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GO Term History: Displaying 500 audit records for all terms for the date 2003-04-24

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Introduction

This page displays the differences recorded in the full Gene Ontology OBO v1.2 file as audited by the UniProt-GOA database during its daily update cycle.
If there is any delay in uploading the current OBO file, the changes displayed and the date recorded for these changes may not correspond to when the changes to the OBO file were committed.

All changes

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2003-04-24 GO:0017178 diphthine-ammonia ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + diphthine + ammonia (ammonia) = ADP + phosphate + diphthamide.
2003-04-24 GO:0006307 DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair Updated DEFINITION The repair of alkylation damage, e. g. the removal of the alkyl group at the O6-position of guanine by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT).
2003-04-24 GO:0006281 DNA repair Updated DEFINITION The process of restoring DNA after damage. Genomes are subject to damage by chemical and physical agents in the environment (e. g. UV and ionizing radiations, chemical mutagens, fungal and bacterial toxins, etc.) and by free radicals or alkylating agents endogenously generated in metabolism. DNA is also damaged because of errors during its replication. A variety of different DNA repair pathways have been reported that include direct reversal, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, photoreactivation, bypass, double-strand break repair pathway, and mismatch repair pathway.
2003-04-24 GO:0003899 DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: nucleoside triphosphate + RNA(n) = diphosphate + RNA(n+1) while utilizing a DNA template, i. e. the catalysis of DNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time. Can initiate a chain 'de novo'.
2003-04-24 GO:0005736 DNA-directed RNA polymerase I complex Updated DEFINITION RNA polymerase I, one of three eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases, is a multisubunit complex; it produces rRNAs. Two large subunits comprise the most conserved portion including the catalytic site and share similarity with other eukaryotic and bacterial multisubunit RNA polymerases. The remainder of the complex is composed of smaller subunits (generally ten or more), some of which are also found in RNA polymerase III and others which are found in all three nuclear RNA polymerases. Although the core is competent to mediate ribonucleic acid synthesis, it requires additional factors to select the appropriate template.
2003-04-24 GO:0005665 DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, core complex Updated DEFINITION RNA polymerase II, one of three eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases, is a multisubunit complex; it produces mRNAs, snoRNAs, and some of the snRNAs. Two large subunits comprise the most conserved portion including the catalytic site and share similarity with other eukaryotic and bacterial multisubunit RNA polymerases. The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II contains an essential carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) composed of a variable number of heptapeptide repeats (YSPTSPS). The remainder of the complex is composed of smaller subunits (generally ten or more), some of which are also found in RNA polymerases I and III. Although the core is competent to mediate ribonucleic acid synthesis, it requires additional factors to select the appropriate template.
2003-04-24 GO:0005666 DNA-directed RNA polymerase III complex Updated DEFINITION RNA polymerase III, one of three eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases, is a multisubunit complex; it produces tRNAs and some of the snRNAs. Two large subunits comprise the most conserved portion including the catalytic site and share similarity with other eukaryotic and bacterial multisubunit RNA polymerases. The remainder of the complex is composed of smaller subunits (generally ten or more), some of which are also found in RNA polymerase I and others which are found in all three nuclear RNA polymerases. Although the core is competent to mediate ribonucleic acid synthesis, it requires additional factors to select the appropriate template.
2003-04-24 GO:0006302 double-strand break repair Updated DEFINITION The repair of double-strand breaks in DNA via homologous and nonhomologous mechanisms to reform a continuous DNA helix.
2003-04-24 GO:0000724 double-strand break repair via homologous recombination Updated DEFINITION The error-free repair of a double-strand break in DNA in which the broken DNA molecule is repaired using homologous sequences. A strand in the broken DNA searches for a homologous region in an intact chromosome to serve as the template for DNA synthesis. The restoration of two intact DNA molecules results in the exchange, reciprocal or nonreciprocal, of genetic material between the intact DNA molecule and the broken DNA molecule.
2003-04-24 GO:0016010 dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that forms the critical link between the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix; typical of, but not confined, to muscle cells. The constituents of the complex are somewhat tissue specific. The rod-like dystrophin forms a link between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane; links between dystrophin and the extracellular matrix are provided by the sarcoglycan complex.
2003-04-24 GO:0015041 electron transfer flavoprotein, group II Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An electron transfer flavoprotein that functions as a housekeeping protein that is synthesized only under certain specific growth conditions and receives electrons from the oxidation of specific substrates, e. g. trimethylamine, carnitine and in nitrogen fixation.
2003-04-24 GO:0010086 embryonic root morphogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation and development of the embryonic root.
2003-04-24 GO:0010064 embryonic shoot morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The formation and development of the embryonic shoot.
2003-04-24 GO:0004318 enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADH) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NAD+ = trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NADH + H+.
2003-04-24 GO:0004319 enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NADP+ = trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NADPH + H+.
2003-04-24 GO:0003825 alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming) activity Deleted SYNONYM UDPglucose:D-glucose-6-phosphate 1-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase
2003-04-24 GO:0003945 N-acetyllactosamine synthase activity Deleted SYNONYM UDPgalactose:N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-beta-D-galactosyltransferase
2003-04-24 GO:0005360 insulin-responsive hydrogen:glucose symporter activity Deleted SYNONYM trans-epithelial hydrogen/glucose transporter
2003-04-24 GO:0005361 transepithelial hydrogen:glucose symporter activity Deleted SYNONYM trans-epithelial hydrogen/glucose transporter
2003-04-24 GO:0005925 focal adhesion Deleted SYNONYM hemiadherens junction
2003-04-24 GO:0015643 toxic substance binding Deleted SYNONYM anti-toxin
2003-04-24 GO:0019057 modulation by virus of host translation Deleted SYNONYM host cell protein synthesis shut-off
2003-04-24 GO:0019057 modulation by virus of host translation Deleted SYNONYM host cell shut-off
2003-04-24 GO:0045087 innate immune response Deleted SYNONYM non-specific immune response
2003-04-24 GO:0003825 alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming) activity Added SYNONYM UDP-glucose:D-glucose-6-phosphate 1-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase
2003-04-24 GO:0003945 N-acetyllactosamine synthase activity Added SYNONYM UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-beta-D-galactosyltransferase
2003-04-24 GO:0005360 insulin-responsive hydrogen:glucose symporter activity Added SYNONYM transepithelial hydrogen/glucose transporter
2003-04-24 GO:0005361 transepithelial hydrogen:glucose symporter activity Added SYNONYM transepithelial hydrogen/glucose transporter
2003-04-24 GO:0005925 focal adhesion Added SYNONYM hemi-adherens junction
2003-04-24 GO:0015643 toxic substance binding Added SYNONYM antitoxin
2003-04-24 GO:0019057 modulation by virus of host translation Added SYNONYM host cell protein synthesis shutoff
2003-04-24 GO:0019057 modulation by virus of host translation Added SYNONYM host cell shutoff
2003-04-24 GO:0042716 plasma membrane-derived chromatophore Added SYNONYM chromatophore vesicle
2003-04-24 GO:0045087 innate immune response Added SYNONYM nonspecific immune response
2003-04-24 GO:0006729 tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e. g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0046147 tetrahydrobiopterin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e. g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0046146 tetrahydrobiopterin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e. g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0015619 thiamine pyrophosphate-transporting ATPase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + (thiamin or thiamin pyrophosphate)(in) = ADP + phosphate + (thiamin or thiamin pyrophosphate)(out).
2003-04-24 GO:0004791 thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: NADPH + H+ + thioredoxin disulfide (oxidized thioredoxin) = NADP+ + reduced thioredoxin.
2003-04-24 GO:0015500 threonine/serine:sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (threonine or serine)(out) + Na+(out) = (threonine or serine)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0018810 trans-4-[2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl]-2-oxo-3-butenoate hydratase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: trans-4-(2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoate + H2O = pyruvate + 3-hydroxy-2-formylbenzothiophene.
2003-04-24 GO:0030401 transcription antiterminator activity Updated DEFINITION Functions to prevent the termination of RNA synthesis. Acts as a regulatory device, e. g. in phage lambda, enabling a terminator to be masked from RNA polymerase so that distal genes can be expressed.
2003-04-24 GO:0016740 transferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a group, e. g. the methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from one compound (generally regarded as the donor) to another compound (generally regarded as the acceptor). Transferase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 2.
2003-04-24 GO:0042497 triacyl lipopeptide binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a three acyl groups.
2003-04-24 GO:0010090 trichome morphogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation and development of plant hair cells (trichomes).
2003-04-24 GO:0009710 tropane alkaloid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of tropane alkaloids, compounds containing the 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo(3.2.1)octane ring system.
2003-04-24 GO:0046448 tropane alkaloid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving tropane alkaloids, compounds containing the 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo(3.2.1)octane ring system.
2003-04-24 GO:0019799 tubulin N-acetyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + (alpha-tubulin) L-lysine = CoA + (alpha-tubulin) N6-acetyl-L-lysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0019783 small conjugating protein-specific protease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various forms of polymeric ubiquitin-like sequences (e. g. APG8, ISG15, NEDD8, SUMO). Will remove ubiquitin-like sequences from larger leaving groups.
2003-04-24 GO:0000324 fungal-type vacuole Updated DEFINITION The fungal vacuole is a large, membrane-bound organelle that functions as a reservoir for the storage of small molecules (including polyphosphate, amino acids, several divalent cations (e. g. calcium), other ions, and other small molecules) as well as being the primary compartment for degradation. It is an acidic compartment, containing an ensemble of acid hydrolases. At least in S. cerevisiae, there are indications that the morphology of the vacuole is variable and correlated with the cell cycle, with logarithmically growing cells having a multilobed, reticulated vacuole, while stationary phase cells contain a single large structure.
2003-04-24 GO:0042039 vanadium incorporation into metallo-sulfur cluster Updated DEFINITION The incorporation of vanadium a metallo-sulfur cluster such as VFe(7-8)S(n).
2003-04-24 GO:0010087 phloem or xylem histogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation of the conducting tissues of a vascular plant.
2003-04-24 GO:0019082 viral protein processing Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational processing of viral proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0042178 xenobiotic catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of a xenobiotic compound, a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e. g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2003-04-24 GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a xenobiotic compound, a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e. g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2003-04-24 GO:0010089 xylem development Added DEFINITION The formation of the principal water-conducting tissue of a vascular plant.
2003-04-24 GO:0046525 xylosylprotein 4-beta-galactosyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-galactose + O-beta-D-xylosylprotein = UDP + 4-beta-D-galactosyl-O-beta-D-xylosylprotein.
2003-04-24 GO:0042718 yolk granule Added DEFINITION Discrete structures that partition the yolk of oocytes and ova, which may or may not be membrane enclosed.
2003-04-24 GO:0015340 zinc, cadmium uptake permease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Zn2+ or Cd2+)(out) = (Zn2+ or Cd2+)(in). The activity is driven by proton motive force, possibly by proton symport.
2003-04-24 GO:0015342 zinc, iron permease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Zn2+ or Fe2+)(out) = (Zn2+ or Fe2+)(in), probably powered by proton motive force.
2003-04-24 GO:0016297 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = (acyl-carrier protein) + oleate.
2003-04-24 GO:0008770 [acyl-carrier-protein] phosphodiesterase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = 4'-phosphopantetheine + apoprotein.
2003-04-24 GO:0004313 [acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + (acyl-carrier protein) = CoA + acetyl-(acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0004314 [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: malonyl-CoA + (acyl-carrier protein) = CoA + malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0019650 glucose catabolic process to butanediol Updated DEFINITION An anaerobic process in which glucose is fermented, with the production of 2,3-butanediol and other substances; effected by some members of the Enterobacteriaceae, e. g. Enterobacter, Erwinia, Klebsiella, and Serratia.
2003-04-24 GO:0030645 glucose catabolic process to butyrate Updated DEFINITION An anaerobic process in which glucose is fermented, with the production of acetic acid, butyric acid, carbon dioxide, and dihydrogen; effected by some saccharolytic species of Clostridium, e. g. C. butyricum.
2003-04-24 GO:0018166 C-terminal protein-tyrosinylation Updated DEFINITION The ATP-dependent posttranslational addition of a tyrosine residue to the C-terminus of a protein; typically the addition of tyrosine to the C-terminus of detyrosinated alpha-tubulin by the enzyme tubulin-tyrosine ligase (GO:0004835).
2003-04-24 GO:0016840 carbon-nitrogen lyase activity Updated DEFINITION The carbon-nitrogen lyases are enzymes that release ammonia or one of its derivatives, with the formation of a double bond or ring. Some catalyze the actual elimination of the ammonia, amine or amide, e. g. CH-CH(-NH-R) = C=CH- + NH2-R. Others, however, catalyze elimination of another component, e. g. water, which is followed by spontaneous reactions that lead to breakage of the C-N bond, e. g. L-serine ammonia-lyase (EC:4.3.1.17), so that the overall reaction is C(-OH)-CH(-NH2) = CH2-CO- + NH3, i. e. an elimination with rearrangement. The sub-subclasses of EC:4.3 are the ammonia-lyases (EC:4.3.1), lyases acting on amides, amidines, etc. (EC:4.3.2), the amine-lyases (EC:4.3.3), and other carbon-nitrogen lyases (EC:4.3.99).
2003-04-24 GO:0030154 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby relatively unspecialized cells, e. g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history.
2003-04-24 GO:0000904 cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation Updated DEFINITION The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs when relatively unspecialized cells, e. g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history.
2003-04-24 GO:0016761 cellulose synthase (GDP-forming) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: GDP-glucose + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n) = GDP + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n+1).
2003-04-24 GO:0016760 cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n) = UDP + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n+1).
2003-04-24 GO:0004100 chitin synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + ((1,4)-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl))(n) = UDP + ((1,4)-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl))(n+1).
2003-04-24 GO:0042600 chorion Updated DEFINITION A protective, noncellular membrane that surrounds the eggs of various animals including insects and fish.
2003-04-24 GO:0046417 chorismate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving chorismate, the anion of (3R-trans)-3-((1-carboxyethenyl)oxy)-4-hydroxy-1,5-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0042716 plasma membrane-derived chromatophore Added DEFINITION A membrane enclosed, pigment-bearing vesicle found in certain photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria, derived from invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0042717 plasma membrane-derived chromatophore membrane Added DEFINITION The membrane of a chromatophore, a pigment-bearing vesicle found in certain photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria.
2003-04-24 GO:0005694 chromosome Updated DEFINITION A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e. g. histones) that carries hereditary information.
2003-04-24 GO:0019930 cis-14-hydroxy-10,13-dioxo-7-heptadecenoic acid peptidyl-aspartate ester biosynthetic process from peptidyl-aspartic acid Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-aspartic acid to form peptidyl-cis-14-hydroxy-10,13-dioxo-7-heptadecenoic acid aspartate ester, typical of the barley lipid transfer protein 1.
2003-04-24 GO:0018839 cis-4-[2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl]-2-oxo-3-butenoate isomerase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cis-4-(2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoate = trans-4-(2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoate.
2003-04-24 GO:0015339 cobalt, zinc uptake permease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Zn2+ or Co2+)(out) = (Zn2+ or Co2+)(in). The activity is driven by proton motive force, possibly by proton symport.
2003-04-24 GO:0019298 coenzyme B biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate), a coenzyme involved in the utilization of methane by methanogenic prokaryotes.
2003-04-24 GO:0019297 coenzyme B metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate), a coenzyme involved in the utilization of methane by methanogenic prokaryotes.
2003-04-24 GO:0030413 competence pheromone activity Updated DEFINITION A small peptide excreted by a naturally transformable bacterium (e. g. Bacillus subtilis) that transmits a signal required for the establishment of competence.
2003-04-24 GO:0000777 condensed chromosome kinetochore Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the pericentric region of a condensed chromosome and provides an attachment point for the spindle microtubules.
2003-04-24 GO:0000778 condensed nuclear chromosome kinetochore Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the pericentric region of a condensed chromosome in the nucleus and provides an attachment point for the spindle microtubules.
2003-04-24 GO:0000796 condensin complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit protein complex that plays a central role in chromosome condensation.
2003-04-24 GO:0000797 condensin core heterodimer Updated DEFINITION The core heterodimer of a condensin complex, a multisubunit protein complex that plays a central role in chromosome condensation.
2003-04-24 GO:0019135 deoxyhypusine monooxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: protein N6-(4-aminobutyl)-L-lysine + AH2 + O2 = protein N6-((R)-4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)-L-lysine + A + H2O.
2003-04-24 GO:0004171 deoxyhypusine synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (eIF5A-precursor)-lysine + spermidine = (eIF5A-precursor)-deoxyhypusine + propane-1,3-diamine.
2003-04-24 GO:0030208 dermatan sulfate biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of dermatan sulfate, any of a group of glycosaminoglycans with repeats consisting of beta1->4-linked L-iduronyl-(beta1->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units.
2003-04-24 GO:0030209 dermatan sulfate catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of dermatan sulfate, any of a group of glycosaminoglycans with repeats consisting of beta1->4-linked L-iduronyl-(beta1->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units.
2003-04-24 GO:0030205 dermatan sulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving dermatan sulfate, any of a group of glycosaminoglycans with repeats consisting of beta1->4-linked L-iduronyl-(beta1->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units. They are important components of ground substance or intercellular cement of skin and some connective tissues.
2003-04-24 GO:0007275 multicellular organismal development Updated DEFINITION Biological processes specifically aimed at the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e. g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e. g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2003-04-24 GO:0042498 diacyl lipopeptide binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a two acyl groups.
2003-04-24 GO:0008353 RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain kinase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (DNA-directed RNA polymerase) = ADP + phospho-(DNA-directed RNA polymerase).
2003-04-24 GO:0018565 dihydroxydibenzothiophene dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1,2-dihydroxydibenzothiophene + O2 = cis-4-(2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoate.
2003-04-24 GO:0004164 diphthine synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 2-(3-carboxy-3-aminopropyl)-L-histidine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 2-(3-carboxy-3-(methylammonio)propyl)-L-histidine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018243 protein O-linked glycosylation via threonine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the O3 atom of peptidyl-threonine, forming O3-glycosyl-L-threonine; the most common forms are N-acetylgalactosaminyl, mannosyl, and galactosyl threonine.
2003-04-24 GO:0016070 RNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving RNA, ribonucleic acid, one of the two main type of nucleic acid, consisting of a long, unbranched macromolecule formed from ribonucleotides joined in 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage.
2003-04-24 GO:0042565 RNA nuclear export complex Updated DEFINITION A complex which usually consists of three components e. g. in Xenopus and yeast, the export receptor CRM1 (also known as exportin 1), the Ran protein and any RNA with a nuclear export sequence (NES). The complex acts to export RNA molecules with a NES from the nucleus through a nuclear pore.
2003-04-24 GO:0010094 specification of carpel identity Added DEFINITION The process by which a floral organ primordium acquires the carpel identity.
2003-04-24 GO:0018245 protein O-linked glycosylation via tyrosine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the O4' atom of peptidyl-tyrosine, O4'-glycosyl-L-tyrosine; the carbohydrate is glucose, the origin for glycogen.
2003-04-24 GO:0042477 odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth of various invertebrates and used in feeding or procuring food e. g. a mollusk or starfish tooth.
2003-04-24 GO:0004320 oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = (acyl-carrier protein) + oleate.
2003-04-24 GO:0000808 origin recognition complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the replication origins of a chromosome.
2003-04-24 GO:0006800 oxygen and reactive oxygen species metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving molecular oxygen (O2), or any of the reactive oxygen species e. g. superoxide anions (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (-OH).
2003-04-24 GO:0016296 palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = (acyl-carrier protein) + oleate.
2003-04-24 GO:0008153 para-aminobenzoic acid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of para-aminobenzoic acid, an intermediate in the synthesis of folic acid, a compound which some organisms, e. g. prokaryotes, eukaryotic microbes, and plants, can synthesize de novo. Others, notably mammals, cannot. In yeast, it is present as a factor in the B complex of vitamins.
2003-04-24 GO:0046482 para-aminobenzoic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving para-aminobenzoic acid, an intermediate in the synthesis of folic acid, a compound which some organisms, e. g. prokaryotes, eukaryotic microbes, and plants, can synthesize de novo. Others, notably mammals, cannot. In yeast, it is present as a factor in the B complex of vitamins.
2003-04-24 GO:0042382 paraspeckles Updated DEFINITION Discrete subnuclear bodies in the interchromatin nucleoplasmic space, often located adjacent to nuclear specks. 10-20 paraspeckles are typically found in human cell nuclei.
2003-04-24 GO:0001519 peptide amidation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational conversion of C-terminal glycine-extended peptides to C-terminal alpha-amidated peptides. Occurs to over half of all peptide hormones to give bioactive peptides. This is a two step process catalyzed by a peptidyl-glycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase and a peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase. In some organisms, this process is catalyzed by two separate enzymes, whereas in higher organisms, one polypeptide catalyzes both reactions.
2003-04-24 GO:0018081 peptide cross-linking via lanthionine or 3-methyl-lanthionine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational synthesis of (2R,6R)-lanthionine, sn-(2S,6R)-lanthionine or (2S,3S,6R)-3-methyl-lanthionine, forming an intra-polypeptide cross-link between peptidyl-cysteine, and peptidyl-serine or peptidyl-threonine; dehydration of the serine or threonine residue to the alpha,beta-unsaturated amino acid is the first step; a bond then forms between the ethylene group thus formed and the sulfur atom of a cysteine, with the inversion of the configuration of the alpha carbon of the serine or threonine occurring during the process.
2003-04-24 GO:0010093 specification of floral organ identity Added DEFINITION The process by which the identity of a floral organ primordium is specified.
2003-04-24 GO:0010084 specification of organ axis polarity Added DEFINITION The process by which the polarity of an organ axis is specified.
2003-04-24 GO:0000341 RNA trimethylguanosine cap binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with the trimethylguanosine (m(3)(2,2,7)-GTP) moiety located at the 5' end of some RNA molecules. Such trimethylated cap structures, generally produced by post-transcriptional modification of a 7-methylguanosine cap, are often found on snRNAs and snoRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase II, but have also be found on snRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III. They have also been found on a subset of the mRNA population in some species, e. g. C. elegans.
2003-04-24 GO:0018240 protein S-linked glycosylation via cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the sulfur atom of peptidyl-cysteine, forming S-glycosyl-L-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0016909 SAP kinase activity Updated DEFINITION A family of protein kinases that perform a crucial step in relaying signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Strongly activated by stress signals such as heat or osmotic shock, DNA-damaging agents, inhibitors of protein synthesis and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
2003-04-24 GO:0001514 selenocysteine incorporation Updated DEFINITION The incorporation of selenocysteine into a peptide; uses a special tRNA that recognizes the UGA codon as selenocysteine, rather than as a termination codon. Selenocysteine is synthesized from serine before its incorporation, it is not a posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0019953 sexual reproduction Updated DEFINITION The regular alternation, in the life cycle of haplontic, diplontic and diplohaplontic organisms, of meiosis and fertilization which provides for the production of offspring. In diplontic organisms there is a life cycle in which the products of meiosis behave directly as gametes, fusing to form a zygote from which the diploid, or sexually reproductive polyploid, adult organism will develop. In diplohaplontic organisms a haploid phase (gametophyte) exists in the life cycle between meiosis and fertilization (e. g. higher plants, many algae and fungi); the products of meiosis are spores that develop as haploid individuals from which haploid gametes develop to form a diploid zygote; diplohaplontic organisms show an alternation of haploid and diploid generations. In haplontic organisms meiosis occurs in the zygote, giving rise to four haploid cells (e. g. many algae and protozoa), only the zygote is diploid and this may form a resistant spore, tiding organisms over hard times.
2003-04-24 GO:0019290 siderophore biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of siderochromes, low molecular weight Fe(III)-chelating substances made by aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria, especially when growing under iron deficient conditions. The complexes of Fe(3+)-siderochromes have very high stability constants and are taken up by specific transport systems by microorganisms; the subsequent release of iron requires enzymatic action.
2003-04-24 GO:0046215 siderophore catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of siderochromes, low molecular weight Fe(III)-chelating substances made by aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria, especially when growing under iron deficient conditions. The complexes of Fe(3+)-siderochromes have very high stability constants and are taken up by specific transport systems by microorganisms; the subsequent release of iron requires enzymatic action.
2003-04-24 GO:0009237 siderophore metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving siderochromes, low molecular weight Fe(III)-chelating substances made by aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria, especially when growing under iron deficient conditions. The complexes of Fe(3+)-siderochromes have very high stability constants and are taken up by specific transport systems by microorganisms; the subsequent release of iron requires enzymatic action.
2003-04-24 GO:0015344 siderophore uptake transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: siderochrome-iron(ferrioxamine)(out) + H+(out) = siderochrome-iron(ferrioxamine)(in) + H+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0030532 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex Updated DEFINITION Any of various particulate complexes of proteins with molecules of small nuclear RNA (snRNA), found in the eukaryotic nucleus; the particles are 250 kDa. They are named according to the snRNAs they contain: the U4/U6 snRNP, e. g. contains U4 and U6 snRNA. They are involved in RNA splicing (see spliceosome). Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus make antibodies directed against one or more snRNPs.
2003-04-24 GO:0005311 sodium:dicarboxylate/tricarboxylate symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (dicarboxylate or tricarboxylate)(out) + Na+(out) = (dicarboxylate or tricarboxylate)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0010092 specification of organ identity Added DEFINITION The process by which the identity of an organ primordium is specified.
2003-04-24 GO:0010095 specification of petal identity Added DEFINITION The process by which a floral organ primordium acquires petal identity.
2003-04-24 GO:0010096 specification of sepal identity Added DEFINITION The process by which a floral organ primordium acquires sepal identity.
2003-04-24 GO:0010097 specification of stamen identity Added DEFINITION The process by which a floral organ primordium acquires stamen or staminode identity.
2003-04-24 GO:0009847 spore germination Updated DEFINITION The physiological and developmental changes that occur in a spore following release from dormancy up to the earliest signs of growth (e. g. emergence from a spore wall).
2003-04-24 GO:0010103 stomatal complex morphogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation and development of the stomatal guard cells and their associated epidermal cells.
2003-04-24 GO:0042709 succinate-CoA ligase complex Updated DEFINITION A heterodimeric enzyme complex, usually composed of an alpha and beta chain. Functions in the TCA cycle, hydrolyzing succinyl-CoA into succinate and CoA, thereby forming ATP or GTP.
2003-04-24 GO:0009361 succinate-CoA ligase complex (ADP-forming) Updated DEFINITION A heterodimeric enzyme complex, composed of an alpha and beta chain, most usually found in (but not limited to) bacteria. Functions in the TCA cycle, hydrolyzing succinyl-CoA into succinate and CoA, thereby forming ATP.
2003-04-24 GO:0045244 succinate-CoA ligase complex (GDP-forming) Updated DEFINITION A heterodimeric enzyme complex, usually composed of an alpha and beta chain and found in eukaryotes. Functions in the TCA cycle, hydrolyzing succinyl-CoA into succinate and CoA, thereby forming GTP.
2003-04-24 GO:0046524 sucrose-phosphate synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + D-fructose 6-phosphate = UDP + sucrose 6-phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0010098 suspensor development Added DEFINITION The formation and development of the suspensor, the extension at the base of the embryo that anchors the embryo in the embryo sac and pushes it into the endosperm.
2003-04-24 GO:0045202 synapse Updated DEFINITION The junction between a nerve fiber of one neuron and another neuron or muscle fiber or glial cell; the site of interneuronal communication. As the nerve fiber approaches the synapse it enlarges into a specialized structure, the presynaptic nerve ending, which contains mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. At the tip of the nerve ending is the presynaptic membrane; facing it, and separated from it by a minute cleft (the synaptic cleft) is a specialized area of membrane on the receiving cell, known as the post-synaptic membrane. In response to the arrival of nerve impulses, the presynaptic nerve ending secretes molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and transmit the signal to the post-synaptic membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0010091 trichome branching Added DEFINITION The processes involved in the formation of branches in plant hair cells (trichomes).
2003-04-24 GO:0009460 cytochrome b Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A cytochrome containing noncovalently bound protoheme (iron protoporphyrin IX; heme b).
2003-04-24 GO:0009463 cytochrome b/b6 Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Diheme cytochrome b; cytochrome b has the hemes b(562) and b(566) and is a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III. Cytochrome b6 is a component of bc complex acting between photosystems II and I of photosynthesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0004128 cytochrome-b5 reductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: NADH + H+ + 2 ferricytochrome b(5) = NAD+ + 2 ferrocytochrome b(5).
2003-04-24 GO:0009462 cytochrome d Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A cytochrome in which the prosthetic group is a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. This definition would appear to include siroheme proteins (e. g. nitrite and sulfite reductases); but these are not cytochromes. Kirill Degtyarenko:Sep 28 13:08:07 2000.
2003-04-24 GO:0000787 cytoplasmic nucleosome Updated DEFINITION A complex comprised of DNA wound around a multisubunit core and associated proteins, which forms the primary packing unit of DNA in the cytoplasm into higher order structures.
2003-04-24 GO:0000809 cytoplasmic origin of replication recognition complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the replication origins of a chromosome in the cytoplasm.
2003-04-24 GO:0000345 cytosolic DNA-directed RNA polymerase complex Updated DEFINITION The eubacterial DNA-directed RNA polymerase is a multisubunit complex with a core composed of the essential subunits beta-prime, beta, and two copies of alpha and a fifth nonessential subunit called omega. An additional subunit, a sigma factor, is required for promoter recognition and specificity.
2003-04-24 GO:0008771 [citrate (pro-3S)-lyase] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + acetate + (citrate (pro-3S)-lyase) (thiol form) = AMP + diphosphate + (citrate (pro-3S)-lyase) (acetyl form).
2003-04-24 GO:0016275 [cytochrome c]-arginine N-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + (cytochrome c)-arginine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + (cytochrome c)-N(omega)-methyl-arginine.
2003-04-24 GO:0008772 [isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+)] kinase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP)) = ADP + (isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP)) phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0030586 [methionine synthase] reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (methionine synthase)-cob(II)alamin + NADPH + H+ + S-adenosyl methionine = (methionine synthase)-methylcob(I)alamin + S-adenosylhomocysteine + NADP+.
2003-04-24 GO:0016277 [myelin basic protein]-arginine N-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + (myelin basic protein)-arginine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + (myelin basic protein)-N(omega)-methyl-arginine.
2003-04-24 GO:0008773 [protein-PII] uridylyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UTP + (protein-PII) = diphosphate + uridylyl-(protein-PII).
2003-04-24 GO:0008021 synaptic vesicle Updated DEFINITION Secretory organelles, some 50 nm in diameter, of presynaptic nerve terminals; accumulate high concentrations of neurotransmitters and secrete these into the synaptic cleft by fusion with the 'active zone' of the presynaptic plasma membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0019717 synaptosome Updated DEFINITION Any of the discrete particles (nerve-ending particles) formed from the clublike presynaptic nerve endings that resist disruption and are snapped or torn off their attachments when brain tissue is homogenized in media isosmotic to plasma.
2003-04-24 GO:0006864 pyrimidine nucleotide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a pyrimidine nucleotide, any compound consisting of a pyrimidine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015218 pyrimidine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of a pyrimidine nucleotide, any compound consisting of a pyrimidine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015389 pyrimidine- and adenine-specific:sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (pyrimidine nucleoside or adenine)(out) + Na+(out) = (pyrimidine nucleoside or adenine)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0004740 pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) = ADP + (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0004741 [pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)] phosphatase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) phosphate + H2O = (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) + phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0019906 [pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)] phosphatase, intrinsic catalyst activity Updated DEFINITION Catalytic activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) phosphatase, an enzyme which catalyzes the reaction: (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) phosphate + H2O = (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) + phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0019909 [pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)] phosphatase regulator activity Updated DEFINITION Regulatory activity for pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) phosphatase, an enzyme which catalyzes the reaction: (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) phosphate + H2O = (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) + phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0045250 cytosolic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Complex that carries out the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl-CoA in bacteria; comprises subunits possessing three catalytic activities: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (E2), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). Usually contains fewer subunits than its eukaryotic counterpart; for example, the E. coli complex contains 12 E1 dimers, 8 E2 trimers, and 6 E3 dimers arranged in highly symmetric cubic order.
2003-04-24 GO:0009079 pyruvate family amino acid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis e. g. alanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0009080 pyruvate family amino acid catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis e. g. alanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0009078 pyruvate family amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis, e. g. alanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0000725 recombinational repair Updated DEFINITION The repair of damaged DNA that involves the exchange, reciprocal or nonreciprocal, of genetic material between the broken DNA molecule and a homologous region of DNA.
2003-04-24 GO:0010080 regulation of floral meristem growth Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the size and shape of a floral meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0010081 regulation of inflorescence meristem growth Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the size and shape of an inflorescence meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0042484 regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth of various invertebrates and used in feeding or procuring food e. g. a mollusk or starfish tooth.
2003-04-24 GO:0010099 regulation of photomorphogenesis Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the rate or extent of photomorphogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0010082 regulation of root meristem growth Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the size and shape of a root meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0010083 regulation of vegetative meristem growth Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the size and shape of a vegetative meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0019430 removal of superoxide radicals Updated DEFINITION The processes involved in removing superoxide radicals (O2-) from a cell or organism, e. g. by conversion to molecular oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
2003-04-24 GO:0046678 response to bacteriocin Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of the organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of exposure to any bacteriocin, a protein substance released by certain bacteria that kills but does not lyse closely related strains of bacteria. Specific bacteriocins attach to specific receptors on cell walls and induce specific metabolic block, e. g. cessation of nucleic acid or protein synthesis of oxidative phosphorylation.
2003-04-24 GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species e. g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals.
2003-04-24 GO:0006950 response to stress Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) that occurs in response to stress, usually, but not necessarily exogenous (e. g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation).
2003-04-24 GO:0019289 rhizobactin 1021 biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of rhizobactin 1021, (E)-4-((3-(acetylhydroxyamino)propyl)-amino)-2-hydroxy-(2-(2-(3-(hydroxy(1-oxo-2-decenyl)amino)propyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid, a siderophore produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti.
2003-04-24 GO:0046494 rhizobactin 1021 metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving rhizobactin 1021, (E)-4-((3-(acetylhydroxyamino)propyl)-amino)-2-hydroxy-(2-(2-(3-(hydroxy(1-oxo-2-decenyl)amino)propyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid, a siderophore produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti.
2003-04-24 GO:0009452 7-methylguanosine RNA capping Updated DEFINITION The sequence of enzymatic reactions by which the 5' cap structure, an inverted 7-methylguanosine linked via a 5'-5' triphosphate bridge (m7G(5')ppp(5')X) to the first transcribed residue, is added to a nascent RNA polymerase II transcript.
2003-04-24 GO:0006401 RNA catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of RNA, ribonucleic acid, one of the two main type of nucleic acid, consisting of a long, unbranched macromolecule formed from ribonucleotides joined in 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage.
2003-04-24 GO:0006278 RNA-dependent DNA replication Updated DEFINITION The process whereby new strands of DNA are synthesized, using RNA as a template for RNA-dependent DNA polymerases (e. g. reverse transcriptase) that synthesize the new strands.
2003-04-24 GO:0030106 MHC class I receptor activity Updated DEFINITION A major histocompatibility complex class I receptor. These display processed antigens from the endocytosed bacteria. MHC class I proteins can form complexes with processed antigen peptides only if the antigen is synthesized in the same cell. As a consequence, T lymphocytes can only bind to class-I-positive cells that are synthesizing the antigen (e. g. virus-infected cells).
2003-04-24 GO:0010100 negative regulation of photomorphogenesis Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, reduces or prevents photomorphogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0005874 microtubule Updated DEFINITION Any of the long, generally straight, hollow tubes of internal diameter 12-15 nm and external diameter 24 nm found in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells; each consists (usually) of 13 protofilaments of polymeric tubulin, staggered in such a manner that the tubulin monomers are arranged in a helical pattern on the microtubular surface, and with the alpha/beta axes of the tubulin subunits parallel to the long axis of the tubule; exist in equilibrium with pool of tubulin monomers and can be rapidly assembled or disassembled in response to physiological stimuli; concerned with force generation, e. g. in the spindle.
2003-04-24 GO:0007026 negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization Updated DEFINITION Prevention of depolymerization of a microtubule; can result from binding by 'capping' at the plus end (e. g. by interaction with another cellular protein of structure) or by exposing microtubules to a stabilizing drug such as taxol.
2003-04-24 GO:0006312 mitotic recombination Updated DEFINITION The exchange, reciprocal or nonreciprocal, of genetic material between one DNA molecule and a homologous region of DNA that occurs during mitotic cell cycles.
2003-04-24 GO:0006777 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e. g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum coordinated by the dithiolene moiety of a family of tricyclic pyranopterins containing a cis-dithiolene group in their pyran ring. Enzymes containing a pyranopterin cofactor and either Mo or W are found in all phyla and some of these catalyze important transformations in the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycle. These reactions generally involve redox chemistry at the active site with the metal cycling between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. The formation from simpler components of the Mo/W-cofactor is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and genes involved in Moco biosynthesis have been identified in eubacteria, Archaea and eukaryotes.
2003-04-24 GO:0019720 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving Mo-molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e. g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase.
2003-04-24 GO:0001734 mRNA (N6-adenosine)-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + RRACH = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + RRm6ACH, where R = purine, and H = C, A, or U.
2003-04-24 GO:0004687 myosin light chain kinase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (myosin light-chain) = ADP + (myosin light-chain) phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0016295 myristoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = (acyl-carrier protein) + oleate.
2003-04-24 GO:0006487 protein N-linked glycosylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the N4 atom of peptidyl-asparagine or the N1' atom peptidyl-tryptophan.
2003-04-24 GO:0042543 protein N-linked glycosylation via arginine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via peptidyl-arginine, omega-N-glycosyl-L-arginine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018279 protein N-linked glycosylation via asparagine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the N4 atom of peptidyl-asparagine forming N4-glycosyl-L-asparagine; the most common form is N-acetylglucosaminyl asparagine; N-acetylgalactosaminyl asparagine also occurs; this modification typically occurs in extracellular peptides with an N-X-(ST) motif. Partial modification has been observed to occur with cysteine, rather than serine or threonine, in the third position; secondary structure features are important, and proline in the second or fourth positions inhibits modification.
2003-04-24 GO:0018244 protein N-linked glycosylation via tryptophan Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via peptidyl-tryptophan, 1'-glycosyl-L-tryptophan; it is uncertain whether this is an N-glycoside linkage (as indicated), and which particular hexose is involved.
2003-04-24 GO:0046908 negative regulation of crystal formation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the spontaneous (nonenzymatic) formation of crystals in a solution, for example, calcium oxalate crystals in urine.
2003-04-24 GO:0042486 negative regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth of various invertebrates and used in feeding or procuring food e. g. a mollusk or starfish tooth.
2003-04-24 GO:0001504 neurotransmitter uptake Updated DEFINITION The uptake of neurotransmitters by presynaptic neurons or glial cells. This process leads to inactivation and recycling of neurotransmitters. It does not occur during cholinergic synaptic transmission. Instead, acetylcholine is enzymatically degraded in the synaptic cleft.
2003-04-24 GO:0016950 nickel-iron hydrogenase activity Updated DEFINITION Nickel-(iron-sulfur)-containing hydrogenases (( NiFe) hydrogenases) possess two (4Fe-4S) centers and one (3Fe-xS) cluster in addition to nickel. The redox active nickel is ligated by at least two cysteinyl thiolate residues and the (NiFe) hydrogenases are particularly resistant to inhibitors such as CO and NO2-.
2003-04-24 GO:0016951 nickel-iron-selenium hydrogenase activity Updated DEFINITION The nickel-(iron-sulfur)-selenium-containing hydrogenases ((NiFe-Se) hydrogenases) which contain nickel and selenium in equimolecular amounts plus (4Fe-4S) centers.
2003-04-24 GO:0030418 nicotianamine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of nicotianamine, 2(S),3'2(S),3''(S)-N-(N-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0030419 nicotianamine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of nicotianamine, 2(S),3'2(S),3''(S)-N-(N-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0030417 nicotianamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving nicotianamine, 2(S),3'2(S),3''(S)-N-(N-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0042564 NLS-dependent protein nuclear import complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex which usually consists of three components, e. g. in Xenopus, the importin alpha and beta-subunits and any protein which has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS). The complex acts to import proteins with an NLS into the nucleus through a nuclear pore.
2003-04-24 GO:0009112 nucleobase metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a nucleobase, a nitrogenous base that is a constituent of a nucleic acid, e. g. the purines: adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine and the pyrimidines: cytosine, uracil, thymine.
2003-04-24 GO:0009116 nucleoside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a nucleoside, a nucleobase linked to either beta-D-ribofuranose (ribonucleoside) or 2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranose, (a deoxyribonucleotide). e. g. adenosine, guanosine, inosine, cytidine, uridine and deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine (= deoxythymidine).
2003-04-24 GO:0000786 nucleosome Updated DEFINITION A complex comprised of DNA wound around a multisubunit core and associated proteins, which forms the primary packing unit of DNA into higher order structures.
2003-04-24 GO:0000166 nucleotide binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety.
2003-04-24 GO:0009165 nucleotide biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of nucleotides, any nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety; may be mono-, di- or triphosphate; this definition includes cyclic-nucleotides (nucleoside cyclic phosphates).
2003-04-24 GO:0009166 nucleotide catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of nucleotides, any nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety; may be mono-, di- or triphosphate; this definition includes cyclic-nucleotides (nucleoside cyclic phosphates).
2003-04-24 GO:0009117 nucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a nucleotide, a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety; may be mono-, di- or triphosphate; this definition includes cyclic-nucleotides (nucleoside cyclic phosphates).
2003-04-24 GO:0006862 nucleotide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015215 nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0006294 nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex assembly Updated DEFINITION The assembly of the multiprotein complex involved in damage recognition, DNA helix unwinding, and endonucleolytic cleavage at the site of DNA damage. This assembly occurs before the the phosphodiester backbone of the damaged strand is cleaved 3' and 5' of the site of DNA damage.
2003-04-24 GO:0006293 nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex stabilization Updated DEFINITION The stabilization of the multiprotein complex involved in damage recognition, DNA helix unwinding, and endonucleolytic cleavage at the site of DNA damage as well as the unwound DNA. The stabilization of the protein-DNA complex ensures proper positioning of the preincision complex before the the phosphodiester backbone of the damaged strand is cleaved 3' and 5' of the site of DNA damage.
2003-04-24 GO:0018241 protein O-linked glycosylation via hydroxylysine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the O5 atom of peptidyl-hydroxylysine, forming O5-glycosyl-L-hydroxylysine; the most common form is galactosyl hydroxylysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018258 protein O-linked glycosylation via hydroxyproline Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of proteins via 04 atom of hydroxyproline to form O4-glycosyl-L-hydroxyproline; the most common form is arabinofuranosyl-4-proline.
2003-04-24 GO:0018242 protein O-linked glycosylation via serine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the O3 atom of peptidyl-serine, forming O3-glycosyl-L-serine; the most common forms are N-acetylgalactosaminyl, mannosyl, galactosyl, and xylosyl serine.
2003-04-24 GO:0015560 L-idonate/D-gluconate:hydrogen symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (L-idonate or D-gluconate)(out) + H+(out) = (L-iodonate or D-gluconate)(in) + H+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0008912 lactaldehyde reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R) (or (S))-propane-1,2-diol + NAD+ = (R) (or (S))-lactaldehyde + NADH + H+.
2003-04-24 GO:0015305 lactose, galactose:proton symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (lactose or galactose)(out) + H+(out) = (lactose or galactose)(in) + H+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0002119 nematode larval development Updated DEFINITION Development from the newly hatched first-stage larva to the end of the last larval stage (e. g. fourth-stage in C. elegans) before molting to adulthood.
2003-04-24 GO:0005616 larval serum protein complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit protein complex which, in Drosophila, is a heterohexamer of three subunits, alpha, beta and gamma. The complex is thought to store amino acids for synthesis of adult proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0016524 latrotoxin receptor activity Updated DEFINITION Combines with a high structural selectivity to alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin, specifically altering cell function.
2003-04-24 GO:0016294 lauroyl-[acyl-carrier protein] hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = (acyl-carrier protein) + oleate.
2003-04-24 GO:0046696 lipopolysaccharide receptor complex Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that consists of at least three proteins, CD14, TLR4, and MD-2, each of which is glycosylated.
2003-04-24 GO:0008034 lipoprotein binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2003-04-24 GO:0042158 lipoprotein biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2003-04-24 GO:0042159 lipoprotein catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2003-04-24 GO:0042157 lipoprotein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2003-04-24 GO:0042160 lipoprotein modification Updated DEFINITION The enzymatic modification of a lipoprotein; any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2003-04-24 GO:0030228 lipoprotein particle receptor activity Updated DEFINITION A receptor that binds lipoprotein, any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids. The lipid may be triacylglycerol, cholesterol, or phospholipid, or a combination of these.
2003-04-24 GO:0008922 long-chain fatty acid [acyl-carrier-protein] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + an acid + (acyl-carrier protein) = AMP + diphosphate + acyl-(acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0030631 pyrrolysine incorporation Updated DEFINITION The incorporation of a lysine methylamine methyltransferase cofactor adduct into a peptide; uses a special tRNA that recognizes the UGA codon as a modified lysine, rather than as a termination codon. The lysine methylamine methyltransferase cofactor adduct is synthesized from a lysine charged tRNA before its incorporation; it is not a posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine; this modification is found in several Methanosarcina methylamine methyltransferases.
2003-04-24 GO:0010076 maintenance of floral meristem identity Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the identity of a floral meristem,
2003-04-24 GO:0010077 maintenance of inflorescence meristem identity Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the identity of an inflorescence meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0010078 maintenance of root meristem identity Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the identity of a root meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0010079 maintenance of vegetative meristem identity Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the identity of a vegetative meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0042697 menopause Updated DEFINITION Cessation of menstruation, occurring in e. g. the human female usually around the age of 50.
2003-04-24 GO:0010022 meristem determinacy Updated DEFINITION The process by which a meristem becomes determinate (i. e. ceases to produce lateral organs and may or may not terminally differentiate).
2003-04-24 GO:0046699 metamorphosis (sensu Amphibia) Updated DEFINITION A change of shape or structure from one developmental stage of amphibians to another, particularly the rapid post embryonic structural transformation from juvenile to adult form, e. g. the transformation from tadpole to frog.
2003-04-24 GO:0003908 methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: DNA (containing 6-O-methylguanine) + (protein)-L-cysteine = DNA (without 6-O-methylguanine) + protein S-methyl-L-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0000799 nuclear condensin complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit protein complex that plays a central role in the condensation of chromosomes that remain in the nucleus.
2003-04-24 GO:0000788 nuclear nucleosome Updated DEFINITION A complex comprised of DNA wound around a multisubunit core and associated proteins, which forms the primary packing unit of DNA in the nucleus into higher order structures.
2003-04-24 GO:0005664 nuclear origin of replication recognition complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the replication origins of a chromosome in the nucleus.
2003-04-24 GO:0005346 purine ribonucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of a purine ribonucleotide, any compound consisting of a purine ribonucleoside (a purine organic base attached to a ribose sugar) esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0042560 pteridine-containing compound catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e. g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0042558 pteridine-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e. g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0006728 pteridine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of pteridine, pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine), the parent structure of pterins and the pteroyl group.
2003-04-24 GO:0019990 pteridine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of pteridine, pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine), the parent structure of pterins and the pteroyl group.
2003-04-24 GO:0019889 pteridine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving pteridine, pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine), the parent structure of pterins and the pteroyl group.
2003-04-24 GO:0017076 purine nucleotide binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with purine nucleotides, any compound consisting of a purine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0015865 purine nucleotide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a purine nucleotide, any compound consisting of a purine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015216 purine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of a purine nucleotide, any compound consisting of a purine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015868 purine ribonucleotide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a purine ribonucleotide, any compound consisting of a purine ribonucleoside (a purine organic base attached to a ribose sugar) esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0006620 posttranslational protein targeting to membrane Updated DEFINITION The targeting of proteins to a membrane that occurs after their translation. Some secretory proteins exhibit posttranslational transport into the ER lumen: they are synthesized in their entirety on free cytosolic ribosomes and then released into the cytosol, where they are bound by chaperones which keep them in an unfolded state, and subsequently are translocated across the ER membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0016272 prefoldin complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit chaperone that acts to delivers unfolded proteins to cytosolic chaperonin. In humans, the complex is a heterohexamer of two PFD-alpha and four PFD-beta type subunits.
2003-04-24 GO:0016091 prenol biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of prenols, isoprenoids of general formula (H-CH2-C(CH3)=CH-CH2-)n-OH, any primary monohydroxy alcohol whose carbon skeleton consists of two or more isoprenoid residues linked head to tail.
2003-04-24 GO:0016092 prenol catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of prenols, isoprenoids of general formula (H-CH2-C(CH3)=CH-CH2-)n-OH, any primary monohydroxy alcohol whose carbon skeleton consists of two or more isoprenoid residues linked head to tail.
2003-04-24 GO:0016090 prenol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving prenols, isoprenoids of general formula (H-CH2-C(CH3)=CH-CH2-)n-OH, any primary monohydroxy alcohol whose carbon skeleton consists of two or more isoprenoid residues linked head to tail.
2003-04-24 GO:0015534 proline/glycine/betaine:hydrogen/sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (proline, glycine or betaine)(out) + (H+ or Na+)(out) = (proline, glycine or betaine)(in) + (H+ or Na+)(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0006486 protein glycosylation Updated DEFINITION The addition of a sugar unit to a protein amino acid, e. g. the addition of glycan chains to proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0018077 protein iodination Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of protein amino-acids.
2003-04-24 GO:0016598 protein arginylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational conjugation of arginine to the N-terminal aspartate or glutamate of a protein; required for the degradation of the protein via the ubiquitin pathway.
2003-04-24 GO:0005515 protein binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with any protein, or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
2003-04-24 GO:0018343 protein farnesylation Updated DEFINITION The enzymatic addition of a farnesyl moiety to a protein as a posttranslational modification.
2003-04-24 GO:0018344 protein geranylgeranylation Updated DEFINITION The enzymatic addition of a geranylgeranyl moiety to a protein as a posttranslational modification.
2003-04-24 GO:0018095 protein polyglutamylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational addition of one or more alpha-linked glutamyl units to the gamma carboxyl group of peptidyl-glutamic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0008615 pyridoxine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of pyridoxine, 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)pyridine, also known as vitamin B6.
2003-04-24 GO:0008614 pyridoxine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving pyridoxine, 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)pyridine, also known as vitamin B6, a member of the water soluble B vitamin group. Pyridoxine is active in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; it is also a necessary part of hemoglobin synthesis. B6 deficiency results in retarded growth and a peripheral neuropathy.
2003-04-24 GO:0019103 pyrimidine nucleotide binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with pyrimidine nucleotide, any compound consisting of a pyrimidine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0018230 peptidyl-L-cysteine S-palmitoylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine; the palmitate group represents a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
2003-04-24 GO:0018191 peptidyl-serine octanoylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational octanoylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O3-octanoyl-L-serine, typical of the protein ghrelin.
2003-04-24 GO:0018070 peptidyl-serine phosphopantetheinylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphopantetheinylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phosphopantetheine-L-serine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018105 peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-serine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018107 peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-threonine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018078 peptidyl-thyronine iodination Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine, formed from tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018408 peptidyl-thyronine iodination to form 3',3'',5',5''-tetraiodo-L-thyronine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine to form peptidyl-3',3'',5',5''-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (L-thyroxine).
2003-04-24 GO:0018407 peptidyl-thyronine iodination to form 3',3'',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine to form peptidyl-3',3'',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine (triiodothyronine).
2003-04-24 GO:0018080 peptidyl-tryptophan bromination Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-tryptophan, to form peptidyl-L-6'-bromotryptophan.
2003-04-24 GO:0045325 peptidyl-tryptophan hydroxylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational hydroxylation of peptidyl-tryptophan, to form peptidyl-L-3-hydroxytryptophan.
2003-04-24 GO:0019926 peptidyl-tryptophan oxidation to tryptophyl quinone Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational oxidation of peptidyl-tryptophan to form tryptophan-6,7-dione, otherwise known as tryptophyl quinone, which is further modified by cross-linking to either tryptophan or cysteine (GO:0018069).
2003-04-24 GO:0018062 peptidyl-tryptophan succinylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of an N-terminal peptidyl-tryptophan residue to form peptidyl-N2-succinyl-L-tryptophan.
2003-04-24 GO:0018254 peptidyl-tyrosine adenylylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational adenylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-O4'-(phospho-5'-adenosine)-L-tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018108 peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-O4'-phospho-L-tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0000258 isoleucine/valine:sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (isoleucine or valine)(out) + Na+(out) = (isoleucine or valine)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0045440 isopenicillin-N acyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the conversion of isopenicillin N to penicillin G, using phenylacetyl-CoA or phenoxyacetyl-CoA as acyl donors.
2003-04-24 GO:0009694 jasmonic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving jasmonic acid, a fatty acid derivative with the formula (1R-(1 alpha, 2 beta(Z)))-3-oxo-2-(2-pentenyl)cyclopentaneacetic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0007254 JNK cascade Updated DEFINITION A cascade of protein kinase activities, culminating in the phosphorylation and activation of a JUN kinase, a member of a subfamily of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases that is activated primarily by cytokines and exposure to environmental stress.
2003-04-24 GO:0005500 juvenile hormone binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with juvenile hormone, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e. g. oogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0006718 juvenile hormone biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e. g. oogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0006719 juvenile hormone catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e. g. oogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0006716 juvenile hormone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e. g. oogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0045443 juvenile hormone secretion Updated DEFINITION The regulated release of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e. g. oogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0000776 kinetochore Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the pericentric region of DNA and provides an attachment point for the spindle microtubules.
2003-04-24 GO:0018094 protein polyglycylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational addition of glycyl units covalently bound to the gamma carboxyl group peptidyl-glutamic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0018342 protein prenylation Updated DEFINITION The enzymatic addition of prenyl moieties to proteins as a posttranslational modification; geranyl, farnesyl, or geranylgeranyl groups may be added.
2003-04-24 GO:0016925 protein sumoylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of a protein by a member of the SUMO protein family; SUMO proteins (small ubiquitin-related modifiers, otherwise known as sentrin) are present in all eukaryotic kingdoms and are highly conserved from yeast to humans. They seem to play a role in the nuclear import of protein and eventually serve as address tags for transport to PML bodies.
2003-04-24 GO:0018234 peptide cross-linking via 3'-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-tyrosine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational thioether cross-linking of a cysteine residue to a tyrosine residue to form 3'-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-tyrosine, found in galactose oxidase.
2003-04-24 GO:0019928 peptide cross-linking via 3-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-aspartic acid Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational cross-linking of a cysteine residue to an aspartic acid residue to form 3-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-aspartic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0018069 peptide cross-linking via 4'-(L-tryptophan)-L-tryptophyl quinone Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational cross-linking of a tryptophan residue to tryptophyl quinone to form 4'-(L-tryptophan)-L-tryptophyl quinone, a cofactor found at the active site of methylamine dehydrogenase.
2003-04-24 GO:0019927 peptide cross-linking via 4'-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-tryptophyl quinone Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational cross-linking of a cysteine residue to tryptophyl quinone to form 4'-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-tryptophyl quinone, a cofactor found at the active site of amine dehydrogenase.
2003-04-24 GO:0019929 peptide cross-linking via 4-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-glutamic acid Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational cross-linking of a cysteine residue to a glutamic acid residue to form 4-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-glutamic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0018316 peptide cross-linking via L-cystine Updated DEFINITION The oxidation of two peptidyl-cysteine residues to form a peptidyl-L-cystine (dicysteine) in which the proteins are linked by a disulfide bond; the cross-link may be between different or the same peptide chain.
2003-04-24 GO:0018274 peptide cross-linking via L-lysinoalanine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine and peptidyl-serine to form a (2Xi,9S)-L-lysinoalanine cross-link.
2003-04-24 GO:0018096 peptide cross-linking via S-(2-aminovinyl)-D-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational synthesis of (S,Z)-S-(2-aminovinyl)cysteine forming an intra-polypeptide cross-link between serine and cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018365 protein-serine epimerase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Protein)-L-serine = (protein)-D-serine.
2003-04-24 GO:0042559 pteridine-containing compound biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e. g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0046373 L-arabinose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving L-arabinose, the levorotatory isomer of arabino-pentose. L-arabinose occurs free, e. g. in the heartwood of many conifers, and in the combined state, in both furanose and pyranose forms, as a constituent of various plant hemicelluloses, bacterial polysaccharides and so on.
2003-04-24 GO:0006478 peptidyl-tyrosine sulfation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational sulfation of peptidyl-tyrosine residues to form peptidyl-O4'-sulfo-L-tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0007365 periodic partitioning Updated DEFINITION The partitioning of an embryo into serially repeated regions, e. g. tagmata, segments or parasegments.
2003-04-24 GO:0010088 phloem development Added DEFINITION The formation of the principal food-conducting tissue of a vascular plant.
2003-04-24 GO:0004528 phosphodiesterase I activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the sequential hydrolytic removal of 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated oligonucleotides.
2003-04-24 GO:0004635 phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1-(5-phosphoribosyl)-AMP + H2O = 1-(5-phosphoribosyl)-5-((5-phosphoribosylamino)methylideneamino)imidazole-4-carboxamide.
2003-04-24 GO:0004639 phosphoribosylaminoimidazolesuccinocarboxamide synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-aspartate = ADP + phosphate + (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinate.
2003-04-24 GO:0004645 phosphorylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (1,4)-alpha-D-glucosyl(n) + phosphate = (1,4)-alpha-D-glucosyl(n-1) + alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate. The name should be qualified in each instance by adding the name of the natural substrate, e. g. maltodextrin phosphorylase, starch phosphorylase, glycogen phosphorylase.
2003-04-24 GO:0009767 photosynthetic electron transport chain Updated DEFINITION The process by which pairs of electrons are transported from water to NADP+ in the light phase of photosynthesis during noncyclic photophosphorylation.
2003-04-24 GO:0009522 photosystem I Updated DEFINITION Photosystem that functions as a light-dependent plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from plastocyanin to ferredoxin.
2003-04-24 GO:0009538 photosystem I reaction center Updated DEFINITION A photochemical system containing P700, the chlorophyll a dimer that functions as a primary electron donor. Functioning as a light-dependent plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, it transfers electrons from plastocyanin to ferredoxin.
2003-04-24 GO:0009523 photosystem II Updated DEFINITION An integral membrane complex containing the P680 reaction center. In the light, PSII functions as a water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from water to plastoquinone.
2003-04-24 GO:0009539 photosystem II reaction center Updated DEFINITION An integral membrane complex containing P680, the chlorophyll a molecule that functions as a primary electron donor. In the light, functioning as a water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, it transfers electrons from water to plastoquinone.
2003-04-24 GO:0000914 phragmoplast assembly Updated DEFINITION The formation of a structure composed of actin, myosin, and associated proteins that will function in cytokinesis in cells that perform cytokinesis by cell plate formation. The structure usually contains antiparallel microtubules and membrane (often visible as vesicles).
2003-04-24 GO:0015048 phthalate dioxygenase reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer electrons between pyridine nucleotides (obligatory two-electron carriers) and hemes or (2Fe-2S) centers (obligatory one-electron carriers) in respiration, photosynthesis, and many oxygenase systems.
2003-04-24 GO:0046148 pigment biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of a pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms e. g. melanin.
2003-04-24 GO:0046149 pigment catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of a pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms e. g. melanin.
2003-04-24 GO:0042440 pigment metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms e. g. melanin.
2003-04-24 GO:0015006 plastocyanin Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A copper-containing electron carrier acting between cytochrome b(6)-f and P700 of photosystem I.
2003-04-24 GO:0010085 polarity specification of proximal/distal axis Added DEFINITION The processes resulting in the establishment of polarity along the proximal/distal axis.
2003-04-24 GO:0042485 positive regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the rate of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth of various invertebrates and used in feeding or procuring food e. g. a mollusk or starfish tooth.
2003-04-24 GO:0010101 post-embryonic root morphogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation and development of the root after the embryonic phase has been completed.
2003-04-24 GO:0006301 postreplication repair Updated DEFINITION Pathways for DNA repair which occur after DNA has replicated, e. g. mismatch repair.
2003-04-24 GO:0045211 postsynaptic membrane Updated DEFINITION A specialized area of membrane facing the presynaptic membrane on the tip of the nerve ending and separated from it by a minute cleft (the synaptic cleft). Neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft and transmit the signal to the post-synaptic membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0016969 hemerythrin Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An oxygen carrier found in a few groups of invertebrates, e. g. sipunculid worms, certain molluscs, and crustaceans.
2003-04-24 GO:0005833 hemoglobin complex Updated DEFINITION An iron-containing, oxygen carrying complex. In vertebrates it is made up of two pairs of associated globin polypeptide chains, each chain carrying a noncovalently bound heme prosthetic group.
2003-04-24 GO:0015012 heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of the heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan with repeat unit consisting of alternating (alpha1->4)-linked hexuronic acid and glucosamine residues; the former are a mixture of sulfated and nonsulfated D-glucuronic acid and L-iduronic acid; the L-iduronic acid is either sulfated or acetylated on its amino group as well as being sulfated on one of its hydroxyl groups; heparan sulfate chains are covalently linked to peptidyl-serine by a glycosidic attachment through the trisaccharide galactosyl-galactosyl-xylosyl to serine residues.
2003-04-24 GO:0030200 heparan sulfate proteoglycan catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of proteoglycan containing heparan sulfate, any member of a group of glycosaminoglycans that have repeat units consisting of alternating alpha1->4 linked hexuronic acid and glucosamine residues, the former being a mixture of sulfated and nonsulfated D-glucuronic and L-iduronic acids, and the latter being either sulfated or acetylated on its amino group as well as sulfated on one of its hydroxyl groups.
2003-04-24 GO:0007157 heterophilic cell-cell adhesion Updated DEFINITION The attachment of an adhesion molecule in one cell to a nonidentical adhesion molecule in an adjacent cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015778 hexuronide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of hexuronide into, out of, within or between cells. Hexuronides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e. g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of a hexuronate.
2003-04-24 GO:0015163 hexuronide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of hexuronide into, out of, within or between cells. Hexuronides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e. g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of a hexuronate.
2003-04-24 GO:0008897 holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CoA + apo-(acyl-carrier protein) = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + holo-(acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0009335 holo-[acyl-carrier protein] synthase complex Updated DEFINITION An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of holo-(acyl-carrier protein) from CoA and apo-(acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0015442 hydrogen-/sodium-translocating ATPase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + (Na+ or H+)(in) = ADP + phosphate + (Na+ or H+)(out).
2003-04-24 GO:0016787 hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various bonds, e. g. C-O, C-N, C-C, phosphoric anhydride bonds, etc. Hydrolase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 3.
2003-04-24 GO:0006972 hyperosmotic response Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of the perception of a hyperosmotic environment, i. e. an environment with a higher concentration of solutes than the organism or cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0006971 hypotonic response Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of the perception of a hypotonic environment, i. e. an environment with a lower concentration of solutes than the organism or cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0008612 peptidyl-lysine modification to peptidyl-hypusine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine to form hypusine, N6-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)-L-lysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0019814 immunoglobulin complex Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that functions as an antibody. Immunoglobulins (Igs) are composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. The classes of Ig are IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM; they may be embedded in the plasma membrane or circulate in the blood or lymph.
2003-04-24 GO:0042571 immunoglobulin complex, circulating Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that functions as an antibody and circulates in the blood or lymph. Immunoglobulins (Igs) are composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. Circulating Igs include IgD and IgE (can also be membrane-bound).
2003-04-24 GO:0042570 immunoglobulin complex, membrane bound Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that functions as an antibody and is embedded in the plasma membrane. Immunoglobulins are composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. Membrane bound Igs include IgA, IgB and IgC.
2003-04-24 GO:0042563 importin alpha-subunit nuclear export complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex which usually consists of three components, e. g. in Xenopus, the importin alpha-subunit/CAS/Ran, and which functions to shuttle the importin alpha-subunit out of the nucleus through the nuclear pore.
2003-04-24 GO:0042430 indole-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e. g. serotonin, tryptophan) formed in degradation of tryptophan.
2003-04-24 GO:0042432 indole biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e. g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2003-04-24 GO:0042433 indole catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e. g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2003-04-24 GO:0042431 indole metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e. g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2003-04-24 GO:0016948 iron hydrogenase activity Updated DEFINITION Iron-sulfur-containing hydrogenase ((Fe) hydrogenase) with two ferredoxin-type (4Fe-4S) clusters and an atypical iron-sulfur center believed to be involved in the activation of H2. The (Fe) hydrogenase has the highest specific activity in the evolution and consumption of hydrogen and in the proton-deuterium exchange reaction and this enzyme is the most sensitive to CO and NO2-.
2003-04-24 GO:0016486 peptide hormone processing Updated DEFINITION The generation of a mature peptide hormone by posttranslational processing of a prohormone.
2003-04-24 GO:0046509 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-beta-galactosyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol = UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol.
2003-04-24 GO:0018718 1,2-dihydroxy-phenanthrene glycosyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1,2-dihydroxyphenanthrene + UDP-glucose = 2-hydroxy-1-phenanthryl-beta-D-glucopyranoside + UDP.
2003-04-24 GO:0016629 12-oxophytodienoate reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 8-((1R,2R)-3-oxo-2-((Z)-pent-2-enyl)cyclopentyl)octanoate + NADP+ = (15Z)-12-oxophyto-10,15-dienoate + NADPH.
2003-04-24 GO:0008693 3-hydroxydecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (3R)-3-hydroxydecanoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) = 2,3-decenoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) or 3,4-decenoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O.
2003-04-24 GO:0004317 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (3R)-3-hydroxypalmitoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) = 2-hexadecenoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O.
2003-04-24 GO:0004316 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NADP+ = 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NADPH + H+.
2003-04-24 GO:0004315 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein) = 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + carbon dioxide + (acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0045549 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the oxidative cleavage of 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoids (e. g. neoxanthin and violaxanthin) to xanthoxin and C-25 apocarotenoids.
2003-04-24 GO:0006084 acetyl-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving acetyl-CoA, a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e. g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0015876 acetyl-CoA transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of acetyl-CoA into, out of, within or between cells. Acetyl-CoA is a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e. g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0008521 acetyl-CoA transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of acetyl-CoA into, out of, within or between cells. Acetyl-CoA is a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e. g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0007256 activation of JNKK activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the phosphorylation and activation of JUN kinases (JNKs), members of a subfamily of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases.
2003-04-24 GO:0008779 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]-phospholipid O-acyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + O-(2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho)ethanolamine = (acyl-carrier protein) + O-(1-beta-acyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho)ethanolamine.
2003-04-24 GO:0045300 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: stearoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + reduced acceptor + O2 = oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + acceptor + H2O. The enzyme requires ferredoxin.
2003-04-24 GO:0008780 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + UDP-N-acetylglucosamine = (acyl-carrier protein) + UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine.
2003-04-24 GO:0019263 adamantanone catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of adamantanone, tricyclo(3.3.1.13,7)decanone, a white crystalline solid used as an intermediate for microelectronics in the production of photoresists.
2003-04-24 GO:0018866 adamantanone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving adamantanone, tricyclo(3.3.1.13,7)decanone, a white crystalline solid used as an intermediate for microelectronics in the production of photoresists.
2003-04-24 GO:0009943 adaxial/abaxial axis specification Updated DEFINITION The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of the adaxial (adjacent to the stem) / abaxial (away from the stem) axis in plants.
2003-04-24 GO:0009955 adaxial/abaxial pattern specification Updated DEFINITION The processes that result in adaxial (adjacent to the stem) / abaxial (away from the stem) pattern formation.
2003-04-24 GO:0004381 fucosylgalactoside 3-alpha-galactosyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-galactose + glycoprotein-alpha-L-fucosyl-(1,2)-D-galactose = UDP + glycoprotein-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1,3)-(alpha-L-fucosyl-(1,2))-D-galactose.
2003-04-24 GO:0004380 glycoprotein-fucosylgalactoside alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + glycoprotein-alpha-L-fucosyl-(1,2)-D-galactose = UDP + glycoprotein-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminyl-(1,3)-(alpha-L-fucosyl-(1,2))-D-galactose.
2003-04-24 GO:0015486 glycoside-pentoside-hexuronide:cation symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (glycoside, pentoside or hexuronide)(out) + monovalent cation(out) = (glycoside, pentoside or hexuronide)(in) + monovalent cation(in). The cation is Na+, Li+ or H+.
2003-04-24 GO:0003773 heat shock protein activity Updated DEFINITION Any of a group of specific proteins that are synthesized by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells after they have been exposed to a temperature that is higher than normal. Other stresses, e. g. free radical damage, have a similar effect. Many members of the hsp family are not induced but are present in all cells. They are characterized by their role as molecular chaperones.
2003-04-24 GO:0030051 FK506-sensitive peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Interacts selectively with the immunosuppressant FK506, and possesses peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity (catalysis of the reaction: peptidoproline (omega=180) = peptidylproline (omega=0)).
2003-04-24 GO:0019861 flagellum Updated DEFINITION Long whiplike or feathery structures borne either singly or in groups by the motile cells of many bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes and by the motile male gametes of many eukaryotic organisms, which propel the cell through a liquid medium.
2003-04-24 GO:0004326 tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + tetrahydrofolyl-(Glu)(n) + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + tetrahydrofolyl-(Glu)(n+1).
2003-04-24 GO:0008862 formate acetyltransferase activating enzyme activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + dihydroflavodoxin + (formate acetyltransferase)-glycine = 5'-deoxyadenosine + methionine + flavodoxin + (formate acetyltransferase)-glycine-2-yl radical.
2003-04-24 GO:0006042 glucosamine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxyglucopyranose), an aminodeoxysugar that occurs in combined form in chitin.
2003-04-24 GO:0006043 glucosamine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxyglucopyranose), an aminodeoxysugar that occurs in combined form in chitin.
2003-04-24 GO:0006041 glucosamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxyglucopyranose), an aminodeoxysugar that occurs in combined form in chitin.
2003-04-24 GO:0015779 glucuronoside transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of glucuronosides into, out of, within or between cells. Glucuronosides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e. g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of glucuronate.
2003-04-24 GO:0015164 glucuronoside transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of glucuronosides into, out of, within or between cells. Glucuronosides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e. g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of glucuronate.
2003-04-24 GO:0008882 [glutamate-ammonia-ligase] adenylyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming)) = diphosphate + adenylyl-(L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming)).
2003-04-24 GO:0015372 glutamate/aspartate:sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (glutamate or aspartate)(out) + Na+(out) = (glutamate or aspartate)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0018392 glycoprotein 3-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: GDP-L-fucose + N4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-2)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1-3)-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-2)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1-6))-beta-D-mannosyl-(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)asparagine = GDP + N4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-2)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1-3)-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-2)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1-6))-beta-D-mannosyl-(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-4)-(alpha-L-fucosyl-(1-3))-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)asparagine.
2003-04-24 GO:0009101 glycoprotein biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The synthesis from simpler components of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i. e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2003-04-24 GO:0006516 glycoprotein catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i. e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2003-04-24 GO:0009100 glycoprotein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i. e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2003-04-24 GO:0018082 peptidyl-(Z)-dehydrobutyrine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-threonine Updated DEFINITION The formation of (Z)-dehydrobutyrine by the posttranslational dehydration of peptidyl-threonine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018109 peptidyl-arginine phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-arginine to form omega-N-phospho-L-arginine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018376 peptidyl-asparagine hydroxylation to form L-erythro-beta-hydroxyasparagine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational hydroxylation of peptidyl-asparagine to form peptidyl-L-erythro-beta-hydroxyasparagine; catalyzed by peptide-aspartate beta-dioxygenase (EC:1.14.11.16) (GO:0004597).
2003-04-24 GO:0019715 peptidyl-aspartic acid hydroxylation to form L-erythro-beta-hydroxyaspartic acid Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational hydroxylation of peptidyl-aspartic acid to form peptidyl-L-erythro-beta-hydroxyaspartic acid; catalyzed by peptide-aspartate beta-dioxygenase (EC:1.14.11.16) (GO:0004597).
2003-04-24 GO:0018217 peptidyl-aspartic acid phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-aspartic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0018179 peptidyl-cysteine desulfurization Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational desulfurization of peptidyl-L-cysteine to yield L-alanine and elemental sulfur; peptidyl-L-cysteine persulfide is an intermediate.
2003-04-24 GO:0018119 peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational S-nitrosylation of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-nitrosyl-L-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0017183 peptidyl-diphthamide biosynthetic process from peptidyl-histidine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-histidine to 2'-(3-carboxamido-3-(trimethylammonio)propyl)-L-histidine, known as diphthamide, found in translation elongation factor eEF-2.
2003-04-24 GO:0018074 peptidyl-histidine bromination Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-histidine to form peptidyl-L-bromohistidine; the position of the bromine substitution is unknown.
2003-04-24 GO:0018106 peptidyl-histidine phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-histidine to form peptidyl-1'-phospho-L-histidine (otherwise known as tau-phosphohistidine, tele-phosphohistidine) or peptidyl-3'-phospho-L-histidine (otherwise known as pi-phosphohistidine, pros-phosphohistidine).
2003-04-24 GO:0018068 peptidyl-L-2',4',5'-topaquinone biosynthetic process from peptidyl-tyrosine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of protein tyrosine to L-2',4',5'-topaquinone, characteristic of the active site of copper amine oxidases.
2003-04-24 GO:0018172 peptidyl-L-3',4',5'-trihydroxyphenylalanine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-tyrosine Updated DEFINITION The, presumably, posttranslational modification of protein tyrosine to peptidyl-L-3',4',5'-dihydroxyphenylalanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018067 peptidyl-L-3',4'-dihydroxyphenylalanine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-tyrosine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of protein tyrosine to peptidyl-L-3',4'-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA).
2003-04-24 GO:0018083 peptidyl-L-3-oxoalanine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine or peptidyl-serine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine or peptidyl-serine to peptidyl-L-3-oxoalanine; characteristic of the active sites of arylsulfatases.
2003-04-24 GO:0018061 peptidyl-L-3-phenyllactic acid biosynthetic process from peptidyl-phenylalanine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of a N-terminal peptidyl-phenylalanine residue by either oxidative deamination or by transamination and subsequent reduction to form peptidyl-L-3-phenyllactic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0018118 peptidyl-L-cysteine glutathione disulfide biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine by covalent addition of glutathione to form peptidyl-L-cysteine glutathione disulfide.
2003-04-24 GO:0018222 peptidyl-L-cysteine methyl disulfide biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The, presumably, posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-L-cysteine methyl disulfide.
2003-04-24 GO:0018229 peptidyl-L-cysteine methyl ester biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-L-cysteine methyl ester.
2003-04-24 GO:0018072 peptidyl-L-glutamyl 5-glycerylphosphorylethanolamine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-glutamic acid Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-glutamic acid residues by the covalent attachment of ethanolamine, itself further modified by the addition of a phosphoglycerol unit.
2003-04-24 GO:0018238 peptidyl-lysine carboxyethylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine to form peptidyl-N6-1-carboxyethyl-L-lysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018235 peptidyl-lysine carboxylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine to form peptidyl-N6-carboxy-L-lysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018261 peptidyl-lysine guanylylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational guanylylation of peptidyl-lysine to form peptidyl-N6-(phospho-5'-guanosine)-L-lysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018340 peptidyl-O-(sn-1-glycerophosphoryl)-L-serine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-serine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-serine to peptidyl-O-(sn-1-glycerophosphoryl)-L-serine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018075 peptidyl-phenylalanine bromination Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of phenylalanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018397 peptidyl-phenylalanine bromination to L-2'-bromophenylalanine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-phenylalanine to form L-2'-bromophenylalanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018398 peptidyl-phenylalanine bromination to L-3'-bromophenylalanine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-phenylalanine to form L-3'-bromophenylalanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018399 peptidyl-phenylalanine bromination to L-4'-bromophenylalanine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-phenylalanine to form L-4'-bromophenylalanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018188 peptidyl-proline di-hydroxylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-proline to form trans-2,3-cis-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline.
2003-04-24 GO:0018400 peptidyl-proline hydroxylation to 3-hydroxy-L-proline Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-proline to form 3-hydroxy-L-proline; catalyzed by procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase (GO:0019797).
2003-04-24 GO:0018401 peptidyl-proline hydroxylation to 4-hydroxy-L-proline Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-proline to form 4-hydroxy-L-proline; catalyzed by procollagen-proline,2-oxoglutarate-4-dioxygenase (GO:0004656).
2003-04-24 GO:0018227 peptidyl-S-12-hydroxyfarnesyl-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form S-12-hydroxyfarnesyl-L-cysteine; formation of S-farnesycysteine may be coupled with subsequent cleavage of a carboxy-terminal tripeptide for the CXXX motif and methyl esterification of the farnesylated cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018231 peptidyl-S-diacylglycerol-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The co- or posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-diacylglycerol-L-cysteine; the oleate and palmitate actually represent mixtures of saturated (generally at 3') and unsaturated (generally at 2') fatty acids.
2003-04-24 GO:0018115 peptidyl-S-diphytanylglycerol diether-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The co- or posttranslational modification of cysteine to form peptidyl-S-diphytanylglycerol diether-L-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018226 peptidyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine; formation of S-farnesycysteine may be coupled with subsequent cleavage of a carboxy-terminal tripeptide for the CXXX motif and methyl esterification of the farnesylated cysteine; the residue may be found at the first position in the sequence motif C-X-X-(SAQCMT)* where the second and third positions are usually aliphatic.
2003-04-24 GO:0018228 peptidyl-S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-geranylgeranylcysteine; formation of S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine may be coupled with subsequent cleavage of a carboxy-terminal tripeptide for the CAAX motif and methyl esterification of the geranylgeranylated cysteine; methyl esterification but not cleavage occurs for the CXC motif. for the type II geranylgeranyltransferase the residue may be found at the first and final positions in the sequence motif C-X-C* or at the final position in the sequence motif C-C*. These motifs are necessary but not sufficient for modification.
2003-04-24 GO:0019704 peptidyl-S-myristoyl-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-myristoyl-L-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0019939 peptidyl-S-palmitoleyl-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-palmitoleyl-L-cysteine specifically.
2003-04-24 GO:0042716 plasma membrane-derived chromatophore Added TERM chromatophore
2003-04-24 GO:0042717 plasma membrane-derived chromatophore membrane Added TERM chromatophore membrane
2003-04-24 GO:0042718 yolk granule Added TERM yolk granule
2003-04-24 GO:0046814 coreceptor-mediated virion attachment to host cell Updated TERM virion attachment, binding of host cell surface coreceptor
2003-04-24 GO:0008794 arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: arsenate + reduced glutaredoxin = arsenite + oxidized glutaredoxin. Glutaredoxin functions as the electron donor for arsenate reduction. The electron flow therefore is ( NADPH -> glutathione reductase (EC:1.6.4.2) -> ) glutathione -> glutaredoxin -> arsenate reductase, i. e. glutathione is reduced by glutathione reductase and glutaredoxin is reduced by glutathione.
2003-04-24 GO:0042500 aspartic endopeptidase activity, intramembrane cleaving Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of nonterminal peptide linkages in oligopeptides or polypeptides, occurring within the plasma membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0000046 autophagic vacuole fusion Updated DEFINITION The fusion of an autophagic vacuole with a vacuole (yeast) or lysosome (e. g. mammals and insects). In the case of yeast, inner membrane-bound structures (autophagic bodies) appear in the vacuole.
2003-04-24 GO:0009921 auxin efflux carrier complex Updated DEFINITION The protein complex associated with the plasma membrane of certain plant cells (e. g. root cortex, epidermal cells) that functions to transport auxin out of the cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0019483 beta-alanine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e. g. in brain) and in combination (e. g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0019484 beta-alanine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e. g. in brain) and in combination (e. g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0019482 beta-alanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e. g. in brain) and in combination (e. g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0015376 betaine/GABA:sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (betaine or gamma-aminobutyric acid)(out) + Na+(out) = (betaine or gamma-aminobutyric acid)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0015521 bicyclomycin/sulfathiazole:hydrogen antiporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (bicyclomycin or sulfathiazole)(in) + H+(out) = (bicyclomycin or sulfathiazole)(out) + H+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0016443 bidentate ribonuclease III activity Updated DEFINITION A ribonuclease III that digests double-stranded RNAs into 22-nucleotide products that then associate to the RNA-induced silencing complex and serve as guide RNAs for posttranslational RNA interference.
2003-04-24 GO:0009374 biotin binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with biotin (cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid), the (+) enantiomer of which is very widely distributed in cells and serves as a carrier in a number of enzymatic beta-carboxylation reactions.
2003-04-24 GO:0009102 biotin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of biotin, cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0009821 alkaloid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of alkaloids, nitrogen-containing natural products which are not otherwise classified as nonprotein amino acids, amines, peptides, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones, or primary metabolite (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).
2003-04-24 GO:0009822 alkaloid catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of alkaloids, nitrogen containing natural products not otherwise classified as peptides, nonprotein amino acids, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones or primary metabolites (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).
2003-04-24 GO:0009820 alkaloid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving alkaloids, nitrogen containing natural products which are not otherwise classified as peptides, nonprotein amino acids, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones or primary metabolites (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).
2003-04-24 GO:0016172 antifreeze activity Updated DEFINITION Inhibits the formation of ice crystals in organismal fluid (e. g. blood) at below freezing exogenous temperatures.
2003-04-24 GO:0003823 antigen binding Updated DEFINITION The function of binding noncovalently, reversibly, and in a specific manner with a corresponding antigen. Binding may counteract the biological activity of the antigen.
2003-04-24 GO:0015524 L-arabinose/beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside:hydrogen antiporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: H+(out) + (arabinose or beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside)(in) = H+(in) + (arabinose or beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside)(out).
2003-04-24 GO:0042367 biotin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of biotin, cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0006768 biotin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving biotin, cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid; the (+) enantiomer is very widely distributed in cells and serves as a carrier in a number of enzymatic beta-carboxylation reactions.
2003-04-24 GO:0015878 biotin transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of biotin into, out of, within or between cells. Biotin is cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid; the (+) enantiomer is very widely distributed in cells and serves as a carrier in a number of enzymatic beta-carboxylation reactions.
2003-04-24 GO:0015225 biotin transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of biotin into, out of, within or between cells. Biotin is cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid; the (+) enantiomer is very widely distributed in cells and serves as a carrier in a number of enzymatic beta-carboxylation reactions.
2003-04-24 GO:0004077 biotin-[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + biotin + apo-(acetyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP forming)) = AMP + diphosphate + (acetyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP forming)).
2003-04-24 GO:0004078 biotin-[methylcrotonoyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + biotin + apo-(3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)) = AMP + diphosphate + (3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)).
2003-04-24 GO:0004079 biotin-[methylmalonyl-CoA-carboxytransferase] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + biotin + apo-(methylmalonyl-CoA:pyruvate carboxyltransferase) = AMP + diphosphate + (methylmalonyl-CoA:pyruvate carboxyltransferase).
2003-04-24 GO:0004080 biotin-[propionyl-CoA-carboxylase (ATP-hydrolyzing)] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + biotin + apo-(propanoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)) = AMP + diphosphate + (propanoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)).
2003-04-24 GO:0007114 cell budding Updated DEFINITION A form of asexual reproduction, occurring in certain bacteria and fungi (e. g. yeasts) and some primitive animals in which an individual arises from a daughter cell formed by pinching off a part of the parent cell. The budlike outgrowths so formed may sometimes remain attached to the parent cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0010102 lateral root morphogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation and development of a root from pericycle cells located on the xylem radius of the roo, as opposed to the initiation of the main root from the embryo proper.
2003-04-24 GO:0009239 enterobactin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of enterobactin, a catechol-derived siderochrome of Enterobacteria; enterobactin (N',N',N''-(2,6,10-trioxo-1,5,9-triacyclodecane-3,7,11-triyl)tris(2,3-dihydroxy)benzamide) is a self-triester of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine and a product of the shikimate pathway.
2003-04-24 GO:0046214 enterobactin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of enterobactin, a catechol-derived siderochrome of Enterobacteria; enterobactin (N',N',N''-(2,6,10-trioxo-1,5,9-triacyclodecane-3,7,11-triyl)tris(2,3-dihydroxy)benzamide) is a self-triester of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine and a product of the shikimate pathway.
2003-04-24 GO:0009238 enterobactin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving enterobactin, a catechol-derived siderochrome of Enterobacteria; enterobactin (N',N',N''-(2,6,10-trioxo-1,5,9-triacyclodecane-3,7,11-triyl)tris(2,3-dihydroxy)benzamide) is a self-triester of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine and a product of the shikimate pathway.
2003-04-24 GO:0018308 enzyme active site formation via N6-pyruvic acid 2-iminyl-L-lysine Updated DEFINITION The transient modification of lysine by pyruvate to form N6-pyruvic acid 2-iminyl-L-lysine, found in the active site of dihydrodipicolinate synthase.
2003-04-24 GO:0018332 enzyme active site formation via O-(phospho-5'-adenosine)-L-threonine Updated DEFINITION The transient adenylation of threonine to form N6-(phospho-5'-adenosine)-L-threonine, found in the active site of bovine phosphodiesterase I.
2003-04-24 GO:0045021 error-free DNA repair Updated DEFINITION DNA repair pathways that do not increase the mutation rate above spontaneous background levels, e. g. excision and recombination pathways.
2003-04-24 GO:0005853 eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit nucleotide exchange complex that binds GTP and aminoacyl-tRNAs, and catalyzes their codon-dependent placement at the A-site of the ribosome. In humans, the complex is composed of four subunits, alpha, beta, delta and gamma.
2003-04-24 GO:0005851 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit guanine nucleotide exchange factor which catalyzes the exchange of GDP bound to initiation factor eIF2 for GTP, generating active eIF2-GTP. in humans, it is composed of five subunits, alpha, beta, delta, gamma and epsilon.
2003-04-24 GO:0006887 exocytosis Updated DEFINITION The release of intracellular molecules (e. g. hormones, matrix proteins) contained within a membrane-bounded vesicle by fusion of the vesicle with the plasma membrane of a cell. This is the process whereby most molecules are secreted from eukaryotic cells.
2003-04-24 GO:0046658 anchored component of plasma membrane Updated DEFINITION Bound by covalent linkage to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), on one or other surface of the plasma membrane, but not integrated into the hydrophobic region.
2003-04-24 GO:0005577 fibrinogen complex Updated DEFINITION A highly soluble, elongated protein complex found in blood plasma and involved in clot formation. It is converted into fibrin monomer by the action of thrombin. In the mouse, fibrinogen is a hexamer, 46 nm long and 9 nm maximal diameter, containing two sets of nonidentical chains (alpha, beta, and gamma) linked together by disulfide bonds.
2003-04-24 GO:0008633 activation of pro-apoptotic gene products Updated TERM induction of pro-apoptotic gene products
2003-04-24 GO:0010084 specification of organ axis polarity Added TERM specification of organ axis polarity
2003-04-24 GO:0010085 polarity specification of proximal/distal axis Added TERM polarity specification of the proximal/distal axis
2003-04-24 GO:0010086 embryonic root morphogenesis Added TERM embryonic root morphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010087 phloem or xylem histogenesis Added TERM vascular tissue histogenesis (sensu Tracheophyta)
2003-04-24 GO:0010088 phloem development Added TERM phloem histogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010089 xylem development Added TERM xylem histogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010090 trichome morphogenesis Added TERM trichome morphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010091 trichome branching Added TERM trichome branching
2003-04-24 GO:0010092 specification of organ identity Added TERM specification of organ identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010093 specification of floral organ identity Added TERM specification of floral organ identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010094 specification of carpel identity Added TERM specification of carpel identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010095 specification of petal identity Added TERM specification of petal identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010096 specification of sepal identity Added TERM specification of sepal identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010097 specification of stamen identity Added TERM specification of stamen identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010098 suspensor development Added TERM suspensor development
2003-04-24 GO:0010099 regulation of photomorphogenesis Added TERM regulation of photomorphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010100 negative regulation of photomorphogenesis Added TERM negative regulation of photomorphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010101 post-embryonic root morphogenesis Added TERM post-embryonic root morphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010102 lateral root morphogenesis Added TERM lateral root morphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010103 stomatal complex morphogenesis Added TERM stomatal complex morphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0019794 nonprotein amino acid metabolic process Updated TERM nonprotein amino acid metabolism
2003-04-24 GO:0019795 nonprotein amino acid biosynthetic process Updated TERM nonprotein amino acid biosynthesis
2003-04-24 GO:0019796 nonprotein amino acid catabolic process Updated TERM nonprotein amino acid catabolism
2003-04-24 GO:0019184 nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic process Updated TERM nonreciprocal peptide biosynthesis
2003-04-24 GO:0017168 5-oxoprolinase (ATP-hydrolyzing) activity Updated TERM 5-oxoprolinase (ATP-hydrolyzing) activity

Terms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2003-04-24 GO:0042716 plasma membrane-derived chromatophore Added TERM chromatophore
2003-04-24 GO:0042717 plasma membrane-derived chromatophore membrane Added TERM chromatophore membrane
2003-04-24 GO:0042718 yolk granule Added TERM yolk granule
2003-04-24 GO:0046814 coreceptor-mediated virion attachment to host cell Updated TERM virion attachment, binding of host cell surface coreceptor
2003-04-24 GO:0008633 activation of pro-apoptotic gene products Updated TERM induction of pro-apoptotic gene products
2003-04-24 GO:0010084 specification of organ axis polarity Added TERM specification of organ axis polarity
2003-04-24 GO:0010085 polarity specification of proximal/distal axis Added TERM polarity specification of the proximal/distal axis
2003-04-24 GO:0010086 embryonic root morphogenesis Added TERM embryonic root morphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010087 phloem or xylem histogenesis Added TERM vascular tissue histogenesis (sensu Tracheophyta)
2003-04-24 GO:0010088 phloem development Added TERM phloem histogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010089 xylem development Added TERM xylem histogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010090 trichome morphogenesis Added TERM trichome morphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010091 trichome branching Added TERM trichome branching
2003-04-24 GO:0010092 specification of organ identity Added TERM specification of organ identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010093 specification of floral organ identity Added TERM specification of floral organ identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010094 specification of carpel identity Added TERM specification of carpel identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010095 specification of petal identity Added TERM specification of petal identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010096 specification of sepal identity Added TERM specification of sepal identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010097 specification of stamen identity Added TERM specification of stamen identity
2003-04-24 GO:0010098 suspensor development Added TERM suspensor development
2003-04-24 GO:0010099 regulation of photomorphogenesis Added TERM regulation of photomorphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010100 negative regulation of photomorphogenesis Added TERM negative regulation of photomorphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010101 post-embryonic root morphogenesis Added TERM post-embryonic root morphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010102 lateral root morphogenesis Added TERM lateral root morphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0010103 stomatal complex morphogenesis Added TERM stomatal complex morphogenesis
2003-04-24 GO:0019794 nonprotein amino acid metabolic process Updated TERM nonprotein amino acid metabolism
2003-04-24 GO:0019795 nonprotein amino acid biosynthetic process Updated TERM nonprotein amino acid biosynthesis
2003-04-24 GO:0019796 nonprotein amino acid catabolic process Updated TERM nonprotein amino acid catabolism
2003-04-24 GO:0019184 nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic process Updated TERM nonreciprocal peptide biosynthesis
2003-04-24 GO:0017168 5-oxoprolinase (ATP-hydrolyzing) activity Updated TERM 5-oxoprolinase (ATP-hydrolyzing) activity

Definition/synonyms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2003-04-24 GO:0017178 diphthine-ammonia ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + diphthine + ammonia (ammonia) = ADP + phosphate + diphthamide.
2003-04-24 GO:0006307 DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair Updated DEFINITION The repair of alkylation damage, e. g. the removal of the alkyl group at the O6-position of guanine by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT).
2003-04-24 GO:0006281 DNA repair Updated DEFINITION The process of restoring DNA after damage. Genomes are subject to damage by chemical and physical agents in the environment (e. g. UV and ionizing radiations, chemical mutagens, fungal and bacterial toxins, etc.) and by free radicals or alkylating agents endogenously generated in metabolism. DNA is also damaged because of errors during its replication. A variety of different DNA repair pathways have been reported that include direct reversal, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, photoreactivation, bypass, double-strand break repair pathway, and mismatch repair pathway.
2003-04-24 GO:0003899 DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: nucleoside triphosphate + RNA(n) = diphosphate + RNA(n+1) while utilizing a DNA template, i. e. the catalysis of DNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time. Can initiate a chain 'de novo'.
2003-04-24 GO:0005736 DNA-directed RNA polymerase I complex Updated DEFINITION RNA polymerase I, one of three eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases, is a multisubunit complex; it produces rRNAs. Two large subunits comprise the most conserved portion including the catalytic site and share similarity with other eukaryotic and bacterial multisubunit RNA polymerases. The remainder of the complex is composed of smaller subunits (generally ten or more), some of which are also found in RNA polymerase III and others which are found in all three nuclear RNA polymerases. Although the core is competent to mediate ribonucleic acid synthesis, it requires additional factors to select the appropriate template.
2003-04-24 GO:0005665 DNA-directed RNA polymerase II, core complex Updated DEFINITION RNA polymerase II, one of three eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases, is a multisubunit complex; it produces mRNAs, snoRNAs, and some of the snRNAs. Two large subunits comprise the most conserved portion including the catalytic site and share similarity with other eukaryotic and bacterial multisubunit RNA polymerases. The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II contains an essential carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) composed of a variable number of heptapeptide repeats (YSPTSPS). The remainder of the complex is composed of smaller subunits (generally ten or more), some of which are also found in RNA polymerases I and III. Although the core is competent to mediate ribonucleic acid synthesis, it requires additional factors to select the appropriate template.
2003-04-24 GO:0005666 DNA-directed RNA polymerase III complex Updated DEFINITION RNA polymerase III, one of three eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases, is a multisubunit complex; it produces tRNAs and some of the snRNAs. Two large subunits comprise the most conserved portion including the catalytic site and share similarity with other eukaryotic and bacterial multisubunit RNA polymerases. The remainder of the complex is composed of smaller subunits (generally ten or more), some of which are also found in RNA polymerase I and others which are found in all three nuclear RNA polymerases. Although the core is competent to mediate ribonucleic acid synthesis, it requires additional factors to select the appropriate template.
2003-04-24 GO:0006302 double-strand break repair Updated DEFINITION The repair of double-strand breaks in DNA via homologous and nonhomologous mechanisms to reform a continuous DNA helix.
2003-04-24 GO:0000724 double-strand break repair via homologous recombination Updated DEFINITION The error-free repair of a double-strand break in DNA in which the broken DNA molecule is repaired using homologous sequences. A strand in the broken DNA searches for a homologous region in an intact chromosome to serve as the template for DNA synthesis. The restoration of two intact DNA molecules results in the exchange, reciprocal or nonreciprocal, of genetic material between the intact DNA molecule and the broken DNA molecule.
2003-04-24 GO:0016010 dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that forms the critical link between the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix; typical of, but not confined, to muscle cells. The constituents of the complex are somewhat tissue specific. The rod-like dystrophin forms a link between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane; links between dystrophin and the extracellular matrix are provided by the sarcoglycan complex.
2003-04-24 GO:0015041 electron transfer flavoprotein, group II Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An electron transfer flavoprotein that functions as a housekeeping protein that is synthesized only under certain specific growth conditions and receives electrons from the oxidation of specific substrates, e. g. trimethylamine, carnitine and in nitrogen fixation.
2003-04-24 GO:0010086 embryonic root morphogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation and development of the embryonic root.
2003-04-24 GO:0010064 embryonic shoot morphogenesis Updated DEFINITION The formation and development of the embryonic shoot.
2003-04-24 GO:0004318 enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADH) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NAD+ = trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NADH + H+.
2003-04-24 GO:0004319 enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH, B-specific) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NADP+ = trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NADPH + H+.
2003-04-24 GO:0003825 alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming) activity Deleted SYNONYM UDPglucose:D-glucose-6-phosphate 1-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase
2003-04-24 GO:0003945 N-acetyllactosamine synthase activity Deleted SYNONYM UDPgalactose:N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-beta-D-galactosyltransferase
2003-04-24 GO:0005360 insulin-responsive hydrogen:glucose symporter activity Deleted SYNONYM trans-epithelial hydrogen/glucose transporter
2003-04-24 GO:0005361 transepithelial hydrogen:glucose symporter activity Deleted SYNONYM trans-epithelial hydrogen/glucose transporter
2003-04-24 GO:0005925 focal adhesion Deleted SYNONYM hemiadherens junction
2003-04-24 GO:0015643 toxic substance binding Deleted SYNONYM anti-toxin
2003-04-24 GO:0019057 modulation by virus of host translation Deleted SYNONYM host cell protein synthesis shut-off
2003-04-24 GO:0019057 modulation by virus of host translation Deleted SYNONYM host cell shut-off
2003-04-24 GO:0045087 innate immune response Deleted SYNONYM non-specific immune response
2003-04-24 GO:0003825 alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming) activity Added SYNONYM UDP-glucose:D-glucose-6-phosphate 1-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase
2003-04-24 GO:0003945 N-acetyllactosamine synthase activity Added SYNONYM UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-beta-D-galactosyltransferase
2003-04-24 GO:0005360 insulin-responsive hydrogen:glucose symporter activity Added SYNONYM transepithelial hydrogen/glucose transporter
2003-04-24 GO:0005361 transepithelial hydrogen:glucose symporter activity Added SYNONYM transepithelial hydrogen/glucose transporter
2003-04-24 GO:0005925 focal adhesion Added SYNONYM hemi-adherens junction
2003-04-24 GO:0015643 toxic substance binding Added SYNONYM antitoxin
2003-04-24 GO:0019057 modulation by virus of host translation Added SYNONYM host cell protein synthesis shutoff
2003-04-24 GO:0019057 modulation by virus of host translation Added SYNONYM host cell shutoff
2003-04-24 GO:0042716 plasma membrane-derived chromatophore Added SYNONYM chromatophore vesicle
2003-04-24 GO:0045087 innate immune response Added SYNONYM nonspecific immune response
2003-04-24 GO:0006729 tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e. g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0046147 tetrahydrobiopterin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e. g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0046146 tetrahydrobiopterin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e. g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0015619 thiamine pyrophosphate-transporting ATPase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + (thiamin or thiamin pyrophosphate)(in) = ADP + phosphate + (thiamin or thiamin pyrophosphate)(out).
2003-04-24 GO:0004791 thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: NADPH + H+ + thioredoxin disulfide (oxidized thioredoxin) = NADP+ + reduced thioredoxin.
2003-04-24 GO:0015500 threonine/serine:sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (threonine or serine)(out) + Na+(out) = (threonine or serine)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0018810 trans-4-[2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl]-2-oxo-3-butenoate hydratase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: trans-4-(2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoate + H2O = pyruvate + 3-hydroxy-2-formylbenzothiophene.
2003-04-24 GO:0030401 transcription antiterminator activity Updated DEFINITION Functions to prevent the termination of RNA synthesis. Acts as a regulatory device, e. g. in phage lambda, enabling a terminator to be masked from RNA polymerase so that distal genes can be expressed.
2003-04-24 GO:0016740 transferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer of a group, e. g. the methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from one compound (generally regarded as the donor) to another compound (generally regarded as the acceptor). Transferase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 2.
2003-04-24 GO:0042497 triacyl lipopeptide binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a three acyl groups.
2003-04-24 GO:0010090 trichome morphogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation and development of plant hair cells (trichomes).
2003-04-24 GO:0009710 tropane alkaloid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of tropane alkaloids, compounds containing the 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo(3.2.1)octane ring system.
2003-04-24 GO:0046448 tropane alkaloid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving tropane alkaloids, compounds containing the 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo(3.2.1)octane ring system.
2003-04-24 GO:0019799 tubulin N-acetyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + (alpha-tubulin) L-lysine = CoA + (alpha-tubulin) N6-acetyl-L-lysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0019783 small conjugating protein-specific protease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various forms of polymeric ubiquitin-like sequences (e. g. APG8, ISG15, NEDD8, SUMO). Will remove ubiquitin-like sequences from larger leaving groups.
2003-04-24 GO:0000324 fungal-type vacuole Updated DEFINITION The fungal vacuole is a large, membrane-bound organelle that functions as a reservoir for the storage of small molecules (including polyphosphate, amino acids, several divalent cations (e. g. calcium), other ions, and other small molecules) as well as being the primary compartment for degradation. It is an acidic compartment, containing an ensemble of acid hydrolases. At least in S. cerevisiae, there are indications that the morphology of the vacuole is variable and correlated with the cell cycle, with logarithmically growing cells having a multilobed, reticulated vacuole, while stationary phase cells contain a single large structure.
2003-04-24 GO:0042039 vanadium incorporation into metallo-sulfur cluster Updated DEFINITION The incorporation of vanadium a metallo-sulfur cluster such as VFe(7-8)S(n).
2003-04-24 GO:0010087 phloem or xylem histogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation of the conducting tissues of a vascular plant.
2003-04-24 GO:0019082 viral protein processing Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational processing of viral proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0042178 xenobiotic catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of a xenobiotic compound, a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e. g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2003-04-24 GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a xenobiotic compound, a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e. g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2003-04-24 GO:0010089 xylem development Added DEFINITION The formation of the principal water-conducting tissue of a vascular plant.
2003-04-24 GO:0046525 xylosylprotein 4-beta-galactosyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-galactose + O-beta-D-xylosylprotein = UDP + 4-beta-D-galactosyl-O-beta-D-xylosylprotein.
2003-04-24 GO:0042718 yolk granule Added DEFINITION Discrete structures that partition the yolk of oocytes and ova, which may or may not be membrane enclosed.
2003-04-24 GO:0015340 zinc, cadmium uptake permease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Zn2+ or Cd2+)(out) = (Zn2+ or Cd2+)(in). The activity is driven by proton motive force, possibly by proton symport.
2003-04-24 GO:0015342 zinc, iron permease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Zn2+ or Fe2+)(out) = (Zn2+ or Fe2+)(in), probably powered by proton motive force.
2003-04-24 GO:0016297 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = (acyl-carrier protein) + oleate.
2003-04-24 GO:0008770 [acyl-carrier-protein] phosphodiesterase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = 4'-phosphopantetheine + apoprotein.
2003-04-24 GO:0004313 [acyl-carrier-protein] S-acetyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acetyl-CoA + (acyl-carrier protein) = CoA + acetyl-(acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0004314 [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: malonyl-CoA + (acyl-carrier protein) = CoA + malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0019650 glucose catabolic process to butanediol Updated DEFINITION An anaerobic process in which glucose is fermented, with the production of 2,3-butanediol and other substances; effected by some members of the Enterobacteriaceae, e. g. Enterobacter, Erwinia, Klebsiella, and Serratia.
2003-04-24 GO:0030645 glucose catabolic process to butyrate Updated DEFINITION An anaerobic process in which glucose is fermented, with the production of acetic acid, butyric acid, carbon dioxide, and dihydrogen; effected by some saccharolytic species of Clostridium, e. g. C. butyricum.
2003-04-24 GO:0018166 C-terminal protein-tyrosinylation Updated DEFINITION The ATP-dependent posttranslational addition of a tyrosine residue to the C-terminus of a protein; typically the addition of tyrosine to the C-terminus of detyrosinated alpha-tubulin by the enzyme tubulin-tyrosine ligase (GO:0004835).
2003-04-24 GO:0016840 carbon-nitrogen lyase activity Updated DEFINITION The carbon-nitrogen lyases are enzymes that release ammonia or one of its derivatives, with the formation of a double bond or ring. Some catalyze the actual elimination of the ammonia, amine or amide, e. g. CH-CH(-NH-R) = C=CH- + NH2-R. Others, however, catalyze elimination of another component, e. g. water, which is followed by spontaneous reactions that lead to breakage of the C-N bond, e. g. L-serine ammonia-lyase (EC:4.3.1.17), so that the overall reaction is C(-OH)-CH(-NH2) = CH2-CO- + NH3, i. e. an elimination with rearrangement. The sub-subclasses of EC:4.3 are the ammonia-lyases (EC:4.3.1), lyases acting on amides, amidines, etc. (EC:4.3.2), the amine-lyases (EC:4.3.3), and other carbon-nitrogen lyases (EC:4.3.99).
2003-04-24 GO:0030154 cell differentiation Updated DEFINITION The process whereby relatively unspecialized cells, e. g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history.
2003-04-24 GO:0000904 cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation Updated DEFINITION The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs when relatively unspecialized cells, e. g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history.
2003-04-24 GO:0016761 cellulose synthase (GDP-forming) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: GDP-glucose + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n) = GDP + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n+1).
2003-04-24 GO:0016760 cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n) = UDP + ((1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl)(n+1).
2003-04-24 GO:0004100 chitin synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + ((1,4)-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl))(n) = UDP + ((1,4)-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl))(n+1).
2003-04-24 GO:0042600 chorion Updated DEFINITION A protective, noncellular membrane that surrounds the eggs of various animals including insects and fish.
2003-04-24 GO:0046417 chorismate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving chorismate, the anion of (3R-trans)-3-((1-carboxyethenyl)oxy)-4-hydroxy-1,5-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0042716 plasma membrane-derived chromatophore Added DEFINITION A membrane enclosed, pigment-bearing vesicle found in certain photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria, derived from invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0042717 plasma membrane-derived chromatophore membrane Added DEFINITION The membrane of a chromatophore, a pigment-bearing vesicle found in certain photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria.
2003-04-24 GO:0005694 chromosome Updated DEFINITION A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e. g. histones) that carries hereditary information.
2003-04-24 GO:0019930 cis-14-hydroxy-10,13-dioxo-7-heptadecenoic acid peptidyl-aspartate ester biosynthetic process from peptidyl-aspartic acid Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-aspartic acid to form peptidyl-cis-14-hydroxy-10,13-dioxo-7-heptadecenoic acid aspartate ester, typical of the barley lipid transfer protein 1.
2003-04-24 GO:0018839 cis-4-[2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl]-2-oxo-3-butenoate isomerase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: cis-4-(2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoate = trans-4-(2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoate.
2003-04-24 GO:0015339 cobalt, zinc uptake permease activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Zn2+ or Co2+)(out) = (Zn2+ or Co2+)(in). The activity is driven by proton motive force, possibly by proton symport.
2003-04-24 GO:0019298 coenzyme B biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate), a coenzyme involved in the utilization of methane by methanogenic prokaryotes.
2003-04-24 GO:0019297 coenzyme B metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate), a coenzyme involved in the utilization of methane by methanogenic prokaryotes.
2003-04-24 GO:0030413 competence pheromone activity Updated DEFINITION A small peptide excreted by a naturally transformable bacterium (e. g. Bacillus subtilis) that transmits a signal required for the establishment of competence.
2003-04-24 GO:0000777 condensed chromosome kinetochore Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the pericentric region of a condensed chromosome and provides an attachment point for the spindle microtubules.
2003-04-24 GO:0000778 condensed nuclear chromosome kinetochore Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the pericentric region of a condensed chromosome in the nucleus and provides an attachment point for the spindle microtubules.
2003-04-24 GO:0000796 condensin complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit protein complex that plays a central role in chromosome condensation.
2003-04-24 GO:0000797 condensin core heterodimer Updated DEFINITION The core heterodimer of a condensin complex, a multisubunit protein complex that plays a central role in chromosome condensation.
2003-04-24 GO:0019135 deoxyhypusine monooxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: protein N6-(4-aminobutyl)-L-lysine + AH2 + O2 = protein N6-((R)-4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)-L-lysine + A + H2O.
2003-04-24 GO:0004171 deoxyhypusine synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (eIF5A-precursor)-lysine + spermidine = (eIF5A-precursor)-deoxyhypusine + propane-1,3-diamine.
2003-04-24 GO:0030208 dermatan sulfate biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of dermatan sulfate, any of a group of glycosaminoglycans with repeats consisting of beta1->4-linked L-iduronyl-(beta1->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units.
2003-04-24 GO:0030209 dermatan sulfate catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of dermatan sulfate, any of a group of glycosaminoglycans with repeats consisting of beta1->4-linked L-iduronyl-(beta1->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units.
2003-04-24 GO:0030205 dermatan sulfate metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving dermatan sulfate, any of a group of glycosaminoglycans with repeats consisting of beta1->4-linked L-iduronyl-(beta1->3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units. They are important components of ground substance or intercellular cement of skin and some connective tissues.
2003-04-24 GO:0007275 multicellular organismal development Updated DEFINITION Biological processes specifically aimed at the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e. g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e. g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).
2003-04-24 GO:0042498 diacyl lipopeptide binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a two acyl groups.
2003-04-24 GO:0008353 RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain kinase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (DNA-directed RNA polymerase) = ADP + phospho-(DNA-directed RNA polymerase).
2003-04-24 GO:0018565 dihydroxydibenzothiophene dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1,2-dihydroxydibenzothiophene + O2 = cis-4-(2-(3-hydroxy)-thionaphthenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoate.
2003-04-24 GO:0004164 diphthine synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 2-(3-carboxy-3-aminopropyl)-L-histidine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 2-(3-carboxy-3-(methylammonio)propyl)-L-histidine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018243 protein O-linked glycosylation via threonine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the O3 atom of peptidyl-threonine, forming O3-glycosyl-L-threonine; the most common forms are N-acetylgalactosaminyl, mannosyl, and galactosyl threonine.
2003-04-24 GO:0016070 RNA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving RNA, ribonucleic acid, one of the two main type of nucleic acid, consisting of a long, unbranched macromolecule formed from ribonucleotides joined in 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage.
2003-04-24 GO:0042565 RNA nuclear export complex Updated DEFINITION A complex which usually consists of three components e. g. in Xenopus and yeast, the export receptor CRM1 (also known as exportin 1), the Ran protein and any RNA with a nuclear export sequence (NES). The complex acts to export RNA molecules with a NES from the nucleus through a nuclear pore.
2003-04-24 GO:0010094 specification of carpel identity Added DEFINITION The process by which a floral organ primordium acquires the carpel identity.
2003-04-24 GO:0018245 protein O-linked glycosylation via tyrosine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the O4' atom of peptidyl-tyrosine, O4'-glycosyl-L-tyrosine; the carbohydrate is glucose, the origin for glycogen.
2003-04-24 GO:0042477 odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth of various invertebrates and used in feeding or procuring food e. g. a mollusk or starfish tooth.
2003-04-24 GO:0004320 oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = (acyl-carrier protein) + oleate.
2003-04-24 GO:0000808 origin recognition complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the replication origins of a chromosome.
2003-04-24 GO:0006800 oxygen and reactive oxygen species metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving molecular oxygen (O2), or any of the reactive oxygen species e. g. superoxide anions (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (-OH).
2003-04-24 GO:0016296 palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = (acyl-carrier protein) + oleate.
2003-04-24 GO:0008153 para-aminobenzoic acid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of para-aminobenzoic acid, an intermediate in the synthesis of folic acid, a compound which some organisms, e. g. prokaryotes, eukaryotic microbes, and plants, can synthesize de novo. Others, notably mammals, cannot. In yeast, it is present as a factor in the B complex of vitamins.
2003-04-24 GO:0046482 para-aminobenzoic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving para-aminobenzoic acid, an intermediate in the synthesis of folic acid, a compound which some organisms, e. g. prokaryotes, eukaryotic microbes, and plants, can synthesize de novo. Others, notably mammals, cannot. In yeast, it is present as a factor in the B complex of vitamins.
2003-04-24 GO:0042382 paraspeckles Updated DEFINITION Discrete subnuclear bodies in the interchromatin nucleoplasmic space, often located adjacent to nuclear specks. 10-20 paraspeckles are typically found in human cell nuclei.
2003-04-24 GO:0001519 peptide amidation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational conversion of C-terminal glycine-extended peptides to C-terminal alpha-amidated peptides. Occurs to over half of all peptide hormones to give bioactive peptides. This is a two step process catalyzed by a peptidyl-glycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase and a peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase. In some organisms, this process is catalyzed by two separate enzymes, whereas in higher organisms, one polypeptide catalyzes both reactions.
2003-04-24 GO:0018081 peptide cross-linking via lanthionine or 3-methyl-lanthionine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational synthesis of (2R,6R)-lanthionine, sn-(2S,6R)-lanthionine or (2S,3S,6R)-3-methyl-lanthionine, forming an intra-polypeptide cross-link between peptidyl-cysteine, and peptidyl-serine or peptidyl-threonine; dehydration of the serine or threonine residue to the alpha,beta-unsaturated amino acid is the first step; a bond then forms between the ethylene group thus formed and the sulfur atom of a cysteine, with the inversion of the configuration of the alpha carbon of the serine or threonine occurring during the process.
2003-04-24 GO:0010093 specification of floral organ identity Added DEFINITION The process by which the identity of a floral organ primordium is specified.
2003-04-24 GO:0010084 specification of organ axis polarity Added DEFINITION The process by which the polarity of an organ axis is specified.
2003-04-24 GO:0000341 RNA trimethylguanosine cap binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with the trimethylguanosine (m(3)(2,2,7)-GTP) moiety located at the 5' end of some RNA molecules. Such trimethylated cap structures, generally produced by post-transcriptional modification of a 7-methylguanosine cap, are often found on snRNAs and snoRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase II, but have also be found on snRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III. They have also been found on a subset of the mRNA population in some species, e. g. C. elegans.
2003-04-24 GO:0018240 protein S-linked glycosylation via cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the sulfur atom of peptidyl-cysteine, forming S-glycosyl-L-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0016909 SAP kinase activity Updated DEFINITION A family of protein kinases that perform a crucial step in relaying signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Strongly activated by stress signals such as heat or osmotic shock, DNA-damaging agents, inhibitors of protein synthesis and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
2003-04-24 GO:0001514 selenocysteine incorporation Updated DEFINITION The incorporation of selenocysteine into a peptide; uses a special tRNA that recognizes the UGA codon as selenocysteine, rather than as a termination codon. Selenocysteine is synthesized from serine before its incorporation, it is not a posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0019953 sexual reproduction Updated DEFINITION The regular alternation, in the life cycle of haplontic, diplontic and diplohaplontic organisms, of meiosis and fertilization which provides for the production of offspring. In diplontic organisms there is a life cycle in which the products of meiosis behave directly as gametes, fusing to form a zygote from which the diploid, or sexually reproductive polyploid, adult organism will develop. In diplohaplontic organisms a haploid phase (gametophyte) exists in the life cycle between meiosis and fertilization (e. g. higher plants, many algae and fungi); the products of meiosis are spores that develop as haploid individuals from which haploid gametes develop to form a diploid zygote; diplohaplontic organisms show an alternation of haploid and diploid generations. In haplontic organisms meiosis occurs in the zygote, giving rise to four haploid cells (e. g. many algae and protozoa), only the zygote is diploid and this may form a resistant spore, tiding organisms over hard times.
2003-04-24 GO:0019290 siderophore biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of siderochromes, low molecular weight Fe(III)-chelating substances made by aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria, especially when growing under iron deficient conditions. The complexes of Fe(3+)-siderochromes have very high stability constants and are taken up by specific transport systems by microorganisms; the subsequent release of iron requires enzymatic action.
2003-04-24 GO:0046215 siderophore catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of siderochromes, low molecular weight Fe(III)-chelating substances made by aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria, especially when growing under iron deficient conditions. The complexes of Fe(3+)-siderochromes have very high stability constants and are taken up by specific transport systems by microorganisms; the subsequent release of iron requires enzymatic action.
2003-04-24 GO:0009237 siderophore metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving siderochromes, low molecular weight Fe(III)-chelating substances made by aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria, especially when growing under iron deficient conditions. The complexes of Fe(3+)-siderochromes have very high stability constants and are taken up by specific transport systems by microorganisms; the subsequent release of iron requires enzymatic action.
2003-04-24 GO:0015344 siderophore uptake transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: siderochrome-iron(ferrioxamine)(out) + H+(out) = siderochrome-iron(ferrioxamine)(in) + H+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0030532 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex Updated DEFINITION Any of various particulate complexes of proteins with molecules of small nuclear RNA (snRNA), found in the eukaryotic nucleus; the particles are 250 kDa. They are named according to the snRNAs they contain: the U4/U6 snRNP, e. g. contains U4 and U6 snRNA. They are involved in RNA splicing (see spliceosome). Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus make antibodies directed against one or more snRNPs.
2003-04-24 GO:0005311 sodium:dicarboxylate/tricarboxylate symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (dicarboxylate or tricarboxylate)(out) + Na+(out) = (dicarboxylate or tricarboxylate)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0010092 specification of organ identity Added DEFINITION The process by which the identity of an organ primordium is specified.
2003-04-24 GO:0010095 specification of petal identity Added DEFINITION The process by which a floral organ primordium acquires petal identity.
2003-04-24 GO:0010096 specification of sepal identity Added DEFINITION The process by which a floral organ primordium acquires sepal identity.
2003-04-24 GO:0010097 specification of stamen identity Added DEFINITION The process by which a floral organ primordium acquires stamen or staminode identity.
2003-04-24 GO:0009847 spore germination Updated DEFINITION The physiological and developmental changes that occur in a spore following release from dormancy up to the earliest signs of growth (e. g. emergence from a spore wall).
2003-04-24 GO:0010103 stomatal complex morphogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation and development of the stomatal guard cells and their associated epidermal cells.
2003-04-24 GO:0042709 succinate-CoA ligase complex Updated DEFINITION A heterodimeric enzyme complex, usually composed of an alpha and beta chain. Functions in the TCA cycle, hydrolyzing succinyl-CoA into succinate and CoA, thereby forming ATP or GTP.
2003-04-24 GO:0009361 succinate-CoA ligase complex (ADP-forming) Updated DEFINITION A heterodimeric enzyme complex, composed of an alpha and beta chain, most usually found in (but not limited to) bacteria. Functions in the TCA cycle, hydrolyzing succinyl-CoA into succinate and CoA, thereby forming ATP.
2003-04-24 GO:0045244 succinate-CoA ligase complex (GDP-forming) Updated DEFINITION A heterodimeric enzyme complex, usually composed of an alpha and beta chain and found in eukaryotes. Functions in the TCA cycle, hydrolyzing succinyl-CoA into succinate and CoA, thereby forming GTP.
2003-04-24 GO:0046524 sucrose-phosphate synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-glucose + D-fructose 6-phosphate = UDP + sucrose 6-phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0010098 suspensor development Added DEFINITION The formation and development of the suspensor, the extension at the base of the embryo that anchors the embryo in the embryo sac and pushes it into the endosperm.
2003-04-24 GO:0045202 synapse Updated DEFINITION The junction between a nerve fiber of one neuron and another neuron or muscle fiber or glial cell; the site of interneuronal communication. As the nerve fiber approaches the synapse it enlarges into a specialized structure, the presynaptic nerve ending, which contains mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. At the tip of the nerve ending is the presynaptic membrane; facing it, and separated from it by a minute cleft (the synaptic cleft) is a specialized area of membrane on the receiving cell, known as the post-synaptic membrane. In response to the arrival of nerve impulses, the presynaptic nerve ending secretes molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and transmit the signal to the post-synaptic membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0010091 trichome branching Added DEFINITION The processes involved in the formation of branches in plant hair cells (trichomes).
2003-04-24 GO:0009460 cytochrome b Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A cytochrome containing noncovalently bound protoheme (iron protoporphyrin IX; heme b).
2003-04-24 GO:0009463 cytochrome b/b6 Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Diheme cytochrome b; cytochrome b has the hemes b(562) and b(566) and is a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III. Cytochrome b6 is a component of bc complex acting between photosystems II and I of photosynthesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0004128 cytochrome-b5 reductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: NADH + H+ + 2 ferricytochrome b(5) = NAD+ + 2 ferrocytochrome b(5).
2003-04-24 GO:0009462 cytochrome d Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A cytochrome in which the prosthetic group is a tetrapyrrolic chelate of iron in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. This definition would appear to include siroheme proteins (e. g. nitrite and sulfite reductases); but these are not cytochromes. Kirill Degtyarenko:Sep 28 13:08:07 2000.
2003-04-24 GO:0000787 cytoplasmic nucleosome Updated DEFINITION A complex comprised of DNA wound around a multisubunit core and associated proteins, which forms the primary packing unit of DNA in the cytoplasm into higher order structures.
2003-04-24 GO:0000809 cytoplasmic origin of replication recognition complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the replication origins of a chromosome in the cytoplasm.
2003-04-24 GO:0000345 cytosolic DNA-directed RNA polymerase complex Updated DEFINITION The eubacterial DNA-directed RNA polymerase is a multisubunit complex with a core composed of the essential subunits beta-prime, beta, and two copies of alpha and a fifth nonessential subunit called omega. An additional subunit, a sigma factor, is required for promoter recognition and specificity.
2003-04-24 GO:0008771 [citrate (pro-3S)-lyase] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + acetate + (citrate (pro-3S)-lyase) (thiol form) = AMP + diphosphate + (citrate (pro-3S)-lyase) (acetyl form).
2003-04-24 GO:0016275 [cytochrome c]-arginine N-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + (cytochrome c)-arginine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + (cytochrome c)-N(omega)-methyl-arginine.
2003-04-24 GO:0008772 [isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+)] kinase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP)) = ADP + (isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP)) phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0030586 [methionine synthase] reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (methionine synthase)-cob(II)alamin + NADPH + H+ + S-adenosyl methionine = (methionine synthase)-methylcob(I)alamin + S-adenosylhomocysteine + NADP+.
2003-04-24 GO:0016277 [myelin basic protein]-arginine N-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + (myelin basic protein)-arginine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + (myelin basic protein)-N(omega)-methyl-arginine.
2003-04-24 GO:0008773 [protein-PII] uridylyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UTP + (protein-PII) = diphosphate + uridylyl-(protein-PII).
2003-04-24 GO:0008021 synaptic vesicle Updated DEFINITION Secretory organelles, some 50 nm in diameter, of presynaptic nerve terminals; accumulate high concentrations of neurotransmitters and secrete these into the synaptic cleft by fusion with the 'active zone' of the presynaptic plasma membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0019717 synaptosome Updated DEFINITION Any of the discrete particles (nerve-ending particles) formed from the clublike presynaptic nerve endings that resist disruption and are snapped or torn off their attachments when brain tissue is homogenized in media isosmotic to plasma.
2003-04-24 GO:0006864 pyrimidine nucleotide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a pyrimidine nucleotide, any compound consisting of a pyrimidine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015218 pyrimidine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of a pyrimidine nucleotide, any compound consisting of a pyrimidine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015389 pyrimidine- and adenine-specific:sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (pyrimidine nucleoside or adenine)(out) + Na+(out) = (pyrimidine nucleoside or adenine)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0004740 pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) kinase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) = ADP + (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0004741 [pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)] phosphatase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) phosphate + H2O = (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) + phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0019906 [pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)] phosphatase, intrinsic catalyst activity Updated DEFINITION Catalytic activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) phosphatase, an enzyme which catalyzes the reaction: (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) phosphate + H2O = (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) + phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0019909 [pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)] phosphatase regulator activity Updated DEFINITION Regulatory activity for pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) phosphatase, an enzyme which catalyzes the reaction: (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) phosphate + H2O = (pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide)) + phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0045250 cytosolic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Updated DEFINITION Complex that carries out the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl-CoA in bacteria; comprises subunits possessing three catalytic activities: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (E2), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). Usually contains fewer subunits than its eukaryotic counterpart; for example, the E. coli complex contains 12 E1 dimers, 8 E2 trimers, and 6 E3 dimers arranged in highly symmetric cubic order.
2003-04-24 GO:0009079 pyruvate family amino acid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis e. g. alanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0009080 pyruvate family amino acid catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis e. g. alanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0009078 pyruvate family amino acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving any amino acid that requires pyruvate for its synthesis, e. g. alanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0000725 recombinational repair Updated DEFINITION The repair of damaged DNA that involves the exchange, reciprocal or nonreciprocal, of genetic material between the broken DNA molecule and a homologous region of DNA.
2003-04-24 GO:0010080 regulation of floral meristem growth Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the size and shape of a floral meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0010081 regulation of inflorescence meristem growth Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the size and shape of an inflorescence meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0042484 regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth of various invertebrates and used in feeding or procuring food e. g. a mollusk or starfish tooth.
2003-04-24 GO:0010099 regulation of photomorphogenesis Added DEFINITION Any process that modulates the rate or extent of photomorphogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0010082 regulation of root meristem growth Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the size and shape of a root meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0010083 regulation of vegetative meristem growth Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the size and shape of a vegetative meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0019430 removal of superoxide radicals Updated DEFINITION The processes involved in removing superoxide radicals (O2-) from a cell or organism, e. g. by conversion to molecular oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
2003-04-24 GO:0046678 response to bacteriocin Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of the organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of exposure to any bacteriocin, a protein substance released by certain bacteria that kills but does not lyse closely related strains of bacteria. Specific bacteriocins attach to specific receptors on cell walls and induce specific metabolic block, e. g. cessation of nucleic acid or protein synthesis of oxidative phosphorylation.
2003-04-24 GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species e. g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals.
2003-04-24 GO:0006950 response to stress Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) that occurs in response to stress, usually, but not necessarily exogenous (e. g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation).
2003-04-24 GO:0019289 rhizobactin 1021 biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of rhizobactin 1021, (E)-4-((3-(acetylhydroxyamino)propyl)-amino)-2-hydroxy-(2-(2-(3-(hydroxy(1-oxo-2-decenyl)amino)propyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid, a siderophore produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti.
2003-04-24 GO:0046494 rhizobactin 1021 metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving rhizobactin 1021, (E)-4-((3-(acetylhydroxyamino)propyl)-amino)-2-hydroxy-(2-(2-(3-(hydroxy(1-oxo-2-decenyl)amino)propyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid, a siderophore produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti.
2003-04-24 GO:0009452 7-methylguanosine RNA capping Updated DEFINITION The sequence of enzymatic reactions by which the 5' cap structure, an inverted 7-methylguanosine linked via a 5'-5' triphosphate bridge (m7G(5')ppp(5')X) to the first transcribed residue, is added to a nascent RNA polymerase II transcript.
2003-04-24 GO:0006401 RNA catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of RNA, ribonucleic acid, one of the two main type of nucleic acid, consisting of a long, unbranched macromolecule formed from ribonucleotides joined in 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage.
2003-04-24 GO:0006278 RNA-dependent DNA replication Updated DEFINITION The process whereby new strands of DNA are synthesized, using RNA as a template for RNA-dependent DNA polymerases (e. g. reverse transcriptase) that synthesize the new strands.
2003-04-24 GO:0030106 MHC class I receptor activity Updated DEFINITION A major histocompatibility complex class I receptor. These display processed antigens from the endocytosed bacteria. MHC class I proteins can form complexes with processed antigen peptides only if the antigen is synthesized in the same cell. As a consequence, T lymphocytes can only bind to class-I-positive cells that are synthesizing the antigen (e. g. virus-infected cells).
2003-04-24 GO:0010100 negative regulation of photomorphogenesis Added DEFINITION Any process that stops, reduces or prevents photomorphogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0005874 microtubule Updated DEFINITION Any of the long, generally straight, hollow tubes of internal diameter 12-15 nm and external diameter 24 nm found in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells; each consists (usually) of 13 protofilaments of polymeric tubulin, staggered in such a manner that the tubulin monomers are arranged in a helical pattern on the microtubular surface, and with the alpha/beta axes of the tubulin subunits parallel to the long axis of the tubule; exist in equilibrium with pool of tubulin monomers and can be rapidly assembled or disassembled in response to physiological stimuli; concerned with force generation, e. g. in the spindle.
2003-04-24 GO:0007026 negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization Updated DEFINITION Prevention of depolymerization of a microtubule; can result from binding by 'capping' at the plus end (e. g. by interaction with another cellular protein of structure) or by exposing microtubules to a stabilizing drug such as taxol.
2003-04-24 GO:0006312 mitotic recombination Updated DEFINITION The exchange, reciprocal or nonreciprocal, of genetic material between one DNA molecule and a homologous region of DNA that occurs during mitotic cell cycles.
2003-04-24 GO:0006777 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e. g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum coordinated by the dithiolene moiety of a family of tricyclic pyranopterins containing a cis-dithiolene group in their pyran ring. Enzymes containing a pyranopterin cofactor and either Mo or W are found in all phyla and some of these catalyze important transformations in the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycle. These reactions generally involve redox chemistry at the active site with the metal cycling between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. The formation from simpler components of the Mo/W-cofactor is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and genes involved in Moco biosynthesis have been identified in eubacteria, Archaea and eukaryotes.
2003-04-24 GO:0019720 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving Mo-molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e. g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase.
2003-04-24 GO:0001734 mRNA (N6-adenosine)-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + RRACH = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + RRm6ACH, where R = purine, and H = C, A, or U.
2003-04-24 GO:0004687 myosin light chain kinase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (myosin light-chain) = ADP + (myosin light-chain) phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0016295 myristoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = (acyl-carrier protein) + oleate.
2003-04-24 GO:0006487 protein N-linked glycosylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the N4 atom of peptidyl-asparagine or the N1' atom peptidyl-tryptophan.
2003-04-24 GO:0042543 protein N-linked glycosylation via arginine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via peptidyl-arginine, omega-N-glycosyl-L-arginine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018279 protein N-linked glycosylation via asparagine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the N4 atom of peptidyl-asparagine forming N4-glycosyl-L-asparagine; the most common form is N-acetylglucosaminyl asparagine; N-acetylgalactosaminyl asparagine also occurs; this modification typically occurs in extracellular peptides with an N-X-(ST) motif. Partial modification has been observed to occur with cysteine, rather than serine or threonine, in the third position; secondary structure features are important, and proline in the second or fourth positions inhibits modification.
2003-04-24 GO:0018244 protein N-linked glycosylation via tryptophan Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via peptidyl-tryptophan, 1'-glycosyl-L-tryptophan; it is uncertain whether this is an N-glycoside linkage (as indicated), and which particular hexose is involved.
2003-04-24 GO:0046908 negative regulation of crystal formation Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the spontaneous (nonenzymatic) formation of crystals in a solution, for example, calcium oxalate crystals in urine.
2003-04-24 GO:0042486 negative regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth of various invertebrates and used in feeding or procuring food e. g. a mollusk or starfish tooth.
2003-04-24 GO:0001504 neurotransmitter uptake Updated DEFINITION The uptake of neurotransmitters by presynaptic neurons or glial cells. This process leads to inactivation and recycling of neurotransmitters. It does not occur during cholinergic synaptic transmission. Instead, acetylcholine is enzymatically degraded in the synaptic cleft.
2003-04-24 GO:0016950 nickel-iron hydrogenase activity Updated DEFINITION Nickel-(iron-sulfur)-containing hydrogenases (( NiFe) hydrogenases) possess two (4Fe-4S) centers and one (3Fe-xS) cluster in addition to nickel. The redox active nickel is ligated by at least two cysteinyl thiolate residues and the (NiFe) hydrogenases are particularly resistant to inhibitors such as CO and NO2-.
2003-04-24 GO:0016951 nickel-iron-selenium hydrogenase activity Updated DEFINITION The nickel-(iron-sulfur)-selenium-containing hydrogenases ((NiFe-Se) hydrogenases) which contain nickel and selenium in equimolecular amounts plus (4Fe-4S) centers.
2003-04-24 GO:0030418 nicotianamine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of nicotianamine, 2(S),3'2(S),3''(S)-N-(N-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0030419 nicotianamine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of nicotianamine, 2(S),3'2(S),3''(S)-N-(N-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0030417 nicotianamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving nicotianamine, 2(S),3'2(S),3''(S)-N-(N-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0042564 NLS-dependent protein nuclear import complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex which usually consists of three components, e. g. in Xenopus, the importin alpha and beta-subunits and any protein which has a nuclear localization sequence (NLS). The complex acts to import proteins with an NLS into the nucleus through a nuclear pore.
2003-04-24 GO:0009112 nucleobase metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a nucleobase, a nitrogenous base that is a constituent of a nucleic acid, e. g. the purines: adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine and the pyrimidines: cytosine, uracil, thymine.
2003-04-24 GO:0009116 nucleoside metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a nucleoside, a nucleobase linked to either beta-D-ribofuranose (ribonucleoside) or 2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranose, (a deoxyribonucleotide). e. g. adenosine, guanosine, inosine, cytidine, uridine and deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine (= deoxythymidine).
2003-04-24 GO:0000786 nucleosome Updated DEFINITION A complex comprised of DNA wound around a multisubunit core and associated proteins, which forms the primary packing unit of DNA into higher order structures.
2003-04-24 GO:0000166 nucleotide binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety.
2003-04-24 GO:0009165 nucleotide biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of nucleotides, any nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety; may be mono-, di- or triphosphate; this definition includes cyclic-nucleotides (nucleoside cyclic phosphates).
2003-04-24 GO:0009166 nucleotide catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of nucleotides, any nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety; may be mono-, di- or triphosphate; this definition includes cyclic-nucleotides (nucleoside cyclic phosphates).
2003-04-24 GO:0009117 nucleotide metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving a nucleotide, a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety; may be mono-, di- or triphosphate; this definition includes cyclic-nucleotides (nucleoside cyclic phosphates).
2003-04-24 GO:0006862 nucleotide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015215 nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0006294 nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex assembly Updated DEFINITION The assembly of the multiprotein complex involved in damage recognition, DNA helix unwinding, and endonucleolytic cleavage at the site of DNA damage. This assembly occurs before the the phosphodiester backbone of the damaged strand is cleaved 3' and 5' of the site of DNA damage.
2003-04-24 GO:0006293 nucleotide-excision repair, preincision complex stabilization Updated DEFINITION The stabilization of the multiprotein complex involved in damage recognition, DNA helix unwinding, and endonucleolytic cleavage at the site of DNA damage as well as the unwound DNA. The stabilization of the protein-DNA complex ensures proper positioning of the preincision complex before the the phosphodiester backbone of the damaged strand is cleaved 3' and 5' of the site of DNA damage.
2003-04-24 GO:0018241 protein O-linked glycosylation via hydroxylysine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the O5 atom of peptidyl-hydroxylysine, forming O5-glycosyl-L-hydroxylysine; the most common form is galactosyl hydroxylysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018258 protein O-linked glycosylation via hydroxyproline Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of proteins via 04 atom of hydroxyproline to form O4-glycosyl-L-hydroxyproline; the most common form is arabinofuranosyl-4-proline.
2003-04-24 GO:0018242 protein O-linked glycosylation via serine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational glycosylation of protein via the O3 atom of peptidyl-serine, forming O3-glycosyl-L-serine; the most common forms are N-acetylgalactosaminyl, mannosyl, galactosyl, and xylosyl serine.
2003-04-24 GO:0015560 L-idonate/D-gluconate:hydrogen symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (L-idonate or D-gluconate)(out) + H+(out) = (L-iodonate or D-gluconate)(in) + H+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0008912 lactaldehyde reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R) (or (S))-propane-1,2-diol + NAD+ = (R) (or (S))-lactaldehyde + NADH + H+.
2003-04-24 GO:0015305 lactose, galactose:proton symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (lactose or galactose)(out) + H+(out) = (lactose or galactose)(in) + H+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0002119 nematode larval development Updated DEFINITION Development from the newly hatched first-stage larva to the end of the last larval stage (e. g. fourth-stage in C. elegans) before molting to adulthood.
2003-04-24 GO:0005616 larval serum protein complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit protein complex which, in Drosophila, is a heterohexamer of three subunits, alpha, beta and gamma. The complex is thought to store amino acids for synthesis of adult proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0016524 latrotoxin receptor activity Updated DEFINITION Combines with a high structural selectivity to alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin, specifically altering cell function.
2003-04-24 GO:0016294 lauroyl-[acyl-carrier protein] hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O = (acyl-carrier protein) + oleate.
2003-04-24 GO:0046696 lipopolysaccharide receptor complex Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that consists of at least three proteins, CD14, TLR4, and MD-2, each of which is glycosylated.
2003-04-24 GO:0008034 lipoprotein binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2003-04-24 GO:0042158 lipoprotein biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2003-04-24 GO:0042159 lipoprotein catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2003-04-24 GO:0042157 lipoprotein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2003-04-24 GO:0042160 lipoprotein modification Updated DEFINITION The enzymatic modification of a lipoprotein; any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids.
2003-04-24 GO:0030228 lipoprotein particle receptor activity Updated DEFINITION A receptor that binds lipoprotein, any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein moiety consists of a lipid or lipids. The lipid may be triacylglycerol, cholesterol, or phospholipid, or a combination of these.
2003-04-24 GO:0008922 long-chain fatty acid [acyl-carrier-protein] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + an acid + (acyl-carrier protein) = AMP + diphosphate + acyl-(acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0030631 pyrrolysine incorporation Updated DEFINITION The incorporation of a lysine methylamine methyltransferase cofactor adduct into a peptide; uses a special tRNA that recognizes the UGA codon as a modified lysine, rather than as a termination codon. The lysine methylamine methyltransferase cofactor adduct is synthesized from a lysine charged tRNA before its incorporation; it is not a posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine; this modification is found in several Methanosarcina methylamine methyltransferases.
2003-04-24 GO:0010076 maintenance of floral meristem identity Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the identity of a floral meristem,
2003-04-24 GO:0010077 maintenance of inflorescence meristem identity Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the identity of an inflorescence meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0010078 maintenance of root meristem identity Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the identity of a root meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0010079 maintenance of vegetative meristem identity Added DEFINITION The processes involved in maintaining the identity of a vegetative meristem.
2003-04-24 GO:0042697 menopause Updated DEFINITION Cessation of menstruation, occurring in e. g. the human female usually around the age of 50.
2003-04-24 GO:0010022 meristem determinacy Updated DEFINITION The process by which a meristem becomes determinate (i. e. ceases to produce lateral organs and may or may not terminally differentiate).
2003-04-24 GO:0046699 metamorphosis (sensu Amphibia) Updated DEFINITION A change of shape or structure from one developmental stage of amphibians to another, particularly the rapid post embryonic structural transformation from juvenile to adult form, e. g. the transformation from tadpole to frog.
2003-04-24 GO:0003908 methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: DNA (containing 6-O-methylguanine) + (protein)-L-cysteine = DNA (without 6-O-methylguanine) + protein S-methyl-L-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0000799 nuclear condensin complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit protein complex that plays a central role in the condensation of chromosomes that remain in the nucleus.
2003-04-24 GO:0000788 nuclear nucleosome Updated DEFINITION A complex comprised of DNA wound around a multisubunit core and associated proteins, which forms the primary packing unit of DNA in the nucleus into higher order structures.
2003-04-24 GO:0005664 nuclear origin of replication recognition complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the replication origins of a chromosome in the nucleus.
2003-04-24 GO:0005346 purine ribonucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of a purine ribonucleotide, any compound consisting of a purine ribonucleoside (a purine organic base attached to a ribose sugar) esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0042560 pteridine-containing compound catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e. g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0042558 pteridine-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e. g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0006728 pteridine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of pteridine, pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine), the parent structure of pterins and the pteroyl group.
2003-04-24 GO:0019990 pteridine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of pteridine, pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine), the parent structure of pterins and the pteroyl group.
2003-04-24 GO:0019889 pteridine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving pteridine, pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine), the parent structure of pterins and the pteroyl group.
2003-04-24 GO:0017076 purine nucleotide binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with purine nucleotides, any compound consisting of a purine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0015865 purine nucleotide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a purine nucleotide, any compound consisting of a purine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015216 purine nucleotide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of a purine nucleotide, any compound consisting of a purine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015868 purine ribonucleotide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of a purine ribonucleotide, any compound consisting of a purine ribonucleoside (a purine organic base attached to a ribose sugar) esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0006620 posttranslational protein targeting to membrane Updated DEFINITION The targeting of proteins to a membrane that occurs after their translation. Some secretory proteins exhibit posttranslational transport into the ER lumen: they are synthesized in their entirety on free cytosolic ribosomes and then released into the cytosol, where they are bound by chaperones which keep them in an unfolded state, and subsequently are translocated across the ER membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0016272 prefoldin complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit chaperone that acts to delivers unfolded proteins to cytosolic chaperonin. In humans, the complex is a heterohexamer of two PFD-alpha and four PFD-beta type subunits.
2003-04-24 GO:0016091 prenol biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of prenols, isoprenoids of general formula (H-CH2-C(CH3)=CH-CH2-)n-OH, any primary monohydroxy alcohol whose carbon skeleton consists of two or more isoprenoid residues linked head to tail.
2003-04-24 GO:0016092 prenol catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of prenols, isoprenoids of general formula (H-CH2-C(CH3)=CH-CH2-)n-OH, any primary monohydroxy alcohol whose carbon skeleton consists of two or more isoprenoid residues linked head to tail.
2003-04-24 GO:0016090 prenol metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving prenols, isoprenoids of general formula (H-CH2-C(CH3)=CH-CH2-)n-OH, any primary monohydroxy alcohol whose carbon skeleton consists of two or more isoprenoid residues linked head to tail.
2003-04-24 GO:0015534 proline/glycine/betaine:hydrogen/sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (proline, glycine or betaine)(out) + (H+ or Na+)(out) = (proline, glycine or betaine)(in) + (H+ or Na+)(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0006486 protein glycosylation Updated DEFINITION The addition of a sugar unit to a protein amino acid, e. g. the addition of glycan chains to proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0018077 protein iodination Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of protein amino-acids.
2003-04-24 GO:0016598 protein arginylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational conjugation of arginine to the N-terminal aspartate or glutamate of a protein; required for the degradation of the protein via the ubiquitin pathway.
2003-04-24 GO:0005515 protein binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with any protein, or protein complex (a complex of two or more proteins that may include other nonprotein molecules).
2003-04-24 GO:0018343 protein farnesylation Updated DEFINITION The enzymatic addition of a farnesyl moiety to a protein as a posttranslational modification.
2003-04-24 GO:0018344 protein geranylgeranylation Updated DEFINITION The enzymatic addition of a geranylgeranyl moiety to a protein as a posttranslational modification.
2003-04-24 GO:0018095 protein polyglutamylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational addition of one or more alpha-linked glutamyl units to the gamma carboxyl group of peptidyl-glutamic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0008615 pyridoxine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of pyridoxine, 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)pyridine, also known as vitamin B6.
2003-04-24 GO:0008614 pyridoxine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving pyridoxine, 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)pyridine, also known as vitamin B6, a member of the water soluble B vitamin group. Pyridoxine is active in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; it is also a necessary part of hemoglobin synthesis. B6 deficiency results in retarded growth and a peripheral neuropathy.
2003-04-24 GO:0019103 pyrimidine nucleotide binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with pyrimidine nucleotide, any compound consisting of a pyrimidine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate.
2003-04-24 GO:0018230 peptidyl-L-cysteine S-palmitoylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine; the palmitate group represents a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
2003-04-24 GO:0018191 peptidyl-serine octanoylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational octanoylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O3-octanoyl-L-serine, typical of the protein ghrelin.
2003-04-24 GO:0018070 peptidyl-serine phosphopantetheinylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphopantetheinylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phosphopantetheine-L-serine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018105 peptidyl-serine phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-serine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018107 peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-threonine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-threonine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018078 peptidyl-thyronine iodination Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine, formed from tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018408 peptidyl-thyronine iodination to form 3',3'',5',5''-tetraiodo-L-thyronine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine to form peptidyl-3',3'',5',5''-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (L-thyroxine).
2003-04-24 GO:0018407 peptidyl-thyronine iodination to form 3',3'',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational iodination of peptidyl-thyronine to form peptidyl-3',3'',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine (triiodothyronine).
2003-04-24 GO:0018080 peptidyl-tryptophan bromination Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-tryptophan, to form peptidyl-L-6'-bromotryptophan.
2003-04-24 GO:0045325 peptidyl-tryptophan hydroxylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational hydroxylation of peptidyl-tryptophan, to form peptidyl-L-3-hydroxytryptophan.
2003-04-24 GO:0019926 peptidyl-tryptophan oxidation to tryptophyl quinone Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational oxidation of peptidyl-tryptophan to form tryptophan-6,7-dione, otherwise known as tryptophyl quinone, which is further modified by cross-linking to either tryptophan or cysteine (GO:0018069).
2003-04-24 GO:0018062 peptidyl-tryptophan succinylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of an N-terminal peptidyl-tryptophan residue to form peptidyl-N2-succinyl-L-tryptophan.
2003-04-24 GO:0018254 peptidyl-tyrosine adenylylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational adenylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-O4'-(phospho-5'-adenosine)-L-tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018108 peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-tyrosine to form peptidyl-O4'-phospho-L-tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0000258 isoleucine/valine:sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (isoleucine or valine)(out) + Na+(out) = (isoleucine or valine)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0045440 isopenicillin-N acyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the conversion of isopenicillin N to penicillin G, using phenylacetyl-CoA or phenoxyacetyl-CoA as acyl donors.
2003-04-24 GO:0009694 jasmonic acid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving jasmonic acid, a fatty acid derivative with the formula (1R-(1 alpha, 2 beta(Z)))-3-oxo-2-(2-pentenyl)cyclopentaneacetic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0007254 JNK cascade Updated DEFINITION A cascade of protein kinase activities, culminating in the phosphorylation and activation of a JUN kinase, a member of a subfamily of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases that is activated primarily by cytokines and exposure to environmental stress.
2003-04-24 GO:0005500 juvenile hormone binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with juvenile hormone, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e. g. oogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0006718 juvenile hormone biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e. g. oogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0006719 juvenile hormone catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e. g. oogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0006716 juvenile hormone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e. g. oogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0045443 juvenile hormone secretion Updated DEFINITION The regulated release of juvenile hormones, the three sesquiterpenoid derivatives that function to maintain the larval state of insects at molting and that may be required for other processes, e. g. oogenesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0000776 kinetochore Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit complex that is located at the pericentric region of DNA and provides an attachment point for the spindle microtubules.
2003-04-24 GO:0018094 protein polyglycylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational addition of glycyl units covalently bound to the gamma carboxyl group peptidyl-glutamic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0018342 protein prenylation Updated DEFINITION The enzymatic addition of prenyl moieties to proteins as a posttranslational modification; geranyl, farnesyl, or geranylgeranyl groups may be added.
2003-04-24 GO:0016925 protein sumoylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of a protein by a member of the SUMO protein family; SUMO proteins (small ubiquitin-related modifiers, otherwise known as sentrin) are present in all eukaryotic kingdoms and are highly conserved from yeast to humans. They seem to play a role in the nuclear import of protein and eventually serve as address tags for transport to PML bodies.
2003-04-24 GO:0018234 peptide cross-linking via 3'-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-tyrosine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational thioether cross-linking of a cysteine residue to a tyrosine residue to form 3'-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-tyrosine, found in galactose oxidase.
2003-04-24 GO:0019928 peptide cross-linking via 3-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-aspartic acid Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational cross-linking of a cysteine residue to an aspartic acid residue to form 3-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-aspartic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0018069 peptide cross-linking via 4'-(L-tryptophan)-L-tryptophyl quinone Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational cross-linking of a tryptophan residue to tryptophyl quinone to form 4'-(L-tryptophan)-L-tryptophyl quinone, a cofactor found at the active site of methylamine dehydrogenase.
2003-04-24 GO:0019927 peptide cross-linking via 4'-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-tryptophyl quinone Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational cross-linking of a cysteine residue to tryptophyl quinone to form 4'-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-tryptophyl quinone, a cofactor found at the active site of amine dehydrogenase.
2003-04-24 GO:0019929 peptide cross-linking via 4-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-glutamic acid Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational cross-linking of a cysteine residue to a glutamic acid residue to form 4-(S-L-cysteinyl)-L-glutamic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0018316 peptide cross-linking via L-cystine Updated DEFINITION The oxidation of two peptidyl-cysteine residues to form a peptidyl-L-cystine (dicysteine) in which the proteins are linked by a disulfide bond; the cross-link may be between different or the same peptide chain.
2003-04-24 GO:0018274 peptide cross-linking via L-lysinoalanine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine and peptidyl-serine to form a (2Xi,9S)-L-lysinoalanine cross-link.
2003-04-24 GO:0018096 peptide cross-linking via S-(2-aminovinyl)-D-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational synthesis of (S,Z)-S-(2-aminovinyl)cysteine forming an intra-polypeptide cross-link between serine and cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018365 protein-serine epimerase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (Protein)-L-serine = (protein)-D-serine.
2003-04-24 GO:0042559 pteridine-containing compound biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of any compound containing pteridine (pyrazino(2,3-dipyrimidine)), e. g. pteroic acid, xanthopterin and folic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0046373 L-arabinose metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving L-arabinose, the levorotatory isomer of arabino-pentose. L-arabinose occurs free, e. g. in the heartwood of many conifers, and in the combined state, in both furanose and pyranose forms, as a constituent of various plant hemicelluloses, bacterial polysaccharides and so on.
2003-04-24 GO:0006478 peptidyl-tyrosine sulfation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational sulfation of peptidyl-tyrosine residues to form peptidyl-O4'-sulfo-L-tyrosine.
2003-04-24 GO:0007365 periodic partitioning Updated DEFINITION The partitioning of an embryo into serially repeated regions, e. g. tagmata, segments or parasegments.
2003-04-24 GO:0010088 phloem development Added DEFINITION The formation of the principal food-conducting tissue of a vascular plant.
2003-04-24 GO:0004528 phosphodiesterase I activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the sequential hydrolytic removal of 5'-nucleotides from the 3'-hydroxy termini of 3'-hydroxy-terminated oligonucleotides.
2003-04-24 GO:0004635 phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1-(5-phosphoribosyl)-AMP + H2O = 1-(5-phosphoribosyl)-5-((5-phosphoribosylamino)methylideneamino)imidazole-4-carboxamide.
2003-04-24 GO:0004639 phosphoribosylaminoimidazolesuccinocarboxamide synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate + L-aspartate = ADP + phosphate + (S)-2-(5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxamido)succinate.
2003-04-24 GO:0004645 phosphorylase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (1,4)-alpha-D-glucosyl(n) + phosphate = (1,4)-alpha-D-glucosyl(n-1) + alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate. The name should be qualified in each instance by adding the name of the natural substrate, e. g. maltodextrin phosphorylase, starch phosphorylase, glycogen phosphorylase.
2003-04-24 GO:0009767 photosynthetic electron transport chain Updated DEFINITION The process by which pairs of electrons are transported from water to NADP+ in the light phase of photosynthesis during noncyclic photophosphorylation.
2003-04-24 GO:0009522 photosystem I Updated DEFINITION Photosystem that functions as a light-dependent plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from plastocyanin to ferredoxin.
2003-04-24 GO:0009538 photosystem I reaction center Updated DEFINITION A photochemical system containing P700, the chlorophyll a dimer that functions as a primary electron donor. Functioning as a light-dependent plastocyanin-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, it transfers electrons from plastocyanin to ferredoxin.
2003-04-24 GO:0009523 photosystem II Updated DEFINITION An integral membrane complex containing the P680 reaction center. In the light, PSII functions as a water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, transferring electrons from water to plastoquinone.
2003-04-24 GO:0009539 photosystem II reaction center Updated DEFINITION An integral membrane complex containing P680, the chlorophyll a molecule that functions as a primary electron donor. In the light, functioning as a water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase, it transfers electrons from water to plastoquinone.
2003-04-24 GO:0000914 phragmoplast assembly Updated DEFINITION The formation of a structure composed of actin, myosin, and associated proteins that will function in cytokinesis in cells that perform cytokinesis by cell plate formation. The structure usually contains antiparallel microtubules and membrane (often visible as vesicles).
2003-04-24 GO:0015048 phthalate dioxygenase reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the transfer electrons between pyridine nucleotides (obligatory two-electron carriers) and hemes or (2Fe-2S) centers (obligatory one-electron carriers) in respiration, photosynthesis, and many oxygenase systems.
2003-04-24 GO:0046148 pigment biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of a pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms e. g. melanin.
2003-04-24 GO:0046149 pigment catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of a pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms e. g. melanin.
2003-04-24 GO:0042440 pigment metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms e. g. melanin.
2003-04-24 GO:0015006 plastocyanin Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. A copper-containing electron carrier acting between cytochrome b(6)-f and P700 of photosystem I.
2003-04-24 GO:0010085 polarity specification of proximal/distal axis Added DEFINITION The processes resulting in the establishment of polarity along the proximal/distal axis.
2003-04-24 GO:0042485 positive regulation of odontogenesis of calcareous or chitinous tooth Updated DEFINITION Any process that activates or increases the rate of the formation and development of a tooth, any hard calcareous or chitinous organ found in the mouth of various invertebrates and used in feeding or procuring food e. g. a mollusk or starfish tooth.
2003-04-24 GO:0010101 post-embryonic root morphogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation and development of the root after the embryonic phase has been completed.
2003-04-24 GO:0006301 postreplication repair Updated DEFINITION Pathways for DNA repair which occur after DNA has replicated, e. g. mismatch repair.
2003-04-24 GO:0045211 postsynaptic membrane Updated DEFINITION A specialized area of membrane facing the presynaptic membrane on the tip of the nerve ending and separated from it by a minute cleft (the synaptic cleft). Neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft and transmit the signal to the post-synaptic membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0016969 hemerythrin Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. An oxygen carrier found in a few groups of invertebrates, e. g. sipunculid worms, certain molluscs, and crustaceans.
2003-04-24 GO:0005833 hemoglobin complex Updated DEFINITION An iron-containing, oxygen carrying complex. In vertebrates it is made up of two pairs of associated globin polypeptide chains, each chain carrying a noncovalently bound heme prosthetic group.
2003-04-24 GO:0015012 heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of the heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan with repeat unit consisting of alternating (alpha1->4)-linked hexuronic acid and glucosamine residues; the former are a mixture of sulfated and nonsulfated D-glucuronic acid and L-iduronic acid; the L-iduronic acid is either sulfated or acetylated on its amino group as well as being sulfated on one of its hydroxyl groups; heparan sulfate chains are covalently linked to peptidyl-serine by a glycosidic attachment through the trisaccharide galactosyl-galactosyl-xylosyl to serine residues.
2003-04-24 GO:0030200 heparan sulfate proteoglycan catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of proteoglycan containing heparan sulfate, any member of a group of glycosaminoglycans that have repeat units consisting of alternating alpha1->4 linked hexuronic acid and glucosamine residues, the former being a mixture of sulfated and nonsulfated D-glucuronic and L-iduronic acids, and the latter being either sulfated or acetylated on its amino group as well as sulfated on one of its hydroxyl groups.
2003-04-24 GO:0007157 heterophilic cell-cell adhesion Updated DEFINITION The attachment of an adhesion molecule in one cell to a nonidentical adhesion molecule in an adjacent cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0015778 hexuronide transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of hexuronide into, out of, within or between cells. Hexuronides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e. g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of a hexuronate.
2003-04-24 GO:0015163 hexuronide transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of hexuronide into, out of, within or between cells. Hexuronides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e. g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of a hexuronate.
2003-04-24 GO:0008897 holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: CoA + apo-(acyl-carrier protein) = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + holo-(acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0009335 holo-[acyl-carrier protein] synthase complex Updated DEFINITION An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of holo-(acyl-carrier protein) from CoA and apo-(acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0015442 hydrogen-/sodium-translocating ATPase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + H2O + (Na+ or H+)(in) = ADP + phosphate + (Na+ or H+)(out).
2003-04-24 GO:0016787 hydrolase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of various bonds, e. g. C-O, C-N, C-C, phosphoric anhydride bonds, etc. Hydrolase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 3.
2003-04-24 GO:0006972 hyperosmotic response Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of the perception of a hyperosmotic environment, i. e. an environment with a higher concentration of solutes than the organism or cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0006971 hypotonic response Updated DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism or cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of the perception of a hypotonic environment, i. e. an environment with a lower concentration of solutes than the organism or cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0008612 peptidyl-lysine modification to peptidyl-hypusine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine to form hypusine, N6-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)-L-lysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0019814 immunoglobulin complex Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that functions as an antibody. Immunoglobulins (Igs) are composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. The classes of Ig are IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM; they may be embedded in the plasma membrane or circulate in the blood or lymph.
2003-04-24 GO:0042571 immunoglobulin complex, circulating Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that functions as an antibody and circulates in the blood or lymph. Immunoglobulins (Igs) are composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. Circulating Igs include IgD and IgE (can also be membrane-bound).
2003-04-24 GO:0042570 immunoglobulin complex, membrane bound Updated DEFINITION A multiprotein complex that functions as an antibody and is embedded in the plasma membrane. Immunoglobulins are composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. Membrane bound Igs include IgA, IgB and IgC.
2003-04-24 GO:0042563 importin alpha-subunit nuclear export complex Updated DEFINITION A protein complex which usually consists of three components, e. g. in Xenopus, the importin alpha-subunit/CAS/Ran, and which functions to shuttle the importin alpha-subunit out of the nucleus through the nuclear pore.
2003-04-24 GO:0042430 indole-containing compound metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e. g. serotonin, tryptophan) formed in degradation of tryptophan.
2003-04-24 GO:0042432 indole biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e. g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2003-04-24 GO:0042433 indole catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e. g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2003-04-24 GO:0042431 indole metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving indole (2,3-benzopyrrole), the basis of many biologically active substances (e. g. serotonin, tryptophan).
2003-04-24 GO:0016948 iron hydrogenase activity Updated DEFINITION Iron-sulfur-containing hydrogenase ((Fe) hydrogenase) with two ferredoxin-type (4Fe-4S) clusters and an atypical iron-sulfur center believed to be involved in the activation of H2. The (Fe) hydrogenase has the highest specific activity in the evolution and consumption of hydrogen and in the proton-deuterium exchange reaction and this enzyme is the most sensitive to CO and NO2-.
2003-04-24 GO:0016486 peptide hormone processing Updated DEFINITION The generation of a mature peptide hormone by posttranslational processing of a prohormone.
2003-04-24 GO:0046509 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-beta-galactosyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol = UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol.
2003-04-24 GO:0018718 1,2-dihydroxy-phenanthrene glycosyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 1,2-dihydroxyphenanthrene + UDP-glucose = 2-hydroxy-1-phenanthryl-beta-D-glucopyranoside + UDP.
2003-04-24 GO:0016629 12-oxophytodienoate reductase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: 8-((1R,2R)-3-oxo-2-((Z)-pent-2-enyl)cyclopentyl)octanoate + NADP+ = (15Z)-12-oxophyto-10,15-dienoate + NADPH.
2003-04-24 GO:0008693 3-hydroxydecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (3R)-3-hydroxydecanoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) = 2,3-decenoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) or 3,4-decenoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O.
2003-04-24 GO:0004317 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] dehydratase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (3R)-3-hydroxypalmitoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) = 2-hexadecenoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + H2O.
2003-04-24 GO:0004316 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NADP+ = 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + NADPH + H+.
2003-04-24 GO:0004315 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein) = 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + carbon dioxide + (acyl-carrier protein).
2003-04-24 GO:0045549 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the oxidative cleavage of 9-cis-epoxy-carotenoids (e. g. neoxanthin and violaxanthin) to xanthoxin and C-25 apocarotenoids.
2003-04-24 GO:0006084 acetyl-CoA metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving acetyl-CoA, a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e. g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0015876 acetyl-CoA transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of acetyl-CoA into, out of, within or between cells. Acetyl-CoA is a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e. g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0008521 acetyl-CoA transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of acetyl-CoA into, out of, within or between cells. Acetyl-CoA is a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e. g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
2003-04-24 GO:0007256 activation of JNKK activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the phosphorylation and activation of JUN kinases (JNKs), members of a subfamily of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases.
2003-04-24 GO:0008779 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]-phospholipid O-acyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: acyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + O-(2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho)ethanolamine = (acyl-carrier protein) + O-(1-beta-acyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho)ethanolamine.
2003-04-24 GO:0045300 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] desaturase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: stearoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + reduced acceptor + O2 = oleoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + acceptor + H2O. The enzyme requires ferredoxin.
2003-04-24 GO:0008780 acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-(acyl-carrier protein) + UDP-N-acetylglucosamine = (acyl-carrier protein) + UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine.
2003-04-24 GO:0019263 adamantanone catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of adamantanone, tricyclo(3.3.1.13,7)decanone, a white crystalline solid used as an intermediate for microelectronics in the production of photoresists.
2003-04-24 GO:0018866 adamantanone metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving adamantanone, tricyclo(3.3.1.13,7)decanone, a white crystalline solid used as an intermediate for microelectronics in the production of photoresists.
2003-04-24 GO:0009943 adaxial/abaxial axis specification Updated DEFINITION The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of the adaxial (adjacent to the stem) / abaxial (away from the stem) axis in plants.
2003-04-24 GO:0009955 adaxial/abaxial pattern specification Updated DEFINITION The processes that result in adaxial (adjacent to the stem) / abaxial (away from the stem) pattern formation.
2003-04-24 GO:0004381 fucosylgalactoside 3-alpha-galactosyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-galactose + glycoprotein-alpha-L-fucosyl-(1,2)-D-galactose = UDP + glycoprotein-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1,3)-(alpha-L-fucosyl-(1,2))-D-galactose.
2003-04-24 GO:0004380 glycoprotein-fucosylgalactoside alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + glycoprotein-alpha-L-fucosyl-(1,2)-D-galactose = UDP + glycoprotein-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminyl-(1,3)-(alpha-L-fucosyl-(1,2))-D-galactose.
2003-04-24 GO:0015486 glycoside-pentoside-hexuronide:cation symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (glycoside, pentoside or hexuronide)(out) + monovalent cation(out) = (glycoside, pentoside or hexuronide)(in) + monovalent cation(in). The cation is Na+, Li+ or H+.
2003-04-24 GO:0003773 heat shock protein activity Updated DEFINITION Any of a group of specific proteins that are synthesized by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells after they have been exposed to a temperature that is higher than normal. Other stresses, e. g. free radical damage, have a similar effect. Many members of the hsp family are not induced but are present in all cells. They are characterized by their role as molecular chaperones.
2003-04-24 GO:0030051 FK506-sensitive peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Updated DEFINITION OBSOLETE. Interacts selectively with the immunosuppressant FK506, and possesses peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity (catalysis of the reaction: peptidoproline (omega=180) = peptidylproline (omega=0)).
2003-04-24 GO:0019861 flagellum Updated DEFINITION Long whiplike or feathery structures borne either singly or in groups by the motile cells of many bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes and by the motile male gametes of many eukaryotic organisms, which propel the cell through a liquid medium.
2003-04-24 GO:0004326 tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + tetrahydrofolyl-(Glu)(n) + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + tetrahydrofolyl-(Glu)(n+1).
2003-04-24 GO:0008862 formate acetyltransferase activating enzyme activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + dihydroflavodoxin + (formate acetyltransferase)-glycine = 5'-deoxyadenosine + methionine + flavodoxin + (formate acetyltransferase)-glycine-2-yl radical.
2003-04-24 GO:0006042 glucosamine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxyglucopyranose), an aminodeoxysugar that occurs in combined form in chitin.
2003-04-24 GO:0006043 glucosamine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxyglucopyranose), an aminodeoxysugar that occurs in combined form in chitin.
2003-04-24 GO:0006041 glucosamine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxyglucopyranose), an aminodeoxysugar that occurs in combined form in chitin.
2003-04-24 GO:0015779 glucuronoside transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of glucuronosides into, out of, within or between cells. Glucuronosides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e. g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of glucuronate.
2003-04-24 GO:0015164 glucuronoside transmembrane transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of glucuronosides into, out of, within or between cells. Glucuronosides are any compound formed by combination of glycosidic linkage of a hydroxy compound (e. g. an alcohol or a saccharide) with the anomeric carbon atom of glucuronate.
2003-04-24 GO:0008882 [glutamate-ammonia-ligase] adenylyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + (L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming)) = diphosphate + adenylyl-(L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming)).
2003-04-24 GO:0015372 glutamate/aspartate:sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (glutamate or aspartate)(out) + Na+(out) = (glutamate or aspartate)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0018392 glycoprotein 3-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: GDP-L-fucose + N4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-2)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1-3)-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-2)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1-6))-beta-D-mannosyl-(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)asparagine = GDP + N4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-2)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1-3)-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-2)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1-6))-beta-D-mannosyl-(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-4)-(alpha-L-fucosyl-(1-3))-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)asparagine.
2003-04-24 GO:0009101 glycoprotein biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The synthesis from simpler components of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i. e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2003-04-24 GO:0006516 glycoprotein catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i. e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2003-04-24 GO:0009100 glycoprotein metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving glycoproteins, any protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i. e. monosaccharide) residues other than as a moiety of nucleic acid; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.
2003-04-24 GO:0018082 peptidyl-(Z)-dehydrobutyrine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-threonine Updated DEFINITION The formation of (Z)-dehydrobutyrine by the posttranslational dehydration of peptidyl-threonine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018109 peptidyl-arginine phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-arginine to form omega-N-phospho-L-arginine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018376 peptidyl-asparagine hydroxylation to form L-erythro-beta-hydroxyasparagine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational hydroxylation of peptidyl-asparagine to form peptidyl-L-erythro-beta-hydroxyasparagine; catalyzed by peptide-aspartate beta-dioxygenase (EC:1.14.11.16) (GO:0004597).
2003-04-24 GO:0019715 peptidyl-aspartic acid hydroxylation to form L-erythro-beta-hydroxyaspartic acid Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational hydroxylation of peptidyl-aspartic acid to form peptidyl-L-erythro-beta-hydroxyaspartic acid; catalyzed by peptide-aspartate beta-dioxygenase (EC:1.14.11.16) (GO:0004597).
2003-04-24 GO:0018217 peptidyl-aspartic acid phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-aspartic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0018179 peptidyl-cysteine desulfurization Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational desulfurization of peptidyl-L-cysteine to yield L-alanine and elemental sulfur; peptidyl-L-cysteine persulfide is an intermediate.
2003-04-24 GO:0018119 peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational S-nitrosylation of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-nitrosyl-L-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0017183 peptidyl-diphthamide biosynthetic process from peptidyl-histidine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-histidine to 2'-(3-carboxamido-3-(trimethylammonio)propyl)-L-histidine, known as diphthamide, found in translation elongation factor eEF-2.
2003-04-24 GO:0018074 peptidyl-histidine bromination Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-histidine to form peptidyl-L-bromohistidine; the position of the bromine substitution is unknown.
2003-04-24 GO:0018106 peptidyl-histidine phosphorylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational phosphorylation of peptidyl-histidine to form peptidyl-1'-phospho-L-histidine (otherwise known as tau-phosphohistidine, tele-phosphohistidine) or peptidyl-3'-phospho-L-histidine (otherwise known as pi-phosphohistidine, pros-phosphohistidine).
2003-04-24 GO:0018068 peptidyl-L-2',4',5'-topaquinone biosynthetic process from peptidyl-tyrosine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of protein tyrosine to L-2',4',5'-topaquinone, characteristic of the active site of copper amine oxidases.
2003-04-24 GO:0018172 peptidyl-L-3',4',5'-trihydroxyphenylalanine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-tyrosine Updated DEFINITION The, presumably, posttranslational modification of protein tyrosine to peptidyl-L-3',4',5'-dihydroxyphenylalanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018067 peptidyl-L-3',4'-dihydroxyphenylalanine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-tyrosine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of protein tyrosine to peptidyl-L-3',4'-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA).
2003-04-24 GO:0018083 peptidyl-L-3-oxoalanine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine or peptidyl-serine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine or peptidyl-serine to peptidyl-L-3-oxoalanine; characteristic of the active sites of arylsulfatases.
2003-04-24 GO:0018061 peptidyl-L-3-phenyllactic acid biosynthetic process from peptidyl-phenylalanine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of a N-terminal peptidyl-phenylalanine residue by either oxidative deamination or by transamination and subsequent reduction to form peptidyl-L-3-phenyllactic acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0018118 peptidyl-L-cysteine glutathione disulfide biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine by covalent addition of glutathione to form peptidyl-L-cysteine glutathione disulfide.
2003-04-24 GO:0018222 peptidyl-L-cysteine methyl disulfide biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The, presumably, posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-L-cysteine methyl disulfide.
2003-04-24 GO:0018229 peptidyl-L-cysteine methyl ester biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-L-cysteine methyl ester.
2003-04-24 GO:0018072 peptidyl-L-glutamyl 5-glycerylphosphorylethanolamine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-glutamic acid Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-glutamic acid residues by the covalent attachment of ethanolamine, itself further modified by the addition of a phosphoglycerol unit.
2003-04-24 GO:0018238 peptidyl-lysine carboxyethylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine to form peptidyl-N6-1-carboxyethyl-L-lysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018235 peptidyl-lysine carboxylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-lysine to form peptidyl-N6-carboxy-L-lysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018261 peptidyl-lysine guanylylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational guanylylation of peptidyl-lysine to form peptidyl-N6-(phospho-5'-guanosine)-L-lysine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018340 peptidyl-O-(sn-1-glycerophosphoryl)-L-serine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-serine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-serine to peptidyl-O-(sn-1-glycerophosphoryl)-L-serine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018075 peptidyl-phenylalanine bromination Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of phenylalanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018397 peptidyl-phenylalanine bromination to L-2'-bromophenylalanine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-phenylalanine to form L-2'-bromophenylalanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018398 peptidyl-phenylalanine bromination to L-3'-bromophenylalanine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-phenylalanine to form L-3'-bromophenylalanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018399 peptidyl-phenylalanine bromination to L-4'-bromophenylalanine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational bromination of peptidyl-phenylalanine to form L-4'-bromophenylalanine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018188 peptidyl-proline di-hydroxylation Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-proline to form trans-2,3-cis-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline.
2003-04-24 GO:0018400 peptidyl-proline hydroxylation to 3-hydroxy-L-proline Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-proline to form 3-hydroxy-L-proline; catalyzed by procollagen-proline 3-dioxygenase (GO:0019797).
2003-04-24 GO:0018401 peptidyl-proline hydroxylation to 4-hydroxy-L-proline Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-proline to form 4-hydroxy-L-proline; catalyzed by procollagen-proline,2-oxoglutarate-4-dioxygenase (GO:0004656).
2003-04-24 GO:0018227 peptidyl-S-12-hydroxyfarnesyl-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form S-12-hydroxyfarnesyl-L-cysteine; formation of S-farnesycysteine may be coupled with subsequent cleavage of a carboxy-terminal tripeptide for the CXXX motif and methyl esterification of the farnesylated cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018231 peptidyl-S-diacylglycerol-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The co- or posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-diacylglycerol-L-cysteine; the oleate and palmitate actually represent mixtures of saturated (generally at 3') and unsaturated (generally at 2') fatty acids.
2003-04-24 GO:0018115 peptidyl-S-diphytanylglycerol diether-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The co- or posttranslational modification of cysteine to form peptidyl-S-diphytanylglycerol diether-L-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0018226 peptidyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine; formation of S-farnesycysteine may be coupled with subsequent cleavage of a carboxy-terminal tripeptide for the CXXX motif and methyl esterification of the farnesylated cysteine; the residue may be found at the first position in the sequence motif C-X-X-(SAQCMT)* where the second and third positions are usually aliphatic.
2003-04-24 GO:0018228 peptidyl-S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-geranylgeranylcysteine; formation of S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine may be coupled with subsequent cleavage of a carboxy-terminal tripeptide for the CAAX motif and methyl esterification of the geranylgeranylated cysteine; methyl esterification but not cleavage occurs for the CXC motif. for the type II geranylgeranyltransferase the residue may be found at the first and final positions in the sequence motif C-X-C* or at the final position in the sequence motif C-C*. These motifs are necessary but not sufficient for modification.
2003-04-24 GO:0019704 peptidyl-S-myristoyl-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-myristoyl-L-cysteine.
2003-04-24 GO:0019939 peptidyl-S-palmitoleyl-L-cysteine biosynthetic process from peptidyl-cysteine Updated DEFINITION The posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine to form peptidyl-S-palmitoleyl-L-cysteine specifically.
2003-04-24 GO:0008794 arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: arsenate + reduced glutaredoxin = arsenite + oxidized glutaredoxin. Glutaredoxin functions as the electron donor for arsenate reduction. The electron flow therefore is ( NADPH -> glutathione reductase (EC:1.6.4.2) -> ) glutathione -> glutaredoxin -> arsenate reductase, i. e. glutathione is reduced by glutathione reductase and glutaredoxin is reduced by glutathione.
2003-04-24 GO:0042500 aspartic endopeptidase activity, intramembrane cleaving Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the hydrolysis of nonterminal peptide linkages in oligopeptides or polypeptides, occurring within the plasma membrane.
2003-04-24 GO:0000046 autophagic vacuole fusion Updated DEFINITION The fusion of an autophagic vacuole with a vacuole (yeast) or lysosome (e. g. mammals and insects). In the case of yeast, inner membrane-bound structures (autophagic bodies) appear in the vacuole.
2003-04-24 GO:0009921 auxin efflux carrier complex Updated DEFINITION The protein complex associated with the plasma membrane of certain plant cells (e. g. root cortex, epidermal cells) that functions to transport auxin out of the cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0019483 beta-alanine biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e. g. in brain) and in combination (e. g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0019484 beta-alanine catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e. g. in brain) and in combination (e. g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0019482 beta-alanine metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e. g. in brain) and in combination (e. g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
2003-04-24 GO:0015376 betaine/GABA:sodium symporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (betaine or gamma-aminobutyric acid)(out) + Na+(out) = (betaine or gamma-aminobutyric acid)(in) + Na+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0015521 bicyclomycin/sulfathiazole:hydrogen antiporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: (bicyclomycin or sulfathiazole)(in) + H+(out) = (bicyclomycin or sulfathiazole)(out) + H+(in).
2003-04-24 GO:0016443 bidentate ribonuclease III activity Updated DEFINITION A ribonuclease III that digests double-stranded RNAs into 22-nucleotide products that then associate to the RNA-induced silencing complex and serve as guide RNAs for posttranslational RNA interference.
2003-04-24 GO:0009374 biotin binding Updated DEFINITION Interacting selectively with biotin (cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid), the (+) enantiomer of which is very widely distributed in cells and serves as a carrier in a number of enzymatic beta-carboxylation reactions.
2003-04-24 GO:0009102 biotin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of biotin, cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0009821 alkaloid biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of alkaloids, nitrogen-containing natural products which are not otherwise classified as nonprotein amino acids, amines, peptides, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones, or primary metabolite (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).
2003-04-24 GO:0009822 alkaloid catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of alkaloids, nitrogen containing natural products not otherwise classified as peptides, nonprotein amino acids, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones or primary metabolites (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).
2003-04-24 GO:0009820 alkaloid metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving alkaloids, nitrogen containing natural products which are not otherwise classified as peptides, nonprotein amino acids, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones or primary metabolites (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).
2003-04-24 GO:0016172 antifreeze activity Updated DEFINITION Inhibits the formation of ice crystals in organismal fluid (e. g. blood) at below freezing exogenous temperatures.
2003-04-24 GO:0003823 antigen binding Updated DEFINITION The function of binding noncovalently, reversibly, and in a specific manner with a corresponding antigen. Binding may counteract the biological activity of the antigen.
2003-04-24 GO:0015524 L-arabinose/beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside:hydrogen antiporter activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: H+(out) + (arabinose or beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside)(in) = H+(in) + (arabinose or beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside)(out).
2003-04-24 GO:0042367 biotin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of biotin, cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid.
2003-04-24 GO:0006768 biotin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving biotin, cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid; the (+) enantiomer is very widely distributed in cells and serves as a carrier in a number of enzymatic beta-carboxylation reactions.
2003-04-24 GO:0015878 biotin transport Updated DEFINITION The directed movement of biotin into, out of, within or between cells. Biotin is cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid; the (+) enantiomer is very widely distributed in cells and serves as a carrier in a number of enzymatic beta-carboxylation reactions.
2003-04-24 GO:0015225 biotin transporter activity Updated DEFINITION Enables the directed movement of biotin into, out of, within or between cells. Biotin is cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid; the (+) enantiomer is very widely distributed in cells and serves as a carrier in a number of enzymatic beta-carboxylation reactions.
2003-04-24 GO:0004077 biotin-[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + biotin + apo-(acetyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP forming)) = AMP + diphosphate + (acetyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP forming)).
2003-04-24 GO:0004078 biotin-[methylcrotonoyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + biotin + apo-(3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)) = AMP + diphosphate + (3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)).
2003-04-24 GO:0004079 biotin-[methylmalonyl-CoA-carboxytransferase] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + biotin + apo-(methylmalonyl-CoA:pyruvate carboxyltransferase) = AMP + diphosphate + (methylmalonyl-CoA:pyruvate carboxyltransferase).
2003-04-24 GO:0004080 biotin-[propionyl-CoA-carboxylase (ATP-hydrolyzing)] ligase activity Updated DEFINITION Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + biotin + apo-(propanoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)) = AMP + diphosphate + (propanoyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)).
2003-04-24 GO:0007114 cell budding Updated DEFINITION A form of asexual reproduction, occurring in certain bacteria and fungi (e. g. yeasts) and some primitive animals in which an individual arises from a daughter cell formed by pinching off a part of the parent cell. The budlike outgrowths so formed may sometimes remain attached to the parent cell.
2003-04-24 GO:0010102 lateral root morphogenesis Added DEFINITION The formation and development of a root from pericycle cells located on the xylem radius of the roo, as opposed to the initiation of the main root from the embryo proper.
2003-04-24 GO:0009239 enterobactin biosynthetic process Updated DEFINITION The formation from simpler components of enterobactin, a catechol-derived siderochrome of Enterobacteria; enterobactin (N',N',N''-(2,6,10-trioxo-1,5,9-triacyclodecane-3,7,11-triyl)tris(2,3-dihydroxy)benzamide) is a self-triester of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine and a product of the shikimate pathway.
2003-04-24 GO:0046214 enterobactin catabolic process Updated DEFINITION The breakdown into simpler components of enterobactin, a catechol-derived siderochrome of Enterobacteria; enterobactin (N',N',N''-(2,6,10-trioxo-1,5,9-triacyclodecane-3,7,11-triyl)tris(2,3-dihydroxy)benzamide) is a self-triester of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine and a product of the shikimate pathway.
2003-04-24 GO:0009238 enterobactin metabolic process Updated DEFINITION The chemical reactions and physical changes involving enterobactin, a catechol-derived siderochrome of Enterobacteria; enterobactin (N',N',N''-(2,6,10-trioxo-1,5,9-triacyclodecane-3,7,11-triyl)tris(2,3-dihydroxy)benzamide) is a self-triester of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine and a product of the shikimate pathway.
2003-04-24 GO:0018308 enzyme active site formation via N6-pyruvic acid 2-iminyl-L-lysine Updated DEFINITION The transient modification of lysine by pyruvate to form N6-pyruvic acid 2-iminyl-L-lysine, found in the active site of dihydrodipicolinate synthase.
2003-04-24 GO:0018332 enzyme active site formation via O-(phospho-5'-adenosine)-L-threonine Updated DEFINITION The transient adenylation of threonine to form N6-(phospho-5'-adenosine)-L-threonine, found in the active site of bovine phosphodiesterase I.
2003-04-24 GO:0045021 error-free DNA repair Updated DEFINITION DNA repair pathways that do not increase the mutation rate above spontaneous background levels, e. g. excision and recombination pathways.
2003-04-24 GO:0005853 eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit nucleotide exchange complex that binds GTP and aminoacyl-tRNAs, and catalyzes their codon-dependent placement at the A-site of the ribosome. In humans, the complex is composed of four subunits, alpha, beta, delta and gamma.
2003-04-24 GO:0005851 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B complex Updated DEFINITION A multisubunit guanine nucleotide exchange factor which catalyzes the exchange of GDP bound to initiation factor eIF2 for GTP, generating active eIF2-GTP. in humans, it is composed of five subunits, alpha, beta, delta, gamma and epsilon.
2003-04-24 GO:0006887 exocytosis Updated DEFINITION The release of intracellular molecules (e. g. hormones, matrix proteins) contained within a membrane-bounded vesicle by fusion of the vesicle with the plasma membrane of a cell. This is the process whereby most molecules are secreted from eukaryotic cells.
2003-04-24 GO:0046658 anchored component of plasma membrane Updated DEFINITION Bound by covalent linkage to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), on one or other surface of the plasma membrane, but not integrated into the hydrophobic region.
2003-04-24 GO:0005577 fibrinogen complex Updated DEFINITION A highly soluble, elongated protein complex found in blood plasma and involved in clot formation. It is converted into fibrin monomer by the action of thrombin. In the mouse, fibrinogen is a hexamer, 46 nm long and 9 nm maximal diameter, containing two sets of nonidentical chains (alpha, beta, and gamma) linked together by disulfide bonds.
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