinogen.
2005-01-21 GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.
2005-01-21 GO:0018885 carbon tetrachloride metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carbon tetrachloride, a toxic, carcinogenic compound which is used as a general solvent in industrial degreasing operations. It is also used as grain fumigant and a chemical intermediate in the production of refrigerants.
2005-01-21 GO:0019752 carboxylic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).
2005-01-21 GO:0010002 cardioblast differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized mesodermal cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardioblast.
2005-01-21 GO:0009437 carnitine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carnitine (hydroxy-trimethyl aminobutyric acid), a compound that participates in the transfer of acyl groups across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
2005-01-21 GO:0019254 carnitine metabolic process, CoA-linked Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carnitine, where metabolism is linked to CoA.
2005-01-21 GO:0016119 carotene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carotenes, hydrocarbon carotenoids.
2005-01-21 GO:0016116 carotenoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carotenoids, tetraterpenoid compounds in which two units of 4 isoprenoid residues joined head-to-tail are themselves joined tail-to-tail.
2005-01-21 GO:0009712 catechol-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a compound containing a pyrocatechol (1,2-benzenediol) nucleus or substituent.
2005-01-21 GO:0006584 catecholamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
2005-01-21 GO:0046704 CDP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving CDP, cytidine (5'-)diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046341 CDP-diacylglycerol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving CDP-diacylglycerol, CDP-1,2-diacylglycerol, a substance composed of diacylglycerol in glycosidic linkage with cytidine diphosphate. It is a common intermediate in phospholipid biosynthesis.
2005-01-21 GO:0006037 cell wall chitin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cell wall chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in the walls of cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0019525 keto-D-gluconate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-dehydro-D-gluconate, the anion of D-dehydro-D-gluconic acid, an aldonic acid derived from glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046393 D-galactarate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-galactarate, the dextrorotatory isomer of galactarate, the anion of galactaric acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046396 D-galacturonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-galacturonate, the dextrorotatory isomer of galacturonate, the anion of galacturonic acid. D-galacturonic acid is a component of plant gums and bacterial cell walls.
2005-01-21 GO:0042836 D-glucarate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-glucarate, the dextrorotatory isomer of glucarate. D-glucarate is derived from either D-glucose or L-gulose.
2005-01-21 GO:0019521 D-gluconate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-gluconate, the anion of D-gluconic acid, the aldonic acid derived from glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0050935 iridophore differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an iridophore. Iridophores are iridescent or reflective pigment cells derived from the neural crest containing guanidine-based reflective platelets responsible for their silver or gold appearance.
2005-01-21 GO:0006102 isocitrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isocitrate, the anion of isocitric acid, 1-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid. Isocitrate is an important intermediate in the TCA cycle and the glycoxylate cycle.
2005-01-21 GO:0046287 isoflavonoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isoflavonoids, a group of water-soluble phenolic derivatives, isomeric with flavonoids, containing a flavan skeleton. They are differentiated from flavonoids by the point of attachment of the aromatic ring moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0046289 isoflavonoid phytoalexin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isoflavonoid phytoalexins, a group of water-soluble phenolic derivatives isomeric with flavonoids, which possess antibiotic activity and are produced by plant tissues in response to infection.
2005-01-21 GO:0006549 isoleucine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isoleucine, (2R*,3R*)-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046490 isopentenyl diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isopentenyl diphosphate, an isomer of dimethylallyl diphosphate and the key precursor of all isoprenoids.
2005-01-21 GO:0006720 isoprenoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving isoprenoid compounds, isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) or compounds containing or derived from linked isoprene (3-methyl-2-butenylene) residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0046041 ITP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ITP, inosine triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0009694 jasmonic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving jasmonic acid, a fatty acid derivative with the formula (1R-(1 alpha, 2 beta(Z)))-3-oxo-2-(2-pentenyl)cyclopentaneacetic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006716 juvenile hormone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2005-01-21 GO:0046375 K antigen metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving K antigen, a capsular polysaccharide antigen carried on the surface of bacterial capsules that masks somatic (O) antigens.
2005-01-21 GO:0035321 maintenance of imaginal disc-derived wing hair orientation Added DEFINITION Ensuring that hairs in the wing continue to point distally during development, following the initial establishment of wing hair polarity.
2005-01-21 GO:0042339 keratan sulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving keratan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan with repeat units consisting of beta-1,4-linked D-galactopyranosyl-beta-(1,4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-sulfate and with variable amounts of fucose, sialic acid and mannose units; keratan sulfate chains are covalently linked by a glycosidic attachment through the trisaccharide galactosyl-galactosyl-xylose to peptidyl-threonine or serine residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0030216 keratinocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a keratinocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0046400 keto-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ketodeoxyoctanoate, 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-octaonate, an acid present in lipopolysaccharides of the outer membranes of some Gram-negative bacteria.
2005-01-21 GO:0019522 ketogluconate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ketogluconate, the anion of ketogluconic acid, an aldonic acid derived from glucose containing a ketonic carbonyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0046950 cellular ketone body metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ketone bodies, any one of the three substances: acetoacetate, D-3-hydroxybutyrate (beta-hydroxybutyrate) or acetone. Although 3-hydroxybutyrate is not a ketone, it is classed as a ketone body because it exists in an equilibrium with acetoacetate. Ketone bodies may accumulate in excessive amounts in the body in starvation, diabetes mellitus or in other defects of carbohydrate metabolism.
2005-01-21 GO:0042180 cellular ketone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, CO, and in which the carbonyl group is bonded only to carbon atoms. The general formula for a ketone is RCOR, where R and R are alkyl or aryl groups.
2005-01-21 GO:0042851 L-alanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-alanine, the levorotatory isomer of 2-aminopropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046373 L-arabinose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-arabinose, the levorotatory isomer of arabino-pentose. L-arabinose occurs free, e.g. in the heartwood of many conifers, and in the combined state, in both furanose and pyranose forms, as a constituent of various plant hemicelluloses, bacterial polysaccharides etc.
2005-01-21 GO:0051162 L-arabitol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-arabitol, the pentitol derived from arabinose or lyxose by reduction of the aldehyde group.
2005-01-21 GO:0019852 L-ascorbic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-ascorbic acid, a carbohydrate-like vitamin containing six carbon atoms per molecule. Widely distributed in fruit and vegetables.
2005-01-21 GO:0046439 L-cysteine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-cysteine, the levorotatory isomer of 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0042354 L-fucose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-fucose, 6-deoxy-L-galactose, a sugar that occurs in fucans, a class of polysaccharides in seaweeds, especially Fucus species, and in the cell wall matrix of higher plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0019523 L-idonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-idonate, the anion of idonic acid, an aldonic acid derived from L-idose, an aldohexose which is epimeric with D-glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046440 L-lysine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-lysine, the levorotatory isomer of (S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0042674 cone cell differentiation (sensu Endopterygota) Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a cone cell. As in, but not restricted to, the Holometabola (Endopterygota, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33392).
2005-01-21 GO:0015009 corrin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving corrin, C19H22N4, the fundamental heterocyclic skeleton of the corrinoids. It consists of four reduced pyrrole rings joined into a macrocyclic ring. Corrin is the core of the vitamin B12 molecule.
2005-01-21 GO:0009804 coumarin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving coumarins, compounds derived from the phenylacrylic skeleton of cinnamic acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0006600 creatine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving creatine (N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N-methylglycine), a compound synthesized from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine that occurs in muscle.
2005-01-21 GO:0046449 creatinine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving creatinine, 2-amino-1,5-dihydro-1-methyl-4H-imidazol-4-one, an end product of creatine metabolism and a normal constituent of urine.
2005-01-21 GO:0042453 deoxyguanosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyguanosine, a nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046094 deoxyinosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyinosine, hypoxanthine deoxyriboside.
2005-01-21 GO:0009186 deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate, a glycosamine consisting of a base linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with diphosphate on its glycose moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0009120 deoxyribonucleoside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any one of a family of organic molecules consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base covalently bonded to a sugar deoxyribose (a deoxyribonucleoside).
2005-01-21 GO:0009162 deoxyribonucleoside monophosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a deoxyribonucleoside monophosphate, a glycosamine consisting of a base linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with phosphate on its glycose moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0009200 deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, a glycosamine consisting of a base linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with triphosphate on its glycose moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0009262 deoxyribonucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a deoxyribonucleotide, a compound consisting of deoxyribonucleoside (a base linked to a deoxyribose sugar) esterified with a phosphate moiety at either the 3' or 5'-hydroxyl group of its glycose moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0046387 deoxyribose 1,5-bisphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyribose 1,5-bisphosphate, the diphosphorylated sugar 1,5-diphospho-2-deoxyribose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046388 deoxyribose 1-phosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyribose 1-phosphate, the phosphorylated sugar 1-phospho-2-deoxyribose.
2005-01-21 GO:0019324 L-lyxose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-lyxose, the levorotatory isomer of aldopentose lyxo-pentose, the C-2 epimer of xylose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046491 L-methylmalonyl-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-methylmalonyl-CoA, the levorotatory isomer of 2-carboxypropanoyl-CoA. S-methylmalonyl-CoA is an intermediate in the beta oxidation of odd-numbered fatty acids in animals.
2005-01-21 GO:0006558 L-phenylalanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-phenylalanine, the levorotatory isomer of 2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006563 L-serine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-serine, the levorotatory isomer of 2-amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0019312 L-sorbose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving sorbose, the levorotatory isomer of the ketohexose xylo-2-hexulose. L-sorbose is formed by bacterial oxidation of sorbitol.
2005-01-21 GO:0051164 L-xylitol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving L-xylitol, a five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from xylose by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and is used as a noncariogenic sweetner and as a sugar substitute in diabetic diets.
2005-01-21 GO:0006089 lactate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lactate, the anion of lactic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0005988 lactose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lactose, the disaccharide galactopyranosyl-glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0031130 creation of an inductive signal Added DEFINITION The process by which one cell or group of cells sends a signal over a short range to another cell or group of cells of different ancestry and developmental potential, thereby effecting a developmental change in the latter.
2005-01-21 GO:0042212 cresol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cresol, a mixture of the aromatic alcohol isoforms o-, p-, and m-cresol, which is obtained from coal tar or petroleum. The isomers are used as disinfectants, textile scouring agents, surfactants and as intermediates in the manufacture of salicylaldehyde, coumarin, and herbicides as well as being a major component of creosote.
2005-01-21 GO:0046036 CTP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving CTP, cytidine triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0006034 cuticle chitin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cuticle chitin, a linear polysaccharide consisting of P-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, found in cuticles.
2005-01-21 GO:0018890 cyanamide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanamide, NCNH2, a cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
2005-01-21 GO:0009439 cyanate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanate, NCO-, the anion of cyanic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0019499 cyanide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanide, NC-, the anion of hydrocyanic acid. Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of respiration, reacting with the ferric form of cytochrome aa3 and thus blocking the electron transport chain.
2005-01-21 GO:0042341 cyanogenic glycoside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanogenic glycosides, any glycoside containing a cyano group that is released as hydrocyanic acid on acid hydrolysis; such compounds occur in the kernels of various fruits.
2005-01-21 GO:0042199 cyanuric acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyanuric acid, a suspected gastrointestinal or liver toxicant, and a potential degradation product of triazine herbicides, such as atrazine and simazine. It is widely used for the stabilization of available chlorine in swimming pool water and is also the starting compound for the synthesis of many organic derivatives.
2005-01-21 GO:0009187 cyclic nucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a cyclic nucleotide, a nucleotide in which the phosphate group is in diester linkage to two positions on the sugar residue.
2005-01-21 GO:0008054 cyclin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of cyclins, proteins whose levels in a cell varies markedly during the cell cycle, and which play key roles in regulating cell cycle phase transitions.
2005-01-21 GO:0018891 cyclohexanol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyclohexanol, the monohydroxy derivative of cyclohexane. It is used as a solvent and blending agent.
2005-01-21 GO:0018892 cyclohexylsulfamate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cyclohexylsulfamate, also known as cyclamic acid. Sodium cyclohexylsulfamate (CHS-Na) was a widely used sweetening agent but was banned because of the suspicion of carcinogenicity and metabolic conversion to cyclohexylamine (CHA), a toxic substance. It is now used as a fungicide.
2005-01-21 GO:0006534 cysteine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cysteine, 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046087 cytidine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cytidine, cytosine riboside, a widely distributed nucleoside.
2005-01-21 GO:0042107 cytokine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cytokines, any of a group of proteins that function to control the survival, growth and differentiation of tissues and cells, and which have autocrine and paracrine activity.
2005-01-21 GO:0009690 cytokinin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cytokinins, a class of adenine-derived compounds that can function in plants as growth regulators.
2005-01-21 GO:0019858 cytosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving cytosine, 4-amino-2-hydroxypyrimidine, a pyrimidine derivative that is one of the five main bases found in nucleic acids; it occurs widely in cytidine derivatives.
2005-01-21 GO:0046144 D-alanine family amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-alanine and related amino acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0046436 D-alanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-alanine, the dextrorotatory isomer of the amino acid alanine.
2005-01-21 GO:0019314 D-allose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-allose, the dextrorotatory isomer of D-allo-hexose, an aldohexose similar to glucose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046416 D-amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-amino acids, the dextrorotatory isomers of amino acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0046372 D-arabinose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-arabinose, the dextrorotatory isomer of arabino-pentose. D-arabinose occurs in plant glycosides and is a constituent of arabinonucleosides.
2005-01-21 GO:0051163 D-arabitol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-arabitol, the pentitol derived from arabinose or lyxose by reduction of the aldehyde group. The D enantiomer is present in lichens and mushrooms.
2005-01-21 GO:0046438 D-cysteine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-cysteine, (S)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid, which occurs naturally in firefly luciferin.
2005-01-21 GO:0009806 lignan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lignans, any member of a class of plant metabolites related to lignins. Lignans are usually found as phenylpropanoid dimers in which the phenylpropanoid units are linked tail to tail and thus having a 2,3 dibenzylbutane skeleton, but higher oligomers can also exist.
2005-01-21 GO:0009808 lignin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lignins, a class of polymers of phenylpropanoid units.
2005-01-21 GO:0018923 limonene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving limonene (4-isopropenyl-1-methyl-cyclohexene), a monocyclic monoterpene. It is the most widespread terpene in the world and is synthesized by more than 300 plants. (+)-(4R)-limonene is its most widespread form.
2005-01-21 GO:0046493 lipid A metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipid A, the glycolipid moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, consisting of six fatty acyl chains linked to two glucosamine residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent. Includes fatty acids; neutral fats, other fatty-acid esters, and soaps; long-chain (fatty) alcohols and waxes; sphingoids and other long-chain bases; glycolipids, phospholipids and sphingolipids; and carotenes, polyprenols, sterols, terpenes and other isoprenoids.
2005-01-21 GO:0006748 lipoamide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipoamide, the functional form of lipoic acid in which the carboxyl group is attached to protein by an amide linkage to a lysine amino group.
2005-01-21 GO:0009106 lipoate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipoate, 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoate, the anion derived from lipoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0000273 lipoic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipoic acid, 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid, a coenzyme involved in oxidative decarboxylation of keto acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0008653 lipopolysaccharide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lipopolysaccharides, any of a group of related, structurally complex components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharides consist three covalently linked regions, lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and an O side chain. Lipid A is responsible for the toxicity of the lipopolysaccharide.
2005-01-21 GO:0042157 lipoprotein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2005-01-21 GO:0001676 long-chain fatty acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving long-chain fatty acids, aliphatic compounds having a terminal carboxyl group and with a chain length of C12-18.
2005-01-21 GO:0035170 lymph gland crystal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized larval lymph gland-derived hemocyte precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a crystal cell. Crystal cells are a class of cells that contain crystalline inclusions and are involved in the melanization of pathogenic material in the hemolymph.
2005-01-21 GO:0035168 larval lymph gland hemocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell derived from the larval lymph gland acquires the specialized features of a mature hemocyte cell. As in, but not restricted to, arthropods (Arthropoda, ncbi_taxonomy_id:6656).
2005-01-21 GO:0035169 lymph gland plasmatocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized larval lymph gland-derived hemocyte precursor cell acquires the specialized features of the phagocytic blood-cell type, the plasmatocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0006553 lysine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0018925 m-cresol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving m-cresol (3-hydroxytoluene), the meta-isoform of cresol. Used to produce agricultural chemicals, and in specialty resins, pharmaceuticals and pressure-sensitive dyes.
2005-01-21 GO:0018949 m-xylene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving m-xylene, (1,3-dimethylbenzene) a colorless, liquid aromatic hydrocarbon.
2005-01-21 GO:0043170 macromolecule metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving macromolecules, large molecules including proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates.
2005-01-21 GO:0030225 macrophage differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized monocyte cell acquires the specialized features of a macrophage cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0006108 malate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving malate, the anion of hydroxybutanedioic acid, a chiral hydroxydicarboxylic acid. The (+) enantiomer is an important intermediate in metabolism as a component of both the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate cycle.
2005-01-21 GO:0048235 pollen sperm cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a haploid sperm cell within the plant gametophyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0000023 maltose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving the disaccharide maltose (4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose), an intermediate in the catabolism of glycogen and starch.
2005-01-21 GO:0018924 mandelate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving mandelate, the anion of mandelic acid. Mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid) is an 8-carbon alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) that is used in organic chemistry and as a urinary antiseptic.
2005-01-21 GO:0018882 (+)-camphor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving (+)-camphor, a bicyclic monoterpene ketone which is one of the major components in the leaves of common sage. Camphor exists in two enantiomers, but the (+)-isomer is more widely distributed.
2005-01-21 GO:0046431 (R)-4-hydroxymandelate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving (R)-4-hydroxymandelate, the anion of a hydroxylated derivative of mandelate (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetate).
2005-01-21 GO:0018977 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), a chlorinated broad spectrum contact insecticide.
2005-01-21 GO:0018976 1,2,3-tribromopropane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,2,3-tribromopropane, a toxic and volatile organic compound commonly used as a nematocide in agriculture.
2005-01-21 GO:0018911 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, a derivative of benzene with chlorine atoms attached to positions 1, 2 and 4 of the ring. It is a colorless liquid used as a solvent in chemical manufacturing, in dyes and intermediates, dielectric fluid, synthetic transformer oils, lubricants, heat-transfer medium and insecticides.
2005-01-21 GO:0018899 1,2-dichloroethane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,2-dichloroethane, a major commodity chemical used, for example, in the manufacture of vinyl chloride.
2005-01-21 GO:0042839 D-glucuronate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-glucuronate, the dextrorotatory isomer of glucuronate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046441 D-lysine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-lysine, the dextrorotatory isomer of (S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006014 D-ribose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-ribose (ribo-pentose). As beta-D-ribofuranose, D-ribose forms the glycose moiety of all ribonucleosides, ribonucleotides and ribonucleic acids, and also of ribose phosphates, various glycosides, some coenzymes and some forms of vitamin B12.
2005-01-21 GO:0042732 D-xylose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving D-xylose, a naturally occurring plant polysaccharide.
2005-01-21 GO:0046056 dADP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dADP, deoxyadenosine diphosphate (2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-diphosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046053 dAMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dAMP, deoxyadenosine monophosphate (2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-phosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046060 dATP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dATP, deoxyadenosine triphosphate (2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046062 dCDP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dCDP, deoxycytidine 5'-diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046063 dCMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dCMP, deoxycytidine monophosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046065 dCTP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dCTP, deoxycytidine triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046090 deoxyadenosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyadenosine, 2-deoxyribosyladenine, one of the four major nucleosides of DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0046092 deoxycytidine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxycytidine, 2-deoxyribosylcytosine, one of the four major nucleosides of DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0018921 3-hydroxybenzyl alcohol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, an aromatic compound which is an intermediate in several metabolic pathways, including the biosynthesis of patulin, a toxin and antiviral agent produced by some moulds such as Penicillium patulinum.
2005-01-21 GO:0019609 3-hydroxyphenylacetate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-hydroxyphenylacetate, 1,3-benzenediol monoacetate, also known as resorcinol monoacetate.
2005-01-21 GO:0006666 3-keto-sphinganine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-keto-sphinganine, a derivative of sphinganine with a ketone group at C3. It is an intermediate in the synthesis of sphingosine.
2005-01-21 GO:0018930 3-methylquinoline metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-methylquinoline, C10H9N, an aromatic compound composed of a benzene ring and a heterocyclic N-containing ring.
2005-01-21 GO:0018962 3-phenylpropionate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-phenylpropionate, the anion of phenylpropanoic acid. It is produced from putrefaction of proteins in soil or breakdown of several constituents of plants, such as lignin, various oils and resins.
2005-01-21 GO:0018902 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (DCP), a halohydrin suspected of being carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic. DCP is used as a general solvent, as an intermediate in organic synthesis and in paints, varnishes, lacquers, water colors, binders and photographic lacquers.
2005-01-21 GO:0018903 1,3-dichloropropene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving members of the 1,3-dichloropropene family, which includes cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene. The 1,3-dichloropropenes are chlorinated hydrocarbons and the major active ingredients of commercial products for control of plant-parasitic nematodes.
2005-01-21 GO:0018912 1,4-dichlorobenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-dichlorobenzene or paramoth), a derivative of benzene with two chlorine atoms attached at opposite positions on the ring. It forms white crystals at room temperature and is used as an insecticidal fumigant, particularly in mothballs.
2005-01-21 GO:0018871 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate, the anion of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, a natural product found in plant tissues. It is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of ethylene (ethene), a fruit-ripening hormone in plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0009256 10-formyltetrahydrofolate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, the formylated derivative of tetrahydrofolate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046432 2'-(5''-triphosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2'-(5''-triphosphoribosyl)-3'-dephospho-CoA, a derivative of coenzyme A.
2005-01-21 GO:0046389 deoxyribose 5-phosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyribose 5-phosphate, the phosphorylated sugar 5-phospho-2-deoxyribose.
2005-01-21 GO:0019692 deoxyribose phosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyribose phosphate, the phosphorylated sugar 2-deoxy-erythro-pentose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046096 deoxyuridine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving deoxyuridine, 2-deoxyribosyluracil, one of the four major nucleosides of DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0050761 depsipeptide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving depsipeptides, a linear or cyclic compound composed of both amino acids and hydroxy acids in peptide and ester bonds respectively.
2005-01-21 GO:0030205 dermatan sulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dermatan sulfate, any of a group of glycosaminoglycans with repeats consisting of beta-(1,4)-linked L-iduronyl-beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units. They are important components of ground substance or intercellular cement of skin and some connective tissues.
2005-01-21 GO:0050655 dermatan sulfate proteoglycan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dermatan sulfate proteoglycan, any glycoprotein whose glycosaminoglycan units are dermatan sulfate (chondroitin sulfate B). Dermatan sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan with repeats consisting of beta-(1,4)-linked L-iduronyl-beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units.
2005-01-21 GO:0046450 dethiobiotin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dethiobiotin, a derivative of biotin formed by replacing the sulfur atom by two hydrogen atoms.
2005-01-21 GO:0046066 dGDP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dGDP, deoxyguanosine diphosphate, (2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-diphosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046054 dGMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dGMP, deoxyguanosine monophosphate (2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-phosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046070 dGTP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dGTP, guanosine triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046339 diacylglycerol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diacylglycerol, a glycerol molecule substituted on the 1 and 2 hydroxyl groups with long chain fatty acyl residues. DAG is a normal intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidyl phospholipids and is released from them by phospholipase C activity. DAG from phosphatidyl inositol polyphosphates is important in signal transduction.
2005-01-21 GO:0015959 diadenosine polyphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diadenosine polyphosphate, a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine with phosphate groups attached.
2005-01-21 GO:0015965 diadenosine tetraphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diadenosine tetraphosphate, a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine with four phosphate groups attached.
2005-01-21 GO:0015962 diadenosine triphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diadenosine triphosphate, a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine with three phosphate groups attached.
2005-01-21 GO:0046451 diaminopimelate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diaminopimelate, the anion of the dicarboxylic acid 2,6-diaminoheptanedioic acid. It is an intermediate in lysine biosynthesis and as a component (as meso-diaminopimelate) of the peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls.
2005-01-21 GO:0018894 dibenzo-p-dioxin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dibenzo-p-dioxin, a substance composed of two benzene rings linked by two ether bonds. Dibenzo-p-dioxins are generated as by-products in the manufacturing of herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, paper pulp bleaching, and in incineration, and can accumulate in milk and throughout the food chain, creating significant health concern.
2005-01-21 GO:0046478 lactosylceramide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lactosylceramides, Gal beta(1,4)Glc beta(1,1') ceramides, any compound formed by the replacement of the glycosidic C1 hydroxyl group of lactose by a ceramide group. They are the precursors of both gangliosides and globosides.
2005-01-21 GO:0035171 lamellocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which a a relatively unspecialized hemocyte precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a lamellocyte. Lamellocytes are a hemocyte lineage that exists only in larvae, but are seldom observed in healthy animals. Lamellocytes differentiate massively in the lymph glands after parasitization and are large flat cells devoted to encapsulation of invaders too large to be phagocytosed by plasmatocytes.
2005-01-21 GO:0050934 late stripe melanocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a late stripe melanocyte (LSM). In zebrafish, LSMs develop during the second phase (3-4 weeks of development) of the larva-to-adult transition (2-4 weeks of development).
2005-01-21 GO:0046331 lateral inhibition Updated DEFINITION Signaling between cells of equivalent developmental potential that results in these cells adopting different developmental fates. An example is the suppression by cells with a particular fate of the adoption of the same fate by surrounding cells.
2005-01-21 GO:0048371 lateral mesodermal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a lateral mesoderm cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0048252 lauric acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lauric acid, a fatty acid with the formula CH3(CH2)10COOH. Derived from vegetable sources.
2005-01-21 GO:0006653 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving lecithin, any 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine.
2005-01-21 GO:0006551 leucine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving leucine, 2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006691 leukotriene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving leukotriene, a pharmacologically active substance derived from a polyunsaturated fatty acid, such as arachidonic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0046391 5-phosphoribose 1-diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 5-phosphoribose 1-diphosphate, also known as 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0019638 6-hydroxycineole metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 6-hydroxycineole (6-hydroxy-1,8-epoxy-p-menthane), a hydrocarbon with the formula C10H18O2.
2005-01-21 GO:0008618 7-methylguanosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 7-methylguanosine, a modified nucleoside that forms a cap at the 5'-terminus of eukaryotic mRNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0042905 9-cis-retinoic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 9-cis-retinoic acid, a metabolically active vitamin A derivative.
2005-01-21 GO:0009687 abscisic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving abscisic acid, 5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6,trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-y1)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006117 acetaldehyde metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetaldehyde, a colorless, flammable liquid intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol.
2005-01-21 GO:0030635 acetate derivative metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving derivatives of acetic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0051071 4,6-pyruvylated galactose residue metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving the pyruvylated galactose residue 4-6-O-[(R)(1-carboxyethylidine)]-Gal-beta-1,3-. The galactose residue is part of a larger polysaccharide chain.
2005-01-21 GO:0018887 4-carboxy-4'-sulfoazobenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-carboxy-4'-sulfoazobenzene, a sulfonated azo compound synthesized by nitro-amine condensation from sulfanilic acid and 4-nitrobenzoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0018893 dibenzofuran metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dibenzofuran, a substance composed of two benzene rings linked by one ether bond and one carbon-carbon bond. Dibenzofuran is a white crystalline solid created from the production of coal tar and used as an insecticide and an intermediate in the production of other chemicals.
2005-01-21 GO:0018895 dibenzothiophene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dibenzothiophene, a substance composed of two benzene rings linked by one sulfide bond and one carbon-carbon bond. Dibenzothiophene derivatives can be detected in diesel oil following hydrodesulfurization treatment to remove sulfur compounds that would otherwise generate sulfur oxides during combustion.
2005-01-21 GO:0018900 dichloromethane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dichloromethane, a dichlorinated derivative of methane. It is a colorless organic liquid with a sweet, chloroform-like odor, often used as a paint remover.
2005-01-21 GO:0051066 dihydrobiopterin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dihydrobiopterin, a reduced pteridine derivative related to folic acid; it acts as an electron carrier in tyrosine biosynthesis and its quinoid form is produced by oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin in several biological hydroxylation reactions.
2005-01-21 GO:0046452 dihydrofolate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dihydrofolate, the dihydroxylated derivative of folate.
2005-01-21 GO:0051068 dihydrolipoamide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dihydrolipoamide, the reduced form of lipoamide, produced as an intermediate in the reactions in which lipoamide acts as a cofactor.
2005-01-21 GO:0009352 dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Complex that possesses dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity.
2005-01-21 GO:0051067 dihydropteridine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dihydropteridine, a bicyclic compound with the formula C6H6N4.
2005-01-21 GO:0018905 dimethyl ether metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dimethyl ether, CH3-O-CH3, the simplest ether. Dimethyl ether, also known wood ether and methyl ether, is a colorless gas that has been used in refrigeration applications.
2005-01-21 GO:0018907 dimethyl sulfoxide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO (C2H6OS), an alkyl sulfoxide that is practically odorless in its purified form. As a highly polar organic liquid, it is a powerful solvent. Its biological activities include the ability to penetrate plant and animal tissues and to preserve living cells during freezing.
2005-01-21 GO:0050993 dimethylallyl diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dimethylallyl diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046454 dimethylsilanediol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dimethylsilanediol, the smallest member of the dialkylsilanediols. Dimethylsilanediol is the monomer of polydimethylsiloxane, a compound which can be found in a wide range of industrial and consumer products.
2005-01-21 GO:0046453 dipyrrin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dipyrrins (pyrromethanes), compounds containing two pyrrole rings linked through a methine, -CH=, group.
2005-01-21 GO:0005984 disaccharide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any disaccharide, sugars composed of two monosaccharide units.
2005-01-21 GO:0016101 diterpenoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving diterpenoid compounds, terpenoids with 20 isoprenoid units.
2005-01-21 GO:0006259 DNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, one of the two main types of nucleic acid, consisting of a long, unbranched macromolecule formed from one, or more commonly, two, strands of linked deoxyribonucleotides.
2005-01-21 GO:0018909 dodecyl sulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dodecyl sulfate, commonly found as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), a component of a variety of synthetic surfactants.
2005-01-21 GO:0019348 dolichol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dolichols, any 2,3-dihydropolyprenol derived from four or more linked isoprene units.
2005-01-21 GO:0046465 dolichyl diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dolichyl diphosphate, a diphosphorylated dolichol derivative. In eukaryotes, these function as carriers of mono- and oligosaccharide residues in the glycosylation of lipids and proteins within intracellular membranes.
2005-01-21 GO:0042417 dopamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dopamine, a catecholamine neurotransmitter and a metabolic precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline.
2005-01-21 GO:0046663 dorsal closure, leading edge cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a leading edge cell, the dorsal-most cells of the epidermis that migrates during dorsal closure.
2005-01-21 GO:0017144 drug metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a drug, a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease; as used here antibiotic substances (see antibiotic metabolism) are considered to be drugs, even if not used in medical or veterinary practice.
2005-01-21 GO:0046072 dTDP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dTDP, deoxyribosylthymine diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046371 dTDP-mannose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dTDP-mannose, a substance composed of mannose in glycosidic linkage with deoxyribosylthymine diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046383 dTDP-rhamnose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dTDP-rhamnose, a substance composed of rhamnose in glycosidic linkage with deoxyribosylthymine diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046073 dTMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dTMP, deoxyribosylthymine monophosphate (2'-deoxyribosylthymine 5'-phosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046075 dTTP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dTTP, deoxyribosylthymine triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046077 dUDP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dUDP, deoxyuridine (5'-)diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046078 dUMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dUMP, deoxyuridine (5'-)monophosphate (2'-deoxyuridine 5'-phosphate).
2005-01-21 GO:0046080 dUTP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving dUTP, deoxyuridine (5'-)triphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0050933 early stripe melanocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an early stripe melanocyte (ESM). In zebrafish, ESMs develop during the first phase (2-3 weeks of development) of the larva to adult transition (2-4 weeks of development).
2005-01-21 GO:0008205 ecdysone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ecdysone, (22R)-2-beta,3-beta,14,22,25-pentahydroxycholest-7-en-6-one, an ecdysteroid found in insects. It is the inactive prohormone of the moulting hormone ecdysterone and may have intrinsic hormonal activity at other stages of insect development.
2005-01-21 GO:0045455 ecdysteroid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ecdysteroids, a group of polyhydroxylated ketosteroids ubiquitous in insects and other arthropods, in which they initiate post-embryonic development, including the metamorphosis of immature forms and the development of the reproductive system and the maturation of oocytes in adult females.
2005-01-21 GO:0042399 ectoine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid), a tetrahydropyrimidine commonly synthesized by halophilic bacteria.
2005-01-21 GO:0009394 2'-deoxyribonucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving a 2'-deoxyribonucleotide, a compound consisting of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside (a base linked to a 2'-deoxyribose sugar) esterified with a phosphate moiety at either the 3' or 5'-hydroxyl group of its glycose moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0018980 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a chlorinated aromatic compound which is widely used as a herbicide, often as a weed killer for home lawns.
2005-01-21 GO:0018974 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 1-methyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, a highly explosive pale yellow crystalline solid. It is prepared from toluene treated with concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids and is used in shells, bombs, and blasting explosives.
2005-01-21 GO:0018898 2,4-dichlorobenzoate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,4-dichlorobenzoate, a chlorinated aromatic compound which is a key intermediate in the aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
2005-01-21 GO:0018901 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a chlorinated phenoxy compound which functions as a systemic herbicide and is used to control many types of broadleaf weeds.
2005-01-21 GO:0051166 2,5-dihydroxypyridine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,5-dihydroxypyridine.
2005-01-21 GO:0051165 2,5-dihydroxypyridine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,5-dihydroxypyridine.
2005-01-21 GO:0018868 2-aminobenzenesulfonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-aminobenzenesulfonate, aniline-o-sulfonic acid, an aromatic sulfonate used in organic synthesis and in the manufacture of various dyes and medicines.
2005-01-21 GO:0018869 2-aminobenzoate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-aminobenzoate, a derivative of benzoic acid with an NH2 group attached to C2.
2005-01-21 GO:0046433 2-aminoethylphosphonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-aminoethylphosphonate, most abundant and ubiquitous of naturally occurring phosphonates. It is typically found as a conjugate of glycans, lipids, and proteins, which in turn perform essential biochemical functions in specialized lower organisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0018889 2-chloro-N-isopropylacetanilide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-chloro-N-isopropylacetanilide, an acylanide herbicide widely used to protect corn, onion, cabbage, rose bushes, and ornamental plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0046384 2-deoxyribose 1-phosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-deoxyribose 1-phosphate, the phosphorylated sugar 1-phospho-2-deoxyribose.
2005-01-21 GO:0018938 2-nitropropane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-nitropropane, a clear, colorless liquid with a mild, fruity odor. 2-nitropropane is used principally as a solvent and chemical intermediate. As a solvent, it is used in inks, paints, adhesives, varnishes, polymers, and synthetic materials. It is a feedstock for the manufacture of 2-nitro-2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol.
2005-01-21 GO:0046361 2-oxobutyrate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2-oxobutyrate, the anion of the organic acid 2-oxobutyric acid, which contains a ketone group on carbon 2.
2005-01-21 GO:0006103 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving oxoglutarate, the dianion of 2-oxoglutaric acid. It is a key constituent of the TCA cycle and a key intermediate in amino-acid metabolism.
2005-01-21 GO:0050427 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), a naturally occurring mixed anhydride. It is an intermediate in the formation of a variety of sulfo compounds in biological systems.
2005-01-21 GO:0046435 3-(3-hydroxy)phenylpropionate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-(3-hydroxy)phenylpropionate, a hydroxylated derivative of phenylpropionate.
2005-01-21 GO:0018888 3-chloroacrylic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 3-chloroacrylic acid, ClHC=CHCOOH, a chlorinated derivative of acrylic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0018864 acetylene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetylene, a colorless, volatile, explosive gas; it is the simplest of a class of unsaturated (triple-bonded) hydrocarbons, the alkynes.
2005-01-21 GO:0042860 achromobactin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving achromobactin, a citrate siderophore.
2005-01-21 GO:0018865 acrylonitrile metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acrylonitrile, a colorless, volatile liquid with a pungent odor. Acrylonitrile is used in the production of acrylic fibers, plastics, and synthetic rubbers.
2005-01-21 GO:0048181 activin A complex Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A homodimer of inhibin beta-A is termed 'activin A complex'. This protein complex is secreted.
2005-01-21 GO:0048182 activin B complex Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A homodimer of inhibin beta-B is termed 'activin B complex'. This protein complex is secreted.
2005-01-21 GO:0006637 acyl-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acyl-CoA, any derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is in thioester linkage with a fatty-acyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0006639 acylglycerol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acylglycerol, any mono-, di- or triester of glycerol with (one or more) fatty acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0018866 adamantanone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving adamantanone, tricyclo(3.3.1.13,7)decanone, a white crystalline solid used as an intermediate for microelectronics in the production of photoresists.
2005-01-21 GO:0046083 adenine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving adenine, 6-aminopurine, one of the five main bases found in nucleic acids and a component of numerous important derivatives of its corresponding ribonucleoside, adenosine.
2005-01-21 GO:0046085 adenosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving adenosine, adenine riboside, a ribonucleoside found widely distributed in cells of every type as the free nucleoside and in combination in nucleic acids and various nucleoside coenzymes.
2005-01-21 GO:0045444 fat cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat.
2005-01-21 GO:0046031 ADP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ADP, adenosine 5'-diphosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0046442 aerobactin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aerobactin (C22H36N4O13), a hydroxamate iron transport compound. It is a conjugate of 6-(N-acetyl-N-hydroxylamine)-2-aminohexanoic acid and citric acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0019620 aerobic benzoate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving benzoate, the anion of benzoic acid (benzenecarboxylic acid) that occur in the presence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018878 aerobic beta-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving beta-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane that occur in presence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018935 aerobic nitrilotriacetate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nitrilotriacetate, the aminotricarboxylic acid N(CH2COO-)3, that occur in the presence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018946 aerobic organosilicon metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving organosilicons, organic compounds that contain silicon, in the presence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018959 aerobic phenol-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving phenol, any compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups directly attached to an aromatic carbon ring, in the presence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0046222 aflatoxin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aflatoxin, a fungal metabolite found as a contaminant in moldy grains that induces liver cancer. Aflatoxin induces a G to T transversion at codon 249 of p53, leading to its inactivation. Aflatoxin is converted to a chemical carcinogen by P450.
2005-01-21 GO:0006522 alanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alanine, 2-aminopropanoic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006066 alcohol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alcohols, any of a class of alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0019577 aldaric acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aldaric acid, any dicarboxylic acid formed by oxidation of by the terminal groups of an aldose to carboxyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0035165 embryonic crystal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby an embryonic mesoderm-derived hemocyte precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a crystal cell. Crystal cells are a class of cells that contain crystalline inclusions and are involved in the melanization of pathogenic material in the hemolymph.
2005-01-21 GO:0035163 embryonic hemocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell derived from the embryonic head mesoderm acquires the specialized features of a mature hemocyte. As in, but not restricted to, arthropods (Arthropoda, ncbi_taxonomy_id:6656).
2005-01-21 GO:0035164 embryonic plasmatocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby an embryonic mesoderm-derived hemocyte precursor cell acquires the specialized features of the phagocytic blood-cell type, the plasmatocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0045446 endothelial cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an endothelial cell, a thin flattened cell. A layer of such cells lines the inside surfaces of body cavities, blood vessels, and lymph vessels, making up the endothelium.
2005-01-21 GO:0001935 endothelial cell proliferation Updated DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of endothelial cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of a cell population. Endothelial cells are thin flattened cells which line the inside surfaces of body cavities, blood vessels, and lymph vessels, making up the endothelium.
2005-01-21 GO:0046584 enniatin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving enniatins, any of various cyclodepsipeptide antibiotics from Fusarium species that function as ionophores.
2005-01-21 GO:0046378 enterobacterial common antigen metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving enterobacterial common antigen, an acidic polysaccharide containing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-mannosaminouronic acid, and 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose. A major component of the cell wall outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
2005-01-21 GO:0009238 enterobactin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving enterobactin, a catechol-derived siderochrome of Enterobacteria; enterobactin (N',N',N''-(2,6,10-trioxo-1,5,9-triacyclodecane-3,7,11-triyl)tris(2,3-dihydroxy)benzamide) is a self-triester of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine and a product of the shikimate pathway.
2005-01-21 GO:0030222 eosinophil differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which a relatively unspecialized myeloid precursor cell acquires the specializes features of an eosinophil.
2005-01-21 GO:0009913 epidermal cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an epidermal cell, any of the cells making up the epidermis.
2005-01-21 GO:0042414 epinephrine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving epinephrine, a hormone produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands that increases heart activity, improves the power and prolongs the action of muscles, and increases the rate and depth of breathing. It is synthesized by the methylation of norepinephrine.
2005-01-21 GO:0030855 epithelial cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an epithelial cell, any of the cells making up an epithelium.
2005-01-21 GO:0050813 epothilone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving epothilone, a drug obtained from the myxobacteria Sporangium cellulosum that interferes with cell division. Some epothilones are being studied as treatments for cancer.
2005-01-21 GO:0008204 ergosterol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ergosterol, (22E)-ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3-beta-ol, a sterol found in ergot, yeast and moulds. It is the most important of the D provitamins and is converted to vitamin D2 on irradiation with UV light.
2005-01-21 GO:0030218 erythrocyte differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specializes features of an erythrocyte.
2005-01-21 GO:0008210 estrogen metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving estrogens, C18 steroid hormones that can stimulate the development of female sexual characteristics. Also found in plants.
2005-01-21 GO:0006067 ethanol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ethanol, CH3-CH2-OH, a colorless, water-miscible, flammable liquid produced by alcoholic fermentation.
2005-01-21 GO:0006580 ethanolamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ethanolamine (2-aminoethanol), an important water-soluble base of phospholipid (phosphatidylethanolamine).
2005-01-21 GO:0046485 ether lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ether lipids, lipids that contain (normally) one fatty alcohol in ether linkage to one of the carbon atoms (normally C-1) of glycerol.
2005-01-21 GO:0018915 ethylbenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ethylbenzene (phenylethane), a benzene derivative with an ethyl group attached to the ring. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent odor used as a solvent and as a component of automotive and aviation fuels.
2005-01-21 GO:0009692 ethylene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ethylene (C2-H4, ethene), a simple hydrocarbon gas that can function in plants as a growth regulator.
2005-01-21 GO:0042854 eugenol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving eugenol, a colorless, aromatic, liquid hydrocarbon (C10H12O2) found in clove oil.
2005-01-21 GO:0046379 extracellular polysaccharide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving polysaccharides used in extracellular structures.
2005-01-21 GO:0001754 eye photoreceptor cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a photoreceptor cell, as found in the eye, the primary visual organ of most organisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0001751 compound eye photoreceptor cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an eye photoreceptor cell. As in, but not restricted to, the Holometabola (Endopterygota, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33392).
2005-01-21 GO:0042441 eye pigment metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving eye pigments, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms, found or utilized in the eye.
2005-01-21 GO:0046443 FAD metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving FAD, flavin-adenine dinucleotide, the coenzyme or the prosthetic group of various flavoprotein oxidoreductase enzymes.
2005-01-21 GO:0006746 FADH2 metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving the reduced form of flavin-adenine dinucleotide.
2005-01-21 GO:0016487 farnesol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving the sesquiterpenoid alcohol farnesol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10,dodecatrien-1-ol.
2005-01-21 GO:0045338 farnesyl diphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving farnesyl diphosphate, an intermediate in carotenoid, sesquiterpene, squalene and sterol biosynthesis, as well as a substrate in protein farnesylation.
2005-01-21 GO:0006775 fat-soluble vitamin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving of any of a diverse group of vitamins that are soluble in organic solvents and relatively insoluble in water.
2005-01-21 GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fatty acids, aliphatic monocarboxylic acids liberated from naturally occurring fats and oils by hydrolysis.
2005-01-21 GO:0009812 flavonoid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving flavonoids, a group of water-soluble phenolic derivatives containing a flavan skeleton including flavones, flavonols and flavanoids, and anthocyanins.
2005-01-21 GO:0006083 acetate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetate, the anion of acetic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0045149 acetoin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetoin, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, often as part of a fermentation pathway or for use as a carbon source.
2005-01-21 GO:0006084 acetyl-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetyl-CoA, a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e.g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2005-01-21 GO:0018880 4-chlorobiphenyl metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-chlorobiphenyl, a member of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) group of compounds, a very stable group of synthetic organic compounds composed of a biphenyl nucleus with 1-10 chlorine substituents. 4-chlorobiphenyl has been used as a model substrate to investigate PCB degradation.
2005-01-21 GO:0019471 4-hydroxyproline metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-hydroxyproline, C5H9NO3, a derivative of the amino acid proline. The presence of hydroxyproline is essential to produce stable triple helical tropocollagen, hence the problems caused by ascorbate deficiency in scurvy. This unusual amino acid is also present in considerable amounts in the major glycoprotein of primary plant cell walls.
2005-01-21 GO:0018960 4-nitrophenol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-nitrophenol, a nitroaromatic compound which is used in the production of dyes, leather treatment agents, fungicides and as an intermediate in the production of the insecticide parathion.
2005-01-21 GO:0019257 4-nitrotoluene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-nitrotoluene, 1-methyl-4-nitrobenzene. It is a light yellow liquid with a weak aromatic odor.
2005-01-21 GO:0019611 4-toluenecarboxylate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 4-toluenecarboxylate, 4-methylbenzenecarboxylate, the anion of carboxylic acid attached to a methylbenzene molecule.
2005-01-21 GO:0019857 5-methylcytosine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 5-methylcytosine, a methylated base of DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0006106 fumarate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fumarate, the anion of trans-1,2-ethenedicarboxylic acid, the diastereoisomer of maleate. It is a key intermediate in metabolism and is formed in the TCA cycle from succinate and converted into malate.
2005-01-21 GO:0019580 galactarate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactarate, the anion of galactaric acid, the meso-aldaric acid derived from both D- and L-galactose.
2005-01-21 GO:0019402 galactitol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactitol, the hexitol derived by the reduction of the aldehyde group of either D- or L-galactose.
2005-01-21 GO:0019374 galactolipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactolipids, any glycolipid containing one of more residues of galactose and/or N-acetylgalactosamine.
2005-01-21 GO:0051069 galactomannan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactomannan, a polysaccharide composed of D-galactosyl and D-mannosyl. The mannosyl units form the backbone structure (a linear main chain) with the D-galactosyl as single side units.
2005-01-21 GO:0019583 galactonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactonate, the anion of galactonic acid, an organic acid derived from the sugar galactose.
2005-01-21 GO:0046350 galactosaminoglycan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactosaminoglycans, any one of a group of polysaccharides that contain amino sugars derived from the galactose.
2005-01-21 GO:0006012 galactose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactose, the aldohexose galacto-hexose. D-galactose is widely distributed in combined form in plants, animals and microorganisms as a constituent of oligo- and polysaccharides; it also occurs in galactolipids and as its glucoside in lactose and melibiose.
2005-01-21 GO:0006681 galactosylceramide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galactosylceramides, any compound formed by the replacement of the glycosidic hydroxyl group of a cyclic form of galactose by a ceramide group.
2005-01-21 GO:0019586 galacturonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving galacturonate, the anion of galacturonic acid, the uronic acid formally derived from galactose by oxidation of the hydroxymethylene group at C-6 to a carboxyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0018918 gallate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving gallate, the anion of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid). The esters and polyesters are widely distributed in angiosperms.
2005-01-21 GO:0005760 gamma DNA polymerase complex Added DEFINITION A heterodimer consisting of a large subunit, responsible for the catalytic activities, and a small accessory subunit. Functions in the replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0018919 gamma-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving gamma-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (also known as Lindane), the most common form of hexachlorohexane, a halogenated organic insecticide that has been used worldwide for agriculture and public health.
2005-01-21 GO:0009448 gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 4-aminobutyrate), an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in some organisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0042492 gamma-delta T cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized hemopoietic cell acquires specialized features of a gamma-delta T-cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0001573 ganglioside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ceramide oligosaccharides carrying in addition to other sugar residues, one or more sialic acid residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0006022 aminoglycan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aminoglycans, any polymer containing amino groups that consists of more than about 10 monosaccharide residues joined to each other by glycosidic linkages.
2005-01-21 GO:0030647 aminoglycoside antibiotic metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving an aminoglycoside antibiotic, any member of a group of broad spectrum antibiotics, of similar toxicity and pharmacology, that contain an aminodeoxysugar, an amino- or guanidino-substituted inositol ring, and one or more residues of other sugars. The group includes streptomycin, neomycin, framycetin, kanamycin, paromomycin, and gentamicin.
2005-01-21 GO:0046033 AMP metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving AMP, adenosine monophosphate.
2005-01-21 GO:0042982 amyloid precursor protein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving amyloid precursor protein (APP), the precursor of beta-amyloid, a glycoprotein associated with Alzheimer's disease.
2005-01-21 GO:0018978 anaerobic 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), a chlorinated, broad spectrum, contact insecticide, in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018975 anaerobic 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 1-methyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, a highly explosive pale yellow crystalline solid, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0019487 anaerobic acetylene catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving acetylene, a colorless, volatile, explosive gas, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018875 anaerobic benzoate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving benzoate, the anion of benzoic acid (benzenecarboxylic acid) that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018886 anaerobic carbon tetrachloride metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving carbon tetrachloride, a toxic, carcinogenic compound which is used as a general solvent in industrial degreasing operations, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018913 anaerobic ethylbenzene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving ethylbenzene (phenylethane), a benzene derivative with an ethyl group attached to the ring, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018936 anaerobic nitrilotriacetate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nitrilotriacetate, the aminotricarboxylic acid N(CH2COO-)3, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018947 anaerobic organosilicon metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving organosilicons, organic compounds that contain silicon, in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0042215 anaerobic phenol-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving phenol, any compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups directly attached to an aromatic carbon ring, in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0018971 anaerobic toluene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving toluene, a volatile monoaromatic hydrocarbon found in crude petroleum and petroleum products, that occur in the absence of oxygen.
2005-01-21 GO:0007092 activation of mitotic anaphase-promoting complex activity Added DEFINITION Upregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase promoting complex.
2005-01-21 GO:0008209 androgen metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving androgens, C19 steroid hormones that can stimulate the development of male sexual characteristics.
2005-01-21 GO:0046283 anthocyanin-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving anthocyanins, any member of a group of intensely colored soluble glycosides of anthocyanidins that occur in plants. They are responsible from most of the scarlet, purple, mauve and blue coloring in higher plants, especially of flowers.
2005-01-21 GO:0016999 antibiotic metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving an antibiotic, a substance produced by or derived from certain fungi, bacteria, and other organisms, that can destroy or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0009557 antipodal cell differentiation Added DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an antipodal cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0042868 antisense RNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving antisense RNA, an RNA molecule complementary in sequence to another RNA or DNA molecule, which, by binding the latter, acts to inhibit its function and/or completion of synthesis.
2005-01-21 GO:0046285 flavonoid phytoalexin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving flavonoid phytoalexins, a group of water-soluble phenolic derivatives containing a flavan skeleton, which possess antibiotic activity and are produced by plant tissues in response to infection.
2005-01-21 GO:0018917 fluorene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fluorene, a tricyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon containing a five-membered ring. It is a major component of fossil fuels and their derivatives and is also a by-product of coal-conversion and energy-related industries. It is commonly found in vehicle exhaust emissions, crude oils, motor oils, coal and oil combustion products, waste incineration, and industrial effluents.
2005-01-21 GO:0046444 FMN metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving FMN, riboflavin 5'-(dihydrogen phosphate), a coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH dehydrogenase.
2005-01-21 GO:0006760 folic acid-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving folic acid and its derivatives.
2005-01-21 GO:0046655 folic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving folic acid, pteroylglutamic acid. Folic acid is widely distributed as a member of the vitamin B complex and is essential for the synthesis of purine and pyrimidines.
2005-01-21 GO:0046292 formaldehyde metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving formaldehyde (methanal, H2C=O), a colorless liquid or gas with a pungent odor, commonly used as a fixative or an antibacterial agent.
2005-01-21 GO:0015942 formate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving formate, also known as methanoate, the anion HCOO- derived from methanoic (formic) acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0050756 fractalkine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fractalkine, a chemokine involved in the control of the key regulatory mechanisms of cell trafficking at sites of inflammation. It exists as a secreted protein and in a membrane-bound form, and exhibits a novel C-X-X-X-C cysteine signature motif. The counterpart of human fractalkine is murine neurotactin; fractalkine is also referred to as CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine or ABCD-3 and has been renamed CX3CL1.
2005-01-21 GO:0010145 fructan metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fructan, a polysaccharide consisting of fructose residues.
2005-01-21 GO:0030389 fructosamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fructosamine, a fructose molecule containing an amino group in place of a hydroxyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0030388 fructose 1,6-bisphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, also known as FBP. The D enantiomer is a metabolic intermediate in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.
2005-01-21 GO:0006003 fructose 2,6-bisphosphate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. The D enantiomer is an important regulator of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. It inhibits fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and activates phosphofructokinase.
2005-01-21 GO:0006081 cellular aldehyde metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aldehydes, any organic compound with the formula R-CH=O.
2005-01-21 GO:0019400 alditol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alditols, any polyhydric alcohol derived from the acyclic form of a monosaccharide by reduction of its aldehyde or keto group to an alcoholic group.
2005-01-21 GO:0019520 aldonic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aldonic acid, a monocarboxylic acid with a chain of three or more carbon atoms, derived from an aldose by oxidation of the aldehydic group.
2005-01-21 GO:0019330 aldoxime metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving aldoximes, compounds derived by the reaction of an aldose with hydroxylamine, thus containing the aldoxime group -HC=NOH.
2005-01-21 GO:0042120 alginic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alginic acid, a hydrophilic polysaccharide occurring in, for example, the cell walls of brown algae (brown seaweeds).
2005-01-21 GO:0009820 alkaloid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alkaloids, nitrogen containing natural products which are not otherwise classified as peptides, nonprotein amino acids, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones or primary metabolites (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).
2005-01-21 GO:0019694 alkanesulfonate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alkanesulfonates, the anion of alkanesulfonic acids, sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon moiety.
2005-01-21 GO:0000255 allantoin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving allantoin, (2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)urea, an intermediate or end product of purine catabolism.
2005-01-21 GO:0019313 allose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving allose, allo-hexose, an aldohexose similar to glucose, differing only in the configuration of the hydroxyl group of C-3.
2005-01-21 GO:0046632 alpha-beta T cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized hemopoietic stem cell acquires the specialized features of an alpha-beta T-cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0018867 alpha-pinene metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving alpha-pinene, a monoterpene that may be a significant factor affecting bacterial activities in nature. It is a major component in tea-tree oils, and gives off a piney smelling odor.
2005-01-21 GO:0009308 amine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any organic compound that is weakly basic in character and contains an amino or a substituted amino group. Amines are called primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether one, two, or three carbon atoms are attached to the nitrogen atom.
2005-01-21 GO:0006519 cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents, and compounds derived from amino acids.
2005-01-21 GO:0006575 cellular modified amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving compounds derived from amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents.
2005-01-21 GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents.
2005-01-21 GO:0006040 amino sugar metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving any amino sugar, sugars containing an amino group in place of a hydroxyl group.
2005-01-21 GO:0051201 negative regulation of prosthetic group metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions of a prosthetic group.
2005-01-21 GO:0051248 negative regulation of protein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of chemical reactions involving a protein.
2005-01-21 GO:0045863 negative regulation of pteridine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving pteridine.
2005-01-21 GO:0045982 negative regulation of purine nucleobase metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving purine bases.
2005-01-21 GO:0045984 negative regulation of pyrimidine nucleobase metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving pyrimidine bases.
2005-01-21 GO:0051280 negative regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the release into the cytoplasmic compartment of calcium ions sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria.
2005-01-21 GO:0051253 negative regulation of RNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving RNA.
2005-01-21 GO:0051283 negative regulation of sequestering of calcium ion Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the binding or confining calcium ions such that they are separated from other components of a biological system.
2005-01-21 GO:0045939 negative regulation of steroid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving steroids.
2005-01-21 GO:0051175 negative regulation of sulfur metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving sulfur or compounds containing sulfur.
2005-01-21 GO:0046137 negative regulation of vitamin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions involving a vitamin, one of a number of unrelated organic substances that occur in many foods in small amounts and that are necessary in trace amounts for the normal metabolic functioning of the body.
2005-01-21 GO:0030182 neuron differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes whereby a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuron.
2005-01-21 GO:0042133 neurotransmitter metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving neurotransmitters, any of a group of substances that are released on excitation from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron of the central or peripheral nervous system and travel across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell.
2005-01-21 GO:0045213 neurotransmitter receptor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving neurotransmitter receptors.
2005-01-21 GO:0006638 neutral lipid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving neutral lipids, lipids only soluble in solvents of very low polarity.
2005-01-21 GO:0030223 neutrophil differentiation Updated DEFINITION Processes by which a myeloid precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a neutrophil.
2005-01-21 GO:0030417 nicotianamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotianamine, 2(S),3'2(S),3''(S)-N-(N-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
2005-01-21 GO:0006769 nicotinamide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotinamide, pyridine-3-carboxamide, the amide of nicotinic acid. It is a member of the B complex of vitamins and occurs widely in living organisms.
2005-01-21 GO:0046496 nicotinamide nucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotinamide nucleotides, any nucleotide that contains combined nicotinamide.
2005-01-21 GO:0046495 nicotinamide riboside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotinamide riboside, the product of the formation of a glycosidic bond between ribose and nicotinamide.
2005-01-21 GO:0046497 nicotinate nucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions involving nicotinamide nucleotides, any nucleotide that contains combined nicotinate (pyridine 3-carboxylic acid, or niacin).
spacer
Please send comments, suggestions or bug reports to goa@ebi.ac.uk. Click here for details of how to cite UniProt-GOA and QuickGO.
141ms