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GO Term History: Displaying 130 audit records for all terms for the date 2004-03-13

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This page displays the differences recorded in the full Gene Ontology OBO v1.2 file as audited by the UniProt-GOA database during its daily update cycle.
If there is any delay in uploading the current OBO file, the changes displayed and the date recorded for these changes may not correspond to when the changes to the OBO file were committed.

All changes

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2004-03-13 GO:0005500 juvenile hormone binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with juvenile hormone, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0006718 juvenile hormone biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0006719 juvenile hormone catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0006716 juvenile hormone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0045443 juvenile hormone secretion Updated DEFINITION The regulated release of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0046373 L-arabinose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving L-arabinose, the levorotatory isomer of arabino-pentose. L-arabinose occurs free, e.g. in the heartwood of many conifers, and in the combined state, in both furanose and pyranose forms, as a constituent of various plant hemicelluloses, bacterial polysaccharides etc.
2004-03-13 GO:0002119 nematode larval development Updated DEFINITION Development from the newly hatched first-stage larva to the end of the last larval stage (e.g. fourth-stage in C. elegans) before molting to adulthood. As in, but not restricted to, the roundworms (Nematoda, ncbi_taxonomy_id:6231).
2004-03-13 GO:0050979 magnetoreception by sensory perception of mechanical stimulus Updated DEFINITION The series of events required for an organism to receive a mechanical stimulus relating to a magnetic field, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. A magnetic field exerts a torque on a ferromagnetic material (e.g. magnetite) or on a material with diamagnetic anisotropy; organisms that can detect this torque can use it to determine the orientation of the magnetic field.
2004-03-13 GO:0042697 menopause Updated DEFINITION Cessation of menstruation, occurring in (e.g.) the human female usually around the age of 50.
2004-03-13 GO:0046699 metamorphosis (sensu Amphibia) Updated DEFINITION A change of shape or structure from one developmental stage to another, particularly the rapid post embryonic structural transformation from juvenile to adult form, e.g. the transformation from tadpole to frog. As in, but not restricted to, the amphibia (Amphibia, ncbi_taxonomy_id:8292).
2004-03-13 GO:0030106 MHC class I receptor activity Updated DEFINITION A major histocompatibility complex class I receptor. These display processed antigens from the endocytosed bacteria. MHC class I proteins can form complexes with processed antigen peptides only if the antigen is synthesized in the same cell. As a consequence, T lymphocytes can only bind to class-I-positive cells that are synthesizing the antigen (e.g. virus-infected cells).
2004-03-13 GO:0005874 microtubule Updated DEFINITION Any of the long, generally straight, hollow tubes of internal diameter 12-15 nm and external diameter 24 nm found in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells; each consists (usually) of 13 protofilaments of polymeric tubulin, staggered in such a manner that the tubulin monomers are arranged in a helical pattern on the microtubular surface, and with the alpha/beta axes of the tubulin subunits parallel to the long axis of the tubule; exist in equilibrium with pool of tubulin monomers and can be rapidly assembled or disassembled in response to physiological stimuli; concerned with force generation, e.g. in the spindle.
2004-03-13 GO:0007026 negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization Updated DEFINITION Prevention of depolymerization of a microtubule; can result from binding by 'capping' at the plus end (e.g. by interaction with another cellular protein of structure) or by exposing microtubules to a stabilizing drug such as taxol.
2004-03-13 GO:0006777 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e.g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum coordinated by the dithiolene moiety of a family of tricyclic pyranopterins containing a cis-dithiolene group in their pyran ring. Enzymes containing a pyranopterin cofactor and either Mo or W are found in all phyla and some of these catalyze important transformations in the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycle. These reactions generally involve redox chemistry at the active site with the metal cycling between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. The formation from simpler components of the Mo/W-cofactor is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and genes involved in Moco biosynthesis have been identified in eubacteria, Archaea and eukaryotes.
2004-03-13 GO:0019720 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving Mo-molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e.g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase.
2004-03-13 GO:0043127 negative regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added SYNONYM negative regulation of PI4K activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043128 positive regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added SYNONYM positive regulation of PI4K activity
2004-03-13 GO:0045736 negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Added SYNONYM negative regulation of CDK activity
2004-03-13 GO:0045737 positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Added SYNONYM positive regulation of CDK activity
2004-03-13 GO:0015418 quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity Deleted SYNONYM quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0000079 regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Added SYNONYM regulation of CDK activity
2004-03-13 GO:0015418 quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity Added SYNONYM quaternary-amine-transporting ATPase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043126 regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added SYNONYM regulation of PI4K activity
2004-03-13 GO:0019953 sexual reproduction Updated DEFINITION The regular alternation, in the life cycle of haplontic, diplontic and diplohaplontic organisms, of meiosis and fertilization which provides for the production of offspring. In diplontic organisms there is a life cycle in which the products of meiosis behave directly as gametes, fusing to form a zygote from which the diploid, or sexually reproductive polyploid, adult organism will develop. In diplohaplontic organisms a haploid phase (gametophyte) exists in the life cycle between meiosis and fertilization (e.g. higher plants, many algae and fungi); the products of meiosis are spores that develop as haploid individuals from which haploid gametes develop to form a diploid zygote; diplohaplontic organisms show an alternation of haploid and diploid generations. In haplontic organisms meiosis occurs in the zygote, giving rise to four haploid cells (e.g. many algae and protozoa), only the zygote is diploid and this may form a resistant spore, tiding organisms over hard times.
2004-03-13 GO:0030532 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex Updated DEFINITION Any of various particulate complexes of proteins with molecules of small nuclear RNA (snRNA), found in the eukaryotic nucleus; the particles are 250 kDa. They are named according to the snRNAs they contain: the U4/U6 snRNP, e.g. contains U4 and U6 snRNA. They are involved in RNA splicing (see spliceosome). Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus make antibodies directed against one or more snRNPs.
2004-03-13 GO:0042484 regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth and used in feeding or procuring food, e.g. a mollusk or starfish tooth. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Protostomia (Protostomia, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33317).
2004-03-13 GO:0019430 removal of superoxide radicals Updated DEFINITION The processes involved in removing superoxide radicals (O2-) from a cell or organism, e.g. by conversion to dioxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
2004-03-13 GO:0046678 response to bacteriocin Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of the organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of exposure to any bacteriocin, a protein substance released by certain bacteria that kills but does not lyse closely related strains of bacteria. Specific bacteriocins attach to specific receptors on cell walls and induce specific metabolic block, e.g. cessation of nucleic acid or protein synthesis of oxidative phosphorylation.
2004-03-13 GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.
2004-03-13 GO:0006950 response to stress Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) that occurs in response to stress, usually, but not necessarily exogenous (e.g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation).
2004-03-13 GO:0043129 surfactant homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an equilibrium of the surface-active lipoprotein mixture which coats the alveoli.
2004-03-13 GO:0042565 RNA nuclear export complex Updated DEFINITION A complex which usually consists of three components, e.g. in Xenopus and yeast, the export receptor CRM1 (also known as exportin 1), the Ran protein and any RNA with a nuclear export sequence (NES). The complex acts to export RNA molecules with a NES from the nucleus through a nuclear pore.
2004-03-13 GO:0000341 RNA trimethylguanosine cap binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with the trimethylguanosine (m(3)(2,2,7)-GTP) moiety located at the 5' end of some RNA molecules. Such trimethylated cap structures, generally produced by posttranscriptional modification of a 7-methylguanosine cap, are often found on snRNAs and snoRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase II, but have also be found on snRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III. They have also been found on a subset of the mRNA population in some species, e.g. C. elegans.
2004-03-13 GO:0006278 RNA-dependent DNA replication Updated DEFINITION The process whereby new strands of DNA are synthesized, using RNA as a template for RNA-dependent DNA polymerases (e.g. reverse transcriptase) that synthesize the new strands.
2004-03-13 GO:0045549 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the oxidative cleavage of 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoids (e.g. neoxanthin and violaxanthin) to xanthoxin and C-25 apocarotenoids.
2004-03-13 GO:0006084 acetyl-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving acetyl-CoA, a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e.g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0015876 acetyl-CoA transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of acetyl-CoA into, out of, within or between cells. Acetyl-CoA is a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e.g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0008521 acetyl-CoA transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of acetyl-CoA into, out of, within or between cells. Acetyl-CoA is a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e.g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0042783 active evasion of host immune response Updated DEFINITION Any mechanism of immune avoidance that directly affects the host immune system, e.g. blocking any stage in host MHC class I and II presentation.
2004-03-13 GO:0042786 active evasion of host immune response via regulation of host antigen processing and presentation Updated DEFINITION Any mechanism of active immune avoidance which works by regulating the host's antigen-processing or presentation pathways, e.g. by blocking any stage in MHC class II presentation.
2004-03-13 GO:0042785 active evasion of host immune response via regulation of host cytokine network Updated DEFINITION Any mechanism of active immune avoidance which works by regulating host cytokine networks, e.g. by secreting proteins that mimic cytokine receptors that act to sequester host cytokines and inhibit action.
2004-03-13 GO:0016172 antifreeze activity Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Inhibits the formation of ice crystals in organismal fluid (e.g. blood) at below freezing exogenous temperatures.
2004-03-13 GO:0000046 autophagic vacuole fusion Updated DEFINITION The fusion of an autophagic vacuole with a vacuole (yeast) or lysosome (e.g. mammals and insects). In the case of yeast, inner membrane-bound structures (autophagic bodies) appear in the vacuole.
2004-03-13 GO:0009921 auxin efflux carrier complex Updated DEFINITION The protein complex associated with the plasma membrane of certain plant cells (e.g. root cortex, epidermal cells) that functions to transport auxin out of the cell.
2004-03-13 GO:0019483 beta-alanine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e.g. in brain) and in combination (e.g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2004-03-13 GO:0019484 beta-alanine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e.g. in brain) and in combination (e.g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2004-03-13 GO:0019482 beta-alanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e.g. in brain) and in combination (e.g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2004-03-13 GO:0007114 cell budding Updated DEFINITION A form of asexual reproduction, occurring in certain bacteria and fungi (e.g. yeasts) and some primitive animals in which an individual arises from a daughter cell formed by pinching off a part of the parent cell. The budlike outgrowths so formed may sometimes remain attached to the parent cell.
2004-03-13 GO:0019650 glucose catabolic process to butanediol Updated DEFINITION An anaerobic process in which glucose is fermented, with the production of 2,3-butanediol and other substances; effected by some members of the Enterobacteriaceae, e.g. Enterobacter, Erwinia, Klebsiella, and Serratia.
2004-03-13 GO:0030645 glucose catabolic process to butyrate Updated DEFINITION An anaerobic process in which glucose is fermented, with the production of acetic acid, butyric acid, carbon dioxide (CO2), and dihydrogen; effected by some saccharolytic species of Clostridium, e.g. C. butyricum.
2004-03-13 GO:0030031 cell projection assembly Updated DEFINITION Formation of a prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.
2004-03-13 GO:0030030 cell projection organization Updated DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of a prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.
2004-03-13 GO:0050975 sensory perception of touch Updated DEFINITION The series of events required for an organism to receive a touch stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. The perception of touch in animals is mediated by mechanoreceptors in the skin and mucous membranes and is the sense by which contact with objects gives evidence as to certain of their qualities. Different types of touch can be perceived (for example, light, coarse, pressure and tickling) and the stimulus may be external or internal (e.g. the feeling of a full stomach).
2004-03-13 GO:0007365 periodic partitioning Updated DEFINITION The partitioning of an embryo into serially repeated regions, e.g. tagmata, segments or parasegments.
2004-03-13 GO:0004645 phosphorylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl(n) + phosphate = 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl(n-1) + alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate. The name should be qualified in each instance by adding the name of the natural substrate, e.g. maltodextrin phosphorylase, starch phosphorylase, glycogen phosphorylase.
2004-03-13 GO:0046148 pigment biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of a pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms, e.g. melanin.
2004-03-13 GO:0046149 pigment catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of a pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms, e.g. melanin.
2004-03-13 GO:0042440 pigment metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms, e.g. melanin.
2004-03-13 GO:0042485 positive regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the rate of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth and used in feeding or procuring food, e.g. a mollusk or starfish tooth. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Protostomia (Protostomia, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33317).
2004-03-13 GO:0006301 postreplication repair Updated DEFINITION Pathways for DNA repair which occur after DNA has replicated, e.g. mismatch repair, and which involve translesion synthesis (TLS-type) DNA polymerases.
2004-03-13 GO:0006486 protein glycosylation Updated DEFINITION The addition of a sugar unit to a protein amino acid, e.g. the addition of glycan chains to proteins.
2004-03-13 GO:0042559 pteridine-containing compound biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e.g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2004-03-13 GO:0042560 pteridine-containing compound catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e.g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2004-03-13 GO:0042558 pteridine-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e.g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2004-03-13 GO:0009079 pyruvate family amino acid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis, e.g. alanine.
2004-03-13 GO:0009080 pyruvate family amino acid catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis, e.g. alanine.
2004-03-13 GO:0009078 pyruvate family amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis, e.g. alanine.
2004-03-13 GO:0043126 regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the activity of the enzyme 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.
2004-03-13 GO:0050793 regulation of developmental process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of development, the biological processes specifically aimed at the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2004-03-13 GO:0043127 negative regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that stops or reduces the activity of the enzyme 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.
2004-03-13 GO:0042486 negative regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth and used in feeding or procuring food, e.g. a mollusk or starfish tooth. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Protostomia (Protostomia, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33317).
2004-03-13 GO:0043005 neuron projection Updated DEFINITION A prolongation or process extending from a nerve cell, e.g. an axon or dendrite.
2004-03-13 GO:0042564 NLS-dependent protein nuclear import complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex which usually consists of three components, e.g. in Xenopus, the importin alpha and beta-subunits and any protein which has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS). The complex acts to import proteins with an NLS into the nucleus through a nuclear pore.
2004-03-13 GO:0009112 nucleobase metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a nucleobase, a nitrogenous base that is a constituent of a nucleic acid, e.g. the purines: adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine and the pyrimidines: cytosine, uracil, thymine.
2004-03-13 GO:0009116 nucleoside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a nucleoside, a nucleobase linked to either beta-D-ribofuranose (ribonucleoside) or 2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranose, (a deoxyribonucleotide), e.g. adenosine, guanosine, inosine, cytidine, uridine and deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine (= deoxythymidine).
2004-03-13 GO:0043128 positive regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the activity of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.
2004-03-13 GO:0042477 odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth and used in feeding or procuring food, e.g. a mollusk or starfish tooth. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Protostomia (Protostomia, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33317).
2004-03-13 GO:0006800 oxygen and reactive oxygen species metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving dioxygen (O2), or any of the reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (-OH).
2004-03-13 GO:0008153 para-aminobenzoic acid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of para-aminobenzoic acid, an intermediate in the synthesis of folic acid, a compound which some organisms, e.g. prokaryotes, eukaryotic microbes, and plants, can synthesize de novo. Others, notably mammals, cannot. In yeast, it is present as a factor in the B complex of vitamins.
2004-03-13 GO:0046482 para-aminobenzoic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving para-aminobenzoic acid, an intermediate in the synthesis of folic acid, a compound which some organisms, e.g. prokaryotes, eukaryotic microbes, and plants, can synthesize de novo. Others, notably mammals, cannot. In yeast, it is present as a factor in the B complex of vitamins.
2004-03-13 GO:0042782 passive evasion of host immune response Updated DEFINITION Any mechanism of immune avoidance that does not directly interfere with the host immune system, e.g. some viruses enter a state of latency where their protein production is drastically downregulated, meaning that they are not detected by the host immune system.
2004-03-13 GO:0042178 xenobiotic catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of a xenobiotic compound, a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e.g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2004-03-13 GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a xenobiotic compound, a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e.g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2004-03-13 GO:0009847 spore germination Updated DEFINITION The physiological and developmental changes that occur in a spore following release from dormancy up to the earliest signs of growth (e.g. emergence from a spore wall).
2004-03-13 GO:0006729 tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e.g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2004-03-13 GO:0046147 tetrahydrobiopterin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e.g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2004-03-13 GO:0046146 tetrahydrobiopterin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e.g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2004-03-13 GO:0030401 transcription antiterminator activity Updated DEFINITION Functions to prevent the termination of RNA synthesis. Acts as a regulatory device, e.g. in phage lambda, enabling a terminator to be masked from RNA polymerase so that distal genes can be expressed.
2004-03-13 GO:0042790 transcription of nuclear large rRNA transcript from RNA polymerase I promoter Updated DEFINITION The synthesis of the large ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcript which encodes several rRNAs, e.g. in mammals 28S, 18S and 5.8S, from a nuclear DNA template.
2004-03-13 GO:0016740 transferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from one compound (generally regarded as the donor) to another compound (generally regarded as the acceptor). Transferase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 2.
2004-03-13 GO:0019783 small conjugating protein-specific protease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various forms of polymeric ubiquitin-like sequences (e.g. APG8, ISG15, NEDD8, SUMO). Will remove ubiquitin-like sequences from larger leaving groups.
2004-03-13 GO:0000324 fungal-type vacuole Updated DEFINITION The vacuole is a large, membrane-bound organelle that functions as a reservoir for the storage of small molecules (including polyphosphate, amino acids, several divalent cations (e.g. calcium), other ions, and other small molecules) as well as being the primary compartment for degradation. It is an acidic compartment, containing an ensemble of acid hydrolases. At least in S. cerevisiae, there are indications that the morphology of the vacuole is variable and correlated with the cell cycle, with logarithmically growing cells having a multilobed, reticulated vacuole, while stationary phase cells contain a single large structure. As in, but not restricted to, the fungi (Fungi, ncbi_taxonomy_id:4751).
2004-03-13 GO:0016840 carbon-nitrogen lyase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the release of ammonia or one of its derivatives, with the formation of a double bond or ring. Enzymes with this activity may catalyze the actual elimination of the ammonia, amine or amide, e.g. CH-CH(-NH-R) = C=CH- + NH2-R. Others, however, catalyze elimination of another component, e.g. water, which is followed by spontaneous reactions that lead to breakage of the C-N bond, e.g. L-serine ammonia-lyase (EC:4.3.1.17), so that the overall reaction is C(-OH)-CH(-NH2) = CH2-CO- + NH3, i. e. an elimination with rearrangement. The sub-subclasses of EC:4.3 are the ammonia-lyases (EC:4.3.1), lyases acting on amides, amidines, etc. (EC:4.3.2), the amine-lyases (EC:4.3.3), and other carbon-nitrogen lyases (EC:4.3.99).
2004-03-13 GO:0030154 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history.
2004-03-13 GO:0042995 cell projection Updated DEFINITION A prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.
2004-03-13 GO:0015778 hexuronide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of hexuronide into, out of, within or between cells. Hexuronides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e.g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of a hexuronate.
2004-03-13 GO:0015163 hexuronide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of hexuronide into, out of, within or between cells. Hexuronides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e.g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of a hexuronate.
2004-03-13 GO:0016787 hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various bonds, e.g. C-O, C-N, C-C, phosphoric anhydride bonds, etc. Hydrolase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 3.
2004-03-13 GO:0042563 importin alpha-subunit nuclear export complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex which usually consists of three components, e.g. in Xenopus, the importin alpha-subunit/CAS/Ran, and which functions to shuttle the importin alpha-subunit out of the nucleus through the nuclear pore.
2004-03-13 GO:0042430 indole-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e.g. serotonin, tryptophan) formed in degradation of tryptophan.
2004-03-13 GO:0042432 indole biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e.g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2004-03-13 GO:0042433 indole catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e.g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2004-03-13 GO:0042431 indole metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e.g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2004-03-13 GO:0000904 cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation Updated DEFINITION The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs when relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history.
2004-03-13 GO:0005694 chromosome Updated DEFINITION A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g. histones) that carries hereditary information.
2004-03-13 GO:0042914 colicin transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a colicin into, out of, within or between cells. Colicins are a group of antibiotics produced by E. coli and related species that are encoded by a group of naturally occurring plasmids, e.g. Col E1.
2004-03-13 GO:0042912 colicin transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of a colicin into, out of, within or between cells. Colicins are a group of antibiotics produced by E. coli and related species that are encoded by a group of naturally occurring plasmids, e.g. Col E1.
2004-03-13 GO:0030413 competence pheromone activity Updated DEFINITION A small peptide excreted by a naturally transformable bacterium (e.g. Bacillus subtilis) that transmits a signal required for the establishment of competence.
2004-03-13 GO:0009462 cytochrome d Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A cytochrome in which the prosthetic group is a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. This definition would appear to include siroheme proteins (e.g. nitrite and sulfite reductases); but these are not cytochromes. Kirill Degtyarenko:Sep 28 13:08:07 2000.
2004-03-13 GO:0007275 multicellular organismal development Updated DEFINITION Biological processes specifically aimed at the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2004-03-13 GO:0006307 DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair Updated DEFINITION The repair of alkylation damage, e.g. the removal of the alkyl group at the O6-position of guanine by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT).
2004-03-13 GO:0006281 DNA repair Updated DEFINITION The process of restoring DNA after damage. Genomes are subject to damage by chemical and physical agents in the environment (e.g. UV and ionizing radiations, chemical mutagens, fungal and bacterial toxins, etc.) and by free radicals or alkylating agents endogenously generated in metabolism. DNA is also damaged because of errors during its replication. A variety of different DNA repair pathways have been reported that include direct reversal, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, photoreactivation, bypass, double-strand break repair pathway, and mismatch repair pathway.
2004-03-13 GO:0050959 echolocation Updated DEFINITION Echolocation is the method used by some animals (e.g. bats, dolphins and some whales) to determine the location of something by measuring the time it takes for an echo to return from it. These animals emit sound waves and listen for the echo, calculating the distance to the object from the time lapse between sound emission and the echo returning.
2004-03-13 GO:0045736 negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Updated TERM negative regulation of cyclin dependent protein kinase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0045737 positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Updated TERM positive regulation of cyclin dependent protein kinase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043126 regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added TERM regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043127 negative regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added TERM negative regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043128 positive regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added TERM positive regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043129 surfactant homeostasis Added TERM surfactant homeostasis
2004-03-13 GO:0015041 electron transfer flavoprotein, group II Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An electron transfer flavoprotein that functions as a housekeeping protein that is synthesized only under certain specific growth conditions and receives electrons from the oxidation of specific substrates, e.g. trimethylamine, carnitine and in nitrogen fixation.
2004-03-13 GO:0045021 error-free DNA repair Updated DEFINITION DNA repair pathways that do not increase the mutation rate above spontaneous background levels, e.g. excision and recombination pathways.
2004-03-13 GO:0006887 exocytosis Updated DEFINITION The release of intracellular molecules (e.g. hormones, matrix proteins) contained within a membrane-bounded vesicle by fusion of the vesicle with the plasma membrane of a cell. This is the process whereby most molecules are secreted from eukaryotic cells.
2004-03-13 GO:0015779 glucuronoside transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of glucuronosides into, out of, within or between cells. Glucuronosides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e.g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of glucuronate.
2004-03-13 GO:0015164 glucuronoside transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of glucuronosides into, out of, within or between cells. Glucuronosides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e.g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of glucuronate.
2004-03-13 GO:0042765 GPI-anchor transamidase complex Updated DEFINITION An enzyme complex which in humans and yeast consists of at least five proteins, e.g. in humans GAA1, GPI8, PIG-S, PIG-U, and PIG-T. Catalyzes the posttranslational attachment of the carboxyl-terminus of a precursor protein to a GPI-anchor.
2004-03-13 GO:0003773 heat shock protein activity Updated DEFINITION Any of a group of specific proteins that are synthesized by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells after they have been exposed to a temperature that is higher than normal. Other stresses, e.g. free radical damage, have a similar effect. Many members of the hsp family are not induced but are present in all cells. They are characterized by their role as molecular chaperones.
2004-03-13 GO:0016969 hemerythrin Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An oxygen carrier found in a few groups of invertebrates, e.g. sipunculid worms, certain molluscs, and crustaceans.
2004-03-13 GO:0015929 hexosaminidase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage of hexosamine or N-acetylhexosamine residues (e.g., N-acetylglucosamine) residues from gangliosides or other glycoside oligosaccharides.
2004-03-13 GO:0015418 quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity Updated TERM quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0000079 regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Updated TERM regulation of cyclin dependent protein kinase activity

Terms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2004-03-13 GO:0045736 negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Updated TERM negative regulation of cyclin dependent protein kinase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0045737 positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Updated TERM positive regulation of cyclin dependent protein kinase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043126 regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added TERM regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043127 negative regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added TERM negative regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043128 positive regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added TERM positive regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043129 surfactant homeostasis Added TERM surfactant homeostasis
2004-03-13 GO:0015418 quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity Updated TERM quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0000079 regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Updated TERM regulation of cyclin dependent protein kinase activity

Definition/synonyms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2004-03-13 GO:0005500 juvenile hormone binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with juvenile hormone, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0006718 juvenile hormone biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0006719 juvenile hormone catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0006716 juvenile hormone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0045443 juvenile hormone secretion Updated DEFINITION The regulated release of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e.g. oogenesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0046373 L-arabinose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving L-arabinose, the levorotatory isomer of arabino-pentose. L-arabinose occurs free, e.g. in the heartwood of many conifers, and in the combined state, in both furanose and pyranose forms, as a constituent of various plant hemicelluloses, bacterial polysaccharides etc.
2004-03-13 GO:0002119 nematode larval development Updated DEFINITION Development from the newly hatched first-stage larva to the end of the last larval stage (e.g. fourth-stage in C. elegans) before molting to adulthood. As in, but not restricted to, the roundworms (Nematoda, ncbi_taxonomy_id:6231).
2004-03-13 GO:0050979 magnetoreception by sensory perception of mechanical stimulus Updated DEFINITION The series of events required for an organism to receive a mechanical stimulus relating to a magnetic field, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. A magnetic field exerts a torque on a ferromagnetic material (e.g. magnetite) or on a material with diamagnetic anisotropy; organisms that can detect this torque can use it to determine the orientation of the magnetic field.
2004-03-13 GO:0042697 menopause Updated DEFINITION Cessation of menstruation, occurring in (e.g.) the human female usually around the age of 50.
2004-03-13 GO:0046699 metamorphosis (sensu Amphibia) Updated DEFINITION A change of shape or structure from one developmental stage to another, particularly the rapid post embryonic structural transformation from juvenile to adult form, e.g. the transformation from tadpole to frog. As in, but not restricted to, the amphibia (Amphibia, ncbi_taxonomy_id:8292).
2004-03-13 GO:0030106 MHC class I receptor activity Updated DEFINITION A major histocompatibility complex class I receptor. These display processed antigens from the endocytosed bacteria. MHC class I proteins can form complexes with processed antigen peptides only if the antigen is synthesized in the same cell. As a consequence, T lymphocytes can only bind to class-I-positive cells that are synthesizing the antigen (e.g. virus-infected cells).
2004-03-13 GO:0005874 microtubule Updated DEFINITION Any of the long, generally straight, hollow tubes of internal diameter 12-15 nm and external diameter 24 nm found in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells; each consists (usually) of 13 protofilaments of polymeric tubulin, staggered in such a manner that the tubulin monomers are arranged in a helical pattern on the microtubular surface, and with the alpha/beta axes of the tubulin subunits parallel to the long axis of the tubule; exist in equilibrium with pool of tubulin monomers and can be rapidly assembled or disassembled in response to physiological stimuli; concerned with force generation, e.g. in the spindle.
2004-03-13 GO:0007026 negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization Updated DEFINITION Prevention of depolymerization of a microtubule; can result from binding by 'capping' at the plus end (e.g. by interaction with another cellular protein of structure) or by exposing microtubules to a stabilizing drug such as taxol.
2004-03-13 GO:0006777 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e.g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum coordinated by the dithiolene moiety of a family of tricyclic pyranopterins containing a cis-dithiolene group in their pyran ring. Enzymes containing a pyranopterin cofactor and either Mo or W are found in all phyla and some of these catalyze important transformations in the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycle. These reactions generally involve redox chemistry at the active site with the metal cycling between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. The formation from simpler components of the Mo/W-cofactor is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and genes involved in Moco biosynthesis have been identified in eubacteria, Archaea and eukaryotes.
2004-03-13 GO:0019720 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving Mo-molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e.g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase.
2004-03-13 GO:0043127 negative regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added SYNONYM negative regulation of PI4K activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043128 positive regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added SYNONYM positive regulation of PI4K activity
2004-03-13 GO:0045736 negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Added SYNONYM negative regulation of CDK activity
2004-03-13 GO:0045737 positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Added SYNONYM positive regulation of CDK activity
2004-03-13 GO:0015418 quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity Deleted SYNONYM quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0000079 regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Added SYNONYM regulation of CDK activity
2004-03-13 GO:0015418 quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity Added SYNONYM quaternary-amine-transporting ATPase activity
2004-03-13 GO:0043126 regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added SYNONYM regulation of PI4K activity
2004-03-13 GO:0019953 sexual reproduction Updated DEFINITION The regular alternation, in the life cycle of haplontic, diplontic and diplohaplontic organisms, of meiosis and fertilization which provides for the production of offspring. In diplontic organisms there is a life cycle in which the products of meiosis behave directly as gametes, fusing to form a zygote from which the diploid, or sexually reproductive polyploid, adult organism will develop. In diplohaplontic organisms a haploid phase (gametophyte) exists in the life cycle between meiosis and fertilization (e.g. higher plants, many algae and fungi); the products of meiosis are spores that develop as haploid individuals from which haploid gametes develop to form a diploid zygote; diplohaplontic organisms show an alternation of haploid and diploid generations. In haplontic organisms meiosis occurs in the zygote, giving rise to four haploid cells (e.g. many algae and protozoa), only the zygote is diploid and this may form a resistant spore, tiding organisms over hard times.
2004-03-13 GO:0030532 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex Updated DEFINITION Any of various particulate complexes of proteins with molecules of small nuclear RNA (snRNA), found in the eukaryotic nucleus; the particles are 250 kDa. They are named according to the snRNAs they contain: the U4/U6 snRNP, e.g. contains U4 and U6 snRNA. They are involved in RNA splicing (see spliceosome). Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus make antibodies directed against one or more snRNPs.
2004-03-13 GO:0042484 regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth and used in feeding or procuring food, e.g. a mollusk or starfish tooth. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Protostomia (Protostomia, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33317).
2004-03-13 GO:0019430 removal of superoxide radicals Updated DEFINITION The processes involved in removing superoxide radicals (O2-) from a cell or organism, e.g. by conversion to dioxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
2004-03-13 GO:0046678 response to bacteriocin Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of the organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of exposure to any bacteriocin, a protein substance released by certain bacteria that kills but does not lyse closely related strains of bacteria. Specific bacteriocins attach to specific receptors on cell walls and induce specific metabolic block, e.g. cessation of nucleic acid or protein synthesis of oxidative phosphorylation.
2004-03-13 GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.
2004-03-13 GO:0006950 response to stress Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) that occurs in response to stress, usually, but not necessarily exogenous (e.g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation).
2004-03-13 GO:0043129 surfactant homeostasis Added DEFINITION Any of the processes involved in the maintenance of an equilibrium of the surface-active lipoprotein mixture which coats the alveoli.
2004-03-13 GO:0042565 RNA nuclear export complex Updated DEFINITION A complex which usually consists of three components, e.g. in Xenopus and yeast, the export receptor CRM1 (also known as exportin 1), the Ran protein and any RNA with a nuclear export sequence (NES). The complex acts to export RNA molecules with a NES from the nucleus through a nuclear pore.
2004-03-13 GO:0000341 RNA trimethylguanosine cap binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with the trimethylguanosine (m(3)(2,2,7)-GTP) moiety located at the 5' end of some RNA molecules. Such trimethylated cap structures, generally produced by posttranscriptional modification of a 7-methylguanosine cap, are often found on snRNAs and snoRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase II, but have also be found on snRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III. They have also been found on a subset of the mRNA population in some species, e.g. C. elegans.
2004-03-13 GO:0006278 RNA-dependent DNA replication Updated DEFINITION The process whereby new strands of DNA are synthesized, using RNA as a template for RNA-dependent DNA polymerases (e.g. reverse transcriptase) that synthesize the new strands.
2004-03-13 GO:0045549 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the oxidative cleavage of 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoids (e.g. neoxanthin and violaxanthin) to xanthoxin and C-25 apocarotenoids.
2004-03-13 GO:0006084 acetyl-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving acetyl-CoA, a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e.g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0015876 acetyl-CoA transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of acetyl-CoA into, out of, within or between cells. Acetyl-CoA is a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e.g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0008521 acetyl-CoA transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of acetyl-CoA into, out of, within or between cells. Acetyl-CoA is a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e.g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2004-03-13 GO:0042783 active evasion of host immune response Updated DEFINITION Any mechanism of immune avoidance that directly affects the host immune system, e.g. blocking any stage in host MHC class I and II presentation.
2004-03-13 GO:0042786 active evasion of host immune response via regulation of host antigen processing and presentation Updated DEFINITION Any mechanism of active immune avoidance which works by regulating the host's antigen-processing or presentation pathways, e.g. by blocking any stage in MHC class II presentation.
2004-03-13 GO:0042785 active evasion of host immune response via regulation of host cytokine network Updated DEFINITION Any mechanism of active immune avoidance which works by regulating host cytokine networks, e.g. by secreting proteins that mimic cytokine receptors that act to sequester host cytokines and inhibit action.
2004-03-13 GO:0016172 antifreeze activity Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Inhibits the formation of ice crystals in organismal fluid (e.g. blood) at below freezing exogenous temperatures.
2004-03-13 GO:0000046 autophagic vacuole fusion Updated DEFINITION The fusion of an autophagic vacuole with a vacuole (yeast) or lysosome (e.g. mammals and insects). In the case of yeast, inner membrane-bound structures (autophagic bodies) appear in the vacuole.
2004-03-13 GO:0009921 auxin efflux carrier complex Updated DEFINITION The protein complex associated with the plasma membrane of certain plant cells (e.g. root cortex, epidermal cells) that functions to transport auxin out of the cell.
2004-03-13 GO:0019483 beta-alanine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e.g. in brain) and in combination (e.g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2004-03-13 GO:0019484 beta-alanine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e.g. in brain) and in combination (e.g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2004-03-13 GO:0019482 beta-alanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e.g. in brain) and in combination (e.g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2004-03-13 GO:0007114 cell budding Updated DEFINITION A form of asexual reproduction, occurring in certain bacteria and fungi (e.g. yeasts) and some primitive animals in which an individual arises from a daughter cell formed by pinching off a part of the parent cell. The budlike outgrowths so formed may sometimes remain attached to the parent cell.
2004-03-13 GO:0019650 glucose catabolic process to butanediol Updated DEFINITION An anaerobic process in which glucose is fermented, with the production of 2,3-butanediol and other substances; effected by some members of the Enterobacteriaceae, e.g. Enterobacter, Erwinia, Klebsiella, and Serratia.
2004-03-13 GO:0030645 glucose catabolic process to butyrate Updated DEFINITION An anaerobic process in which glucose is fermented, with the production of acetic acid, butyric acid, carbon dioxide (CO2), and dihydrogen; effected by some saccharolytic species of Clostridium, e.g. C. butyricum.
2004-03-13 GO:0030031 cell projection assembly Updated DEFINITION Formation of a prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.
2004-03-13 GO:0030030 cell projection organization Updated DEFINITION The assembly and arrangement of a prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.
2004-03-13 GO:0050975 sensory perception of touch Updated DEFINITION The series of events required for an organism to receive a touch stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. The perception of touch in animals is mediated by mechanoreceptors in the skin and mucous membranes and is the sense by which contact with objects gives evidence as to certain of their qualities. Different types of touch can be perceived (for example, light, coarse, pressure and tickling) and the stimulus may be external or internal (e.g. the feeling of a full stomach).
2004-03-13 GO:0007365 periodic partitioning Updated DEFINITION The partitioning of an embryo into serially repeated regions, e.g. tagmata, segments or parasegments.
2004-03-13 GO:0004645 phosphorylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl(n) + phosphate = 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl(n-1) + alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate. The name should be qualified in each instance by adding the name of the natural substrate, e.g. maltodextrin phosphorylase, starch phosphorylase, glycogen phosphorylase.
2004-03-13 GO:0046148 pigment biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of a pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms, e.g. melanin.
2004-03-13 GO:0046149 pigment catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of a pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms, e.g. melanin.
2004-03-13 GO:0042440 pigment metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms, e.g. melanin.
2004-03-13 GO:0042485 positive regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the rate of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth and used in feeding or procuring food, e.g. a mollusk or starfish tooth. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Protostomia (Protostomia, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33317).
2004-03-13 GO:0006301 postreplication repair Updated DEFINITION Pathways for DNA repair which occur after DNA has replicated, e.g. mismatch repair, and which involve translesion synthesis (TLS-type) DNA polymerases.
2004-03-13 GO:0006486 protein glycosylation Updated DEFINITION The addition of a sugar unit to a protein amino acid, e.g. the addition of glycan chains to proteins.
2004-03-13 GO:0042559 pteridine-containing compound biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e.g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2004-03-13 GO:0042560 pteridine-containing compound catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e.g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2004-03-13 GO:0042558 pteridine-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e.g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2004-03-13 GO:0009079 pyruvate family amino acid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis, e.g. alanine.
2004-03-13 GO:0009080 pyruvate family amino acid catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis, e.g. alanine.
2004-03-13 GO:0009078 pyruvate family amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis, e.g. alanine.
2004-03-13 GO:0043126 regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the activity of the enzyme 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.
2004-03-13 GO:0050793 regulation of developmental process Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of development, the biological processes specifically aimed at the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2004-03-13 GO:0043127 negative regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that stops or reduces the activity of the enzyme 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.
2004-03-13 GO:0042486 negative regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth and used in feeding or procuring food, e.g. a mollusk or starfish tooth. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Protostomia (Protostomia, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33317).
2004-03-13 GO:0043005 neuron projection Updated DEFINITION A prolongation or process extending from a nerve cell, e.g. an axon or dendrite.
2004-03-13 GO:0042564 NLS-dependent protein nuclear import complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex which usually consists of three components, e.g. in Xenopus, the importin alpha and beta-subunits and any protein which has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS). The complex acts to import proteins with an NLS into the nucleus through a nuclear pore.
2004-03-13 GO:0009112 nucleobase metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a nucleobase, a nitrogenous base that is a constituent of a nucleic acid, e.g. the purines: adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine and the pyrimidines: cytosine, uracil, thymine.
2004-03-13 GO:0009116 nucleoside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a nucleoside, a nucleobase linked to either beta-D-ribofuranose (ribonucleoside) or 2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranose, (a deoxyribonucleotide), e.g. adenosine, guanosine, inosine, cytidine, uridine and deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine (= deoxythymidine).
2004-03-13 GO:0043128 positive regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Added DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the activity of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.
2004-03-13 GO:0042477 odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth and used in feeding or procuring food, e.g. a mollusk or starfish tooth. As in, but not restricted to, the taxon Protostomia (Protostomia, ncbi_taxonomy_id:33317).
2004-03-13 GO:0006800 oxygen and reactive oxygen species metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving dioxygen (O2), or any of the reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (-OH).
2004-03-13 GO:0008153 para-aminobenzoic acid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of para-aminobenzoic acid, an intermediate in the synthesis of folic acid, a compound which some organisms, e.g. prokaryotes, eukaryotic microbes, and plants, can synthesize de novo. Others, notably mammals, cannot. In yeast, it is present as a factor in the B complex of vitamins.
2004-03-13 GO:0046482 para-aminobenzoic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving para-aminobenzoic acid, an intermediate in the synthesis of folic acid, a compound which some organisms, e.g. prokaryotes, eukaryotic microbes, and plants, can synthesize de novo. Others, notably mammals, cannot. In yeast, it is present as a factor in the B complex of vitamins.
2004-03-13 GO:0042782 passive evasion of host immune response Updated DEFINITION Any mechanism of immune avoidance that does not directly interfere with the host immune system, e.g. some viruses enter a state of latency where their protein production is drastically downregulated, meaning that they are not detected by the host immune system.
2004-03-13 GO:0042178 xenobiotic catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of a xenobiotic compound, a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e.g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2004-03-13 GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a xenobiotic compound, a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e.g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2004-03-13 GO:0009847 spore germination Updated DEFINITION The physiological and developmental changes that occur in a spore following release from dormancy up to the earliest signs of growth (e.g. emergence from a spore wall).
2004-03-13 GO:0006729 tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e.g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2004-03-13 GO:0046147 tetrahydrobiopterin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e.g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2004-03-13 GO:0046146 tetrahydrobiopterin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e.g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2004-03-13 GO:0030401 transcription antiterminator activity Updated DEFINITION Functions to prevent the termination of RNA synthesis. Acts as a regulatory device, e.g. in phage lambda, enabling a terminator to be masked from RNA polymerase so that distal genes can be expressed.
2004-03-13 GO:0042790 transcription of nuclear large rRNA transcript from RNA polymerase I promoter Updated DEFINITION The synthesis of the large ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcript which encodes several rRNAs, e.g. in mammals 28S, 18S and 5.8S, from a nuclear DNA template.
2004-03-13 GO:0016740 transferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from one compound (generally regarded as the donor) to another compound (generally regarded as the acceptor). Transferase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 2.
2004-03-13 GO:0019783 small conjugating protein-specific protease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various forms of polymeric ubiquitin-like sequences (e.g. APG8, ISG15, NEDD8, SUMO). Will remove ubiquitin-like sequences from larger leaving groups.
2004-03-13 GO:0000324 fungal-type vacuole Updated DEFINITION The vacuole is a large, membrane-bound organelle that functions as a reservoir for the storage of small molecules (including polyphosphate, amino acids, several divalent cations (e.g. calcium), other ions, and other small molecules) as well as being the primary compartment for degradation. It is an acidic compartment, containing an ensemble of acid hydrolases. At least in S. cerevisiae, there are indications that the morphology of the vacuole is variable and correlated with the cell cycle, with logarithmically growing cells having a multilobed, reticulated vacuole, while stationary phase cells contain a single large structure. As in, but not restricted to, the fungi (Fungi, ncbi_taxonomy_id:4751).
2004-03-13 GO:0016840 carbon-nitrogen lyase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the release of ammonia or one of its derivatives, with the formation of a double bond or ring. Enzymes with this activity may catalyze the actual elimination of the ammonia, amine or amide, e.g. CH-CH(-NH-R) = C=CH- + NH2-R. Others, however, catalyze elimination of another component, e.g. water, which is followed by spontaneous reactions that lead to breakage of the C-N bond, e.g. L-serine ammonia-lyase (EC:4.3.1.17), so that the overall reaction is C(-OH)-CH(-NH2) = CH2-CO- + NH3, i. e. an elimination with rearrangement. The sub-subclasses of EC:4.3 are the ammonia-lyases (EC:4.3.1), lyases acting on amides, amidines, etc. (EC:4.3.2), the amine-lyases (EC:4.3.3), and other carbon-nitrogen lyases (EC:4.3.99).
2004-03-13 GO:0030154 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history.
2004-03-13 GO:0042995 cell projection Updated DEFINITION A prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.
2004-03-13 GO:0015778 hexuronide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of hexuronide into, out of, within or between cells. Hexuronides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e.g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of a hexuronate.
2004-03-13 GO:0015163 hexuronide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of hexuronide into, out of, within or between cells. Hexuronides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e.g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of a hexuronate.
2004-03-13 GO:0016787 hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various bonds, e.g. C-O, C-N, C-C, phosphoric anhydride bonds, etc. Hydrolase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 3.
2004-03-13 GO:0042563 importin alpha-subunit nuclear export complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex which usually consists of three components, e.g. in Xenopus, the importin alpha-subunit/CAS/Ran, and which functions to shuttle the importin alpha-subunit out of the nucleus through the nuclear pore.
2004-03-13 GO:0042430 indole-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e.g. serotonin, tryptophan) formed in degradation of tryptophan.
2004-03-13 GO:0042432 indole biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e.g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2004-03-13 GO:0042433 indole catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e.g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2004-03-13 GO:0042431 indole metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e.g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2004-03-13 GO:0000904 cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation Updated DEFINITION The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs when relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history.
2004-03-13 GO:0005694 chromosome Updated DEFINITION A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g. histones) that carries hereditary information.
2004-03-13 GO:0042914 colicin transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a colicin into, out of, within or between cells. Colicins are a group of antibiotics produced by E. coli and related species that are encoded by a group of naturally occurring plasmids, e.g. Col E1.
2004-03-13 GO:0042912 colicin transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of a colicin into, out of, within or between cells. Colicins are a group of antibiotics produced by E. coli and related species that are encoded by a group of naturally occurring plasmids, e.g. Col E1.
2004-03-13 GO:0030413 competence pheromone activity Updated DEFINITION A small peptide excreted by a naturally transformable bacterium (e.g. Bacillus subtilis) that transmits a signal required for the establishment of competence.
2004-03-13 GO:0009462 cytochrome d Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A cytochrome in which the prosthetic group is a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. This definition would appear to include siroheme proteins (e.g. nitrite and sulfite reductases); but these are not cytochromes. Kirill Degtyarenko:Sep 28 13:08:07 2000.
2004-03-13 GO:0007275 multicellular organismal development Updated DEFINITION Biological processes specifically aimed at the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2004-03-13 GO:0006307 DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair Updated DEFINITION The repair of alkylation damage, e.g. the removal of the alkyl group at the O6-position of guanine by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT).
2004-03-13 GO:0006281 DNA repair Updated DEFINITION The process of restoring DNA after damage. Genomes are subject to damage by chemical and physical agents in the environment (e.g. UV and ionizing radiations, chemical mutagens, fungal and bacterial toxins, etc.) and by free radicals or alkylating agents endogenously generated in metabolism. DNA is also damaged because of errors during its replication. A variety of different DNA repair pathways have been reported that include direct reversal, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, photoreactivation, bypass, double-strand break repair pathway, and mismatch repair pathway.
2004-03-13 GO:0050959 echolocation Updated DEFINITION Echolocation is the method used by some animals (e.g. bats, dolphins and some whales) to determine the location of something by measuring the time it takes for an echo to return from it. These animals emit sound waves and listen for the echo, calculating the distance to the object from the time lapse between sound emission and the echo returning.
2004-03-13 GO:0015041 electron transfer flavoprotein, group II Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An electron transfer flavoprotein that functions as a housekeeping protein that is synthesized only under certain specific growth conditions and receives electrons from the oxidation of specific substrates, e.g. trimethylamine, carnitine and in nitrogen fixation.
2004-03-13 GO:0045021 error-free DNA repair Updated DEFINITION DNA repair pathways that do not increase the mutation rate above spontaneous background levels, e.g. excision and recombination pathways.
2004-03-13 GO:0006887 exocytosis Updated DEFINITION The release of intracellular molecules (e.g. hormones, matrix proteins) contained within a membrane-bounded vesicle by fusion of the vesicle with the plasma membrane of a cell. This is the process whereby most molecules are secreted from eukaryotic cells.
2004-03-13 GO:0015779 glucuronoside transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of glucuronosides into, out of, within or between cells. Glucuronosides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e.g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of glucuronate.
2004-03-13 GO:0015164 glucuronoside transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of glucuronosides into, out of, within or between cells. Glucuronosides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e.g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of glucuronate.
2004-03-13 GO:0042765 GPI-anchor transamidase complex Updated DEFINITION An enzyme complex which in humans and yeast consists of at least five proteins, e.g. in humans GAA1, GPI8, PIG-S, PIG-U, and PIG-T. Catalyzes the posttranslational attachment of the carboxyl-terminus of a precursor protein to a GPI-anchor.
2004-03-13 GO:0003773 heat shock protein activity Updated DEFINITION Any of a group of specific proteins that are synthesized by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells after they have been exposed to a temperature that is higher than normal. Other stresses, e.g. free radical damage, have a similar effect. Many members of the hsp family are not induced but are present in all cells. They are characterized by their role as molecular chaperones.
2004-03-13 GO:0016969 hemerythrin Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An oxygen carrier found in a few groups of invertebrates, e.g. sipunculid worms, certain molluscs, and crustaceans.
2004-03-13 GO:0015929 hexosaminidase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the cleavage of hexosamine or N-acetylhexosamine residues (e.g., N-acetylglucosamine) residues from gangliosides or other glycoside oligosaccharides.
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