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GO Term History: Displaying 500 audit records for all terms for the date 2001-08-06

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This page displays the differences recorded in the full Gene Ontology OBO v1.2 file as audited by the UniProt-GOA database during its daily update cycle.
If there is any delay in uploading the current OBO file, the changes displayed and the date recorded for these changes may not correspond to when the changes to the OBO file were committed.

All changes

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2001-08-06 GO:0009116 nucleoside metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of a nucleoside, i.e. a a nucleobase linked to either beta-D-ribofuranose (ribonucleoside) or 2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranose, (a deoxyribonucleotide). e.g. adenosine, guanosine, inosine, cytidine, uridine and deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine (= deoxythymidine).
2001-08-06 GO:0005718 nucleosome Added DEFINITION A particle that forms the primary packing unit of DNA in chromatin. Each consists of a segment of duplex DNA, 160-240 base pairs long, with associated histone proteins; about 146 base pairs of the DNA comprise a core particle and the remainder form the linker DNA. The core particle is a disklike structure, 11 nm in diameter and 5.7 nm thick, consisting of two molecules each of histories H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 with approximately two superhelical turns of double-stranded DNA wound round it. In many species, an average of one molecule of histone H1 (or a variant) is on the exterior of each core particle and appears to mediate the packing together of adjacent nucleosomes in condensed chromatin.
2001-08-06 GO:0005679 nucleosome remodeling complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that is required for the induced transcription of many genes; alters chromatin structure so as to allow the binding of specific RNA polymerase II transcription factors.
2001-08-06 GO:0000166 nucleotide binding Added DEFINITION Physical interaction with a nucleotide: any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with [ortho]phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety.
2001-08-06 GO:0009117 nucleotide metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of a nucleotide, i.e. a nucleoside that is esterified with [ortho]phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety; may be mono-, di- or tri-phosphate; this definition includes cyclic-nucleotides (i.e. nucleoside cyclic phosphates).
2001-08-06 GO:0005634 nucleus Added DEFINITION An organelle of eukaryotic cells that contains the chromosomes. Except for the mitochondria it is the sole site of DNA replication and RNA synthesis in the cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0006493 protein O-linked glycosylation Added DEFINITION The addition of a N-acetylgalactosamine residue, from UDP-N-acetyl- galactosamine, to nascent polypeptide chains via an alpha-link to the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine residues to form O-glycans; catalysed by polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases.
2001-08-06 GO:0009520 oleosome Added DEFINITION An organelle specialized for lipid storage.
2001-08-06 GO:0015421 oligopeptide-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of di- and oligopeptides by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0015422 oligosaccharide-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of lactose, melibiose and raffinose by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0008250 oligosaccharyltransferase complex Added DEFINITION A multisubunit protein complex in the ER membrane of eukaryotes that transfers lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor to asparagine residues on nascent proteins; includes at least nine different subunits, at least in yeast.
2001-08-06 GO:0016318 ommatidial rotation Added DEFINITION The process by which photoreceptors are arranged in ommatidia in the dorsal and ventral fields to be mirror images. The polarity is establised in the imaginal discs concurrently with cell fate specification.
2001-08-06 GO:0000152 nuclear ubiquitin ligase complex Added DEFINITION A ubiquitin ligase complex found in the nucleus.
2001-08-06 GO:0030018 Z disc Added DEFINITION Platelike region of a muscle sarcomere to which the plus ends of actin filaments are attached.
2001-08-06 GO:0016035 zeta DNA polymerase complex Added DEFINITION A low fidelity DNA-directed DNA polymerase that functions during replication, to promote the extension of forks whose progression is stopped for any reason; a non-processive enzyme with no 3'-5' exonuclease activity; possesses deoxycytidyl transferase activity, incorporating deoxycytidyl opposite abasic sites. Functions during DNA repair and mutagenesis. Composed of two subunits.
2001-08-06 GO:0003894 zeta DNA polymerase activity Added DEFINITION A DNA-directed DNA polymerase that functions during replication, to promote the extension of forks whose progression is stopped for any reason; a non-processive enzyme with no 3'-5' exonuclease activity; possesses deoxycytidyl transferase activity, incorporating deoxycytidyl opposite abasic sites. Functions during DNA repair and mutagenesis. Composed of two subunits.
2001-08-06 GO:0000243 commitment complex Added DEFINITION The first portion of the spliceosome to assemble in mRNA splicing; in commitment complex formation the 5' and 3' splice sites are recognized by the U1 snRNP and the U2 snRNP auxiliary factor, respectively.
2001-08-06 GO:0030009 complement factor H activity Added DEFINITION A cofactor for the serine protease complement factor I.
2001-08-06 GO:0005676 condensin complex Added DEFINITION Condensins are the most abundant structural components of mitotic chromosomes and play a role in driving chromosome condensation.
2001-08-06 GO:0005922 connexon complex Added DEFINITION An assembly of six molecules of connexin, made in the Golgi apparatus and subsequently transported to the plasma membrane, where docking of two connexons on apposed plasma membranes across the extracellular space forms a gap junction.
2001-08-06 GO:0030038 contractile actin filament bundle assembly Added DEFINITION Assembly of actin filament bundles in which the filaments are loosely packed (approx. 30-60 nm apart) and arranged with opposing polarities; the loose packing allows myosin (usually myosin-II) to enter the bundle.
2001-08-06 GO:0005826 actomyosin contractile ring Added DEFINITION A cytoskeletal structure composed of actin filaments and myosin that forms beneath the plasma membrane of many cells, including animal cells and yeast cells, in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the spindle; as the ring contracts it pulls the mebrane inwards to divide the contents of the cytoplasm in cytokinesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0016531 copper chaperone activity Added DEFINITION A carrier that delivers copper to specific proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0004008 copper-exporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. This bacterial and mammalian enzyme exports copper ions from cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0016513 core-binding factor complex Added DEFINITION A heterodimer with &agr;- and &bgr;-subunits that binds the core site 5'-PYGPYGGT-3' of several enhancers and promoters; the &bgr;-subunit enhances the DNA binding of the &agr;-subunit.
2001-08-06 GO:0001533 cornified envelope Added DEFINITION an insoluble protein structure formed under the plasma membrane of cornifying epithelial cells
2001-08-06 GO:0009805 coumarin biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION the biosynthesis of coumarins, a class of compounds derived from the phenylacrylic skeleton of cinnamic acids.
2001-08-06 GO:0009804 coumarin metabolic process Added DEFINITION metabolism of coumarins which are compounds derived from the phenylacrylic skeleton of cinnamic acids.
2001-08-06 GO:0016533 cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 holoenzyme complex Added DEFINITION Activates cyclin-dependent kinase 5; composed of regulatory and catalytic subunits.
2001-08-06 GO:0004600 cyclophilin Added DEFINITION A protein to which cyclosporin A (an immunosupressant) binds. Possesses peptidylprolyl isomerase activity.
2001-08-06 GO:0004122 cystathionine beta-synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalyses the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, the conversion of homocysteine to cystathione.
2001-08-06 GO:0009458 cytochrome Added DEFINITION A hemeprotein whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. This redox change involves a single electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom.
2001-08-06 GO:0009459 cytochrome a Added DEFINITION A cytochrome containing heme a.
2001-08-06 GO:0009460 cytochrome b Added DEFINITION A cytochrome containing non-covalently bound protoheme (iron protoporphyrin IX; heme b).
2001-08-06 GO:0009463 cytochrome b/b6 Added DEFINITION Diheme cytochrome b's; cytochrome b has has the hemes b[562] and b[566] and is a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III. cytochrome b6 is a component of bc complex acting between photosystems II and I of photosynthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0004128 cytochrome-b5 reductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H Added DEFINITION A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the reaction: NADH + 2 ferricytochrome b[5] = NAD[+] + 2 ferrocytochrome b[5].
2001-08-06 GO:0009512 cytochrome b6f complex Added DEFINITION Complex that transfers electrons from reduced plastiquinone to oxidized plastocyanin and translocates protons from the stroma to the lumen.
2001-08-06 GO:0009461 cytochrome c Added DEFINITION A cytochrome containing heme bound to the protein by one or, more (commonly two) thioether bonds involving sulfhydryl groups of cysteine residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0009477 cytochrome c1 Added DEFINITION A cytochrome c that is an integral component of the mitochondrial respiratory complex III. Functions as an electon donor to cytochrome c.
2001-08-06 GO:0009462 cytochrome d Added DEFINITION A cytochrome in which the prosthetic group is a tetrapyrollic chelate of iron in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. [This definition would appear to include siroheme proteins (e.g. nitrite and sulfite reductases); but these are not cytochromes. Kirill Degtyarenko:Sep 28 13:08:07 2000.]
2001-08-06 GO:0009479 cytochrome f Added DEFINITION A cytochrome c that is characteristic of green plants and transfers electrons to plastocyanin.
2001-08-06 GO:0015034 cytochrome P450 activity Added DEFINITION A cytochrome b-like protein that has a sulfur atom ligated to the iron of the prosthetic group (heme-thiolate); enzymes:typically monooxygenases acting on, typically, lipophilic substrates. The characteristic mode of action of these enzymes is not electron transfer (some P-450-enzymes probably do not even involve the reversible Fe(II)/Fe(III) equilibrium), but rather oxygen atom transfer.
2001-08-06 GO:0004129 cytochrome-c oxidase activity Added DEFINITION A heme/copper terminal oxidase which uses cytochrome c as electron donor. The number of subunits varies from three in some bacteria to 13 in the mammalian mitochondrion.
2001-08-06 GO:0005125 cytokine activity Added DEFINITION Secreted regulatory proteins that control the survival, growth, differentiation and effector function of tissues and cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0016288 cytokinesis Added DEFINITION The division of a cell into two daughter cells following mitosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0009691 cytokinin biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of cytokinin; cytokinins are a class of adenine-derived compounds that can function in plants as growth regulators.
2001-08-06 GO:0009690 cytokinin metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of cytokinin; cytokinins are a class of adenine-derived compounds that can function in plants as growth regulators.
2001-08-06 GO:0005737 cytoplasm Added DEFINITION All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
2001-08-06 GO:0000229 cytoplasmic chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0006347 chromatin silencing at HML and HMR (sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Repression of transcription at silent mating type loci by the formation of heterochromatin.
2001-08-06 GO:0000183 chromatin silencing at rDNA Added DEFINITION Repression of transcription of ribosomal DNA by the formation of heterochromatin.
2001-08-06 GO:0006348 chromatin silencing at telomere Added DEFINITION Repression of transcription of telomeric DNA by the formation of heterochromatin.
2001-08-06 GO:0009509 chromoplast Added DEFINITION A plastid containing pigments other than chlorophyll, usually yellow and orange carotenoid pigments.
2001-08-06 GO:0000177 cytoplasmic exosome (RNase complex) Added DEFINITION Complex of 3'-5' exoribonucleases found in the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0000233 cytoplasmic interphase chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the cytoplasm during interphase.
2001-08-06 GO:0005881 cytoplasmic microtubule Added DEFINITION Any microtubule in the cytoplasm of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0000231 cytoplasmic mitotic chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the cytoplasm during mitosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0016031 tRNA import into mitochondrion Added DEFINITION The import of cytoplasmic tRNA by the mitochondrion.
2001-08-06 GO:0000153 cytoplasmic ubiquitin ligase complex Added DEFINITION A ubiquitin ligase complex found in the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0016343 cytoskeletal anchoring activity Added DEFINITION The direct or indirect linkage of cytoskeletal filaments to the plasma membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0007016 cytoskeletal anchoring at plasma membrane Added DEFINITION Process by which cytoskeletal filaments are directly or indirectly linked to the plasma membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0004518 nuclease activity Added DEFINITION Any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester linkages within nucleic acids.
2001-08-06 GO:0009112 nucleobase metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of a nucleobase, i.e. a nitrogenous base that is a constituent of a nucleic acid, e.g. the purines: adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine and the pyrimidines:cytosine, uracil, thymine
2001-08-06 GO:0009295 nucleoid Added DEFINITION The nucleoprotein complex of a bacterium which contains the genome.
2001-08-06 GO:0005654 nucleoplasm Added DEFINITION That part of the nuclear content other than the chromosomes or the nucleolus.
2001-08-06 GO:0008572 nucleoplasmin ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of ATP required for the ATP-dependent assembly of nucleosome cores, in decondensation of sperm chromatin and in other histone-involving processes.
2001-08-06 GO:0015938 coenzyme A catabolic process Added DEFINITION Catabolism of coenzyme A: 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine; an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester.
2001-08-06 GO:0015936 coenzyme A metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of coenzyme A: 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine; an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester.
2001-08-06 GO:0008278 cohesin complex Added DEFINITION Cohesins are the most abundant structural components of mitotic chromosomes and play a role in driving chromosome condensation.
2001-08-06 GO:0015468 colicin Added DEFINITION Plasmid-encoded bacteriocins which are produced by enteric bacteria. Exert a lethal effect on other bacteria including E. coli strains that lack the Col plasmid. Bind to a cell surface receptor and are transported into the periplasm via an energy-dependent process involving a TonB- or TolA-dependent heterooligomeric protein complex. Some colicins kill their target cell by inserting into the cytoplasmic membrane where they form voltage-sensitive (trans-negative) channels that depolarize and deenergize the cell, and thereby kill it.
2001-08-06 GO:0005581 collagen trimer Added DEFINITION A group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals. Collagen is highly enriched in glycine (up to one-third of its amino-acid residues) and somewhat less so in proline plus 3- and 4-hydroxyproline (about 21%).
2001-08-06 GO:0016947 N5,N10-methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION An hydrogenase that catalyses the reversible reduction of N5,N10-methenyltetrahydomethanopterin with H2 to N5,N10-methylenetetrahydromethanopterin and H+; known from Archaea.
2001-08-06 GO:0000210 NAD+ diphosphatase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of NAD<sup>+</sup> to yield AMP plud NMN.
2001-08-06 GO:0015039 NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase activity Added DEFINITION An animal flavoenzyme that transfers electrons from NADPH to oxidised adrenodoxin, first enzymatic step in the mitochondrial P450 monooxygenase system.
2001-08-06 GO:0016006 Nebenkern Added DEFINITION A product of the fusion of the mitochondria during spermatogenesis. After the completion of meiosis the mitochondria of the spermatid collect along side the nucleus and fuse into two masses; these wrap around each other to produce the spherical Nebenkern. During flagellum elongation the Nebenkern unfolds and the two derivatives (major and minor mitochondrial derivatives) elongate down the axoneme.
2001-08-06 GO:0008220 necrosis Added DEFINITION The death of tissues.
2001-08-06 GO:0016322 neuron remodeling Added DEFINITION The developmentally regulated remodeling of neuronal projections such as pruning to eliminate the extra dendrites and axons projections set up in early stages of nervous system develpment.
2001-08-06 GO:0016492 G-protein coupled neurotensin receptor activity Added DEFINITION G-protein coupled receptor for the tridecapeptide neurotensin. Associated with G-protein signaling, coupled to IP3 second messenger (phospholipase C activating).
2001-08-06 GO:0007269 neurotransmitter secretion Added DEFINITION The release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
2001-08-06 GO:0001506 neurotransmitter biosynthetic process and storage Added DEFINITION The biosynthesis and storage of neurotransmitters in the presynaptic neuron.
2001-08-06 GO:0001504 neurotransmitter uptake Added DEFINITION The uptake of neurotransmitters by pre-synaptic neurons or glial cells. This process leads to inactivation and recycling of neurotransmitters. It does not occur during cholinergic synaptic transmission. Instead, acetylcholine is enzymatically degraded in the synaptic cleft.
2001-08-06 GO:0006638 neutral lipid metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of neutral lipid: a lipid only soluble in solvents of very low polarity.
2001-08-06 GO:0015413 nickel-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of nickel ions by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0016950 nickel-iron hydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Nickel-(iron-sulfur)-containing hydrogenases [( NiFe] hydrogenases) possess two (4Fe-4S) centers and one (3Fe-xS) cluster in addition to nickel. The redox active nickel is ligated by at least two cysteinyl thiolate residues and the [NiFe] hydrogenases are particularly resistant to inhibitors such as CO and NO2-.
2001-08-06 GO:0016951 nickel-iron-selenium hydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION The nickel-(iron-sulfur)-selenium-containing hydrogenases [(NiFe-Se] hydrogenases) which contain nickel and selenium in equimolecular amounts plus (4Fe-4S) centers.
2001-08-06 GO:0009671 nitrate:proton symporter activity Added DEFINITION Transporter that takes up nitrate in a proton-dependent manner.
2001-08-06 GO:0015414 nitrate transmembrane-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of nitrate, nitrite and cyanate anions by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0000257 nitrilase activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that acts on a wide range of aromatic nitriles including (indole-3-yl)-acetonitrile and some aliphatic nitriles, and on the corresponding acid amides (from the EC).
2001-08-06 GO:0008571 non-chaperonin molecular chaperone ATPase activity Added DEFINITION .
2001-08-06 GO:0016252 nonspecific RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity Added DEFINITION .
2001-08-06 GO:0015425 nonpolar-amino acid-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of leucine, isoleucine and valine by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0000184 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay Added DEFINITION The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway degrades mRNAs transcribed from genes in which an amino-acid codon has changed to a nonsense codon; this prevents the translation of such mRNAs into truncated, and potentially harmful, proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0016451 nu DNA polymerase activity Added DEFINITION A low fidelity DNA-directed DNA polymerase involved in translesion DNA synthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0016604 nuclear body Added DEFINITION Extra-nucleolar nuclear domains usually visualised by confocal microscopy and fluoresent antibodies to specific proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0000228 nuclear chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0000176 nuclear exosome (RNase complex) Added DEFINITION Complex of 3'-5' exoribonucleases found in the nucleus.
2001-08-06 GO:0005637 nuclear inner membrane Added DEFINITION The inner lipid bilayer of the nuclear envelope.
2001-08-06 GO:0000232 nuclear interphase chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the nucleus during interphase.
2001-08-06 GO:0016363 nuclear matrix Added DEFINITION The dense fibrillar network lying on the inner side of the nuclear membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0005635 nuclear envelope Added DEFINITION The envelope that surrounds the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is a double membrane composed of two lipid bilayers separated by a gap of width 20-40 nm (the perinuclear space).
2001-08-06 GO:0005880 nuclear microtubule Added DEFINITION Any microtubule in the nucleus of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0000230 nuclear mitotic chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the nucleus during mitosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0005640 nuclear outer membrane Added DEFINITION The outer lipid bilayer of the nuclear envelope; continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell and sometimes studded with ribosomes.
2001-08-06 GO:0005643 nuclear pore Added DEFINITION Any of the numerous similar discrete openings in the nuclear envelope of a eukaryotic cell, where the inner and outer nuclear membranes are joined.
2001-08-06 GO:0005644 nuclear pore membrane protein Added DEFINITION A protein of the nuclear pore complex. The nuclear pore complex constitutes a diffusion channel about 9 nm wide in which proteins enter and leave the nucleus. Small proteins freely diffuse, but larger proteins are actively transported.
2001-08-06 GO:0006405 RNA export from nucleus Added DEFINITION The export of RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0016607 nuclear speck Added DEFINITION Discrete extra-nucleolar subnuclear domains, 20-50 in number, in which splicing factors are seen to be localised by immunofluorescense microscopy.
2001-08-06 GO:0000189 MAPK import into nucleus Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase from the cytoplasm to the nucleus upon activation.
2001-08-06 GO:0000201 MAPK import into nucleus involved in cell wall organization or biogenesis Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase to the nucleus in the context of regulating cell wall integrity.
2001-08-06 GO:0007248 nuclear translocation of MAPK (mating sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase to the nucleus in the context of transduction of mating pheromone signal, as described for Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0000208 MAPK import into nucleus involved in osmosensory signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase to the nucleus in the context of osmolarity sensing.
2001-08-06 GO:0000195 nuclear translocation of MAPK (pseudohyphal growth) Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase to the nucleus in the context of regulating pseudohyphal or invasive growth.
2001-08-06 GO:0000207 nuclear translocation of MAPK during sporulation (sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase to the nucleus in the context of sporulation, as described for Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0006020 inositol metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of myo-inositol: 1,2,3,4,5/4,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
2001-08-06 GO:0008934 inositol monophosphate 1-phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from myo-inositol 1-monophosphate or from myo-inositol 4-phosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0030016 myofibril Added DEFINITION The contractile element of skeletal and cardiac muscle; a long, highly organized bundle of actin, myosin, and other proteins that contracts by a sliding filament mechanism.
2001-08-06 GO:0016459 myosin complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that functions as a molecular motor; uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move actin filaments or to move vesicles or other cargo on fixed actin filaments; has magnesium-ATPase activity and binds actin.
2001-08-06 GO:0016463 zinc-exporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. This bacterial and animal enzyme exports zinc ions and also cadmiun and lead ions.
2001-08-06 GO:0005915 zonula adherens Added DEFINITION Cell-cell adherens junction which forms a continuous belt near the apex of epithelial cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0000218 zygote formation (sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Formation of a diploid cell by fusion of two haploid cells of opposite mating types, as described in Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0000238 zygotene Added DEFINITION The second stage of prophase I in meiosis, in which each chromosome pairs with its homologue; the two become aligned and the synaptonemal complex forms between them.
2001-08-06 GO:0000277 [cytochrome c]-lysine N-methyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a methyl group to the N6 atom of a lysine residue in cytochrome c.
2001-08-06 GO:0007021 tubulin complex assembly Added DEFINITION Folding of the microtubule constituent proteins alpha- and beta-tubulin into the native alpha-beta heterodimer.
2001-08-06 GO:0008550 tubulin GTPase activity Added DEFINITION An intrinsic activity of alpha-tubulin involved in tubulin folding, division plane formation in prokaryotic cells and others.
2001-08-06 GO:0000160 phosphorelay signal transduction system Added DEFINITION A conserved signal transduction system found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; involves autophosphorylation of a histidine kinase that then acts as a phospho-donor to response regulator proteins; also known as histidyl-aspartyl phosphorelay.
2001-08-06 GO:0017005 3'-tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of covalent intermediates (in DNA backbone breakage) between DNA topoisomerase I (GO:0003917) and DNA.
2001-08-06 GO:0008121 ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol by two molecules ferricytochrome c to form ubiquinone and two molecules of ferrocytochrome c; contains cytochrome b/b6 and cytochrome c1.
2001-08-06 GO:0015008 ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase complex (sensu Eukaryota) Added DEFINITION An enzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol by two molecules ferricytochrome c to form ubiquinone and two molecules of ferrocytochrome c; contains cytochrome b/b6 and cytochrome c1.
2001-08-06 GO:0004839 ubiquitin activating enzyme activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that attaches itself to ubiquitin in an ATP-dependent reaction to form a high-energy thiolester bond.
2001-08-06 GO:0004840 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that receives ubiquitin from E1 (ubiquitin activating enzyme) in a transthiolation reaction; may function alone or in conjunction with E3 (ubiquitin--protein ligase) to link ubiquitin to lysine residues on a target protein.
2001-08-06 GO:0008581 ubiquitin-specific protease 5 activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that hydolyzes the Gly76-Lys48 isopeptide bond of polyubiquitin. Member of the C19 family of cysteine peptidases.
2001-08-06 GO:0000151 ubiquitin ligase complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that includes a ubiquitin--protein ligase (E3) and other proteins that may confer substrate specificity on the complex.
2001-08-06 GO:0004221 ubiquitin thiolesterase activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that acts on esters formed between thiols and the C-terminal glycine residue of the polypeptide ubiquitin. Also acts on AMP-ubiquitin.
2001-08-06 GO:0004842 ubiquitin-protein transferase activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that mediates substrate recognition in ubiquitin-mediate protein degradation; binds directly to the substrate and its cognate E2 (ubiquitin conjugating enzyme). Many E3s are single proteins but there is evidence that suggests multiprotein E3 complexes are prevalent.
2001-08-06 GO:0004843 ubiquitin-specific protease activity Added DEFINITION Enzymes belonging to the C19 family of cysteine peptidases. Involved in the processing of various forms of polymeric ubiquitin and/or ubiquitin-like sequences. Will remove ubiquitin from larger leaving groups.
2001-08-06 GO:0008577 ubiquitinyl hydrolase 1 Added DEFINITION An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an ester or amide bond involving the C-terminal Gly-76 of ubiquitin. Strong preference for small leaving groups of less than 60 amino acids. Family C12 of the cysteine peptidases.
2001-08-06 GO:0016461 unconventional myosin complex Added DEFINITION A portmanteau term for myosins other than myosin II.
2001-08-06 GO:0015292 uniporter activity Added DEFINITION Catalyze the transport of a single molecular species across a membrane; transport is independent of the movement of any other molecular species.
2001-08-06 GO:0000050 urea cycle Added DEFINITION A cyclic metabolic pathway that converts waste nitrogen, in the form of ammonium to urea.
2001-08-06 GO:0015065 uridine nucleotide receptor activity Added DEFINITION G-protein coupled receptor for UTP and UDP; may mediate its action via the activation of a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
2001-08-06 GO:0017131 uridine-rich cytoplasmic polyadenylylation element binding Added DEFINITION Binding a U-rich sequence in the 3'-end of mRNAs; required for cytoplasmic polyadenylation.
2001-08-06 GO:0009411 response to UV Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, changes in gene expression etc) as a result of the perception of a photon of UV light.
2001-08-06 GO:0015064 UV-sensitive opsin Added DEFINITION See: opsin; Pigments with maximal absorption below 400nm.
2001-08-06 GO:0030050 vesicle transport along actin filament Added DEFINITION Movement of a vesicle along an actin filament, mediated by motor proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0008576 vesicle-fusing ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of ATP by an AAA-ATPase, involved in the heterotypic fusion of membrane vesicles with target membranes and the homotypic fusion of various membrane compartments.
2001-08-06 GO:0016032 viral process Added DEFINITION A set of processes by which a virus reproduces. Usually, this is by infection of a host cell, replication of the viral genome, and assembly of progeny virus particles. In some cases the viral genetic material may integrate into the host's genome and only subsequently, under particular circumstances, "complete" its life cycle; see lytic viral life cycle (GO:0030068) and lysogeny (GO:0030069).
2001-08-06 GO:0007601 visual perception Added DEFINITION The processing of signals, which result from perception of light, into the form of an image.
2001-08-06 GO:0015420 cobalamin-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of cobalamin derivatives by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0001518 voltage-gated sodium channel complex Added DEFINITION A sodium channel in a cell membrane whose opening is goverened by the membrane potential
2001-08-06 GO:0016122 xanthophyll metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of xanthophylls, i.e. oxygen-containing carotenoids.
2001-08-06 GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of a xenobiotic compound, i.e. a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e.g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2001-08-06 GO:0008559 xenobiotic-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The export of drugs from cells by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process. Show unusual specificity, covering various groups of unrelated substances, while ignoring some that are closely related structurally. Several distinct enzymes may be present in a single eukaryotic cell. Many of them transport glutathione conjugates with drugs. Some also show some 'flippase' (magnesium-ATPase, GO:0004012) activity.
2001-08-06 GO:0005999 xylulose biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of xylulose: the ketopentose, threo-2-pentulose.
2001-08-06 GO:0005998 xylulose catabolic process Added DEFINITION Catabolism of xylulose: the ketopentose, threo-2-pentulose.
2001-08-06 GO:0005997 xylulose metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of xylulose: the ketopentose, threo-2-pentulose.
2001-08-06 GO:0003754 chaperone activity Added DEFINITION Any of a functional class of unrelated families of proteins that assist the correct non-covalent assembly of other polypeptide-containing structures in vivo, but are not components of these assembled structures when they a performing their normal biological function.
2001-08-06 GO:0003763 chaperonin ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of ATP involved in maintaining an unfolded polypeptide structure before folding or to entry into mitochondria and chloroplasts.
2001-08-06 GO:0016465 chaperonin ATPase complex Added DEFINITION Multisubunit protein complex with 2x7 (Type I, in most cells) or 2x8 (Type II, in Archaea) ATP-binding sites involved in maintaining an unfolded polypeptide structure before folding or to entry into mitochondria and chloroplasts.
2001-08-06 GO:0007022 chaperonin-mediated tubulin folding Added DEFINITION Partial folding of alpha- or beta-tubulin into a non-native folding intermediate, mediated by cytosolic chaperonin CCT.
2001-08-06 GO:0008009 chemokine activity Added DEFINITION The function of a family of pro-inflammatory activation-inducible cytokines (GO:0005125) that are mainly chemotactic for different cell types; have molecular masses of 8-10 kDa; share common tertiary structures; all chemokines possess a number of conserved cysteine residues involved in intramolecular disulfide bond formation.
2001-08-06 GO:0005631 chitosan layer of spore wall Added DEFINITION The second outermost layer of the spore wall, as described in Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0008555 chloride-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. An animal and plant enzyme involved in the import of chloride anions.
2001-08-06 GO:0030065 chlorite dismutase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the reaction ClO2(-) --> Cl(-) + O2.
2001-08-06 GO:0009507 chloroplast Added DEFINITION A chlorophyll-containing plastid with thylakoids organized into grana and frets, or stroma thylakoids, and embedded in a stroma.
2001-08-06 GO:0009544 chloroplast ATP synthase complex Added DEFINITION The enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in chloroplasts.
2001-08-06 GO:0016464 chloroplast protein-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The transport of proteins by a non-phosphorylated, non-ABC (ATP-binding cassette) ATPase, into the chloroplast stroma.
2001-08-06 GO:0009570 chloroplast stroma Added DEFINITION The space enclosed by the double membrane of a chloroplast but excluding the thylakoid space. It contains DNA, ribosomes and some temporary products of photosynthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0009533 chloroplast stromal thylakoid Added DEFINITION Unstacked thylakoids that connect the grana stacks through the stroma.
2001-08-06 GO:0006342 chromatin silencing Added DEFINITION Repression of transcription by conversion of large regions of DNA into an inaccessible state often called heterochromatin.
2001-08-06 GO:0016340 calcium-dependent cell-matrix adhesion Added DEFINITION The binding of a cell to the extracellular matrix via adhesion molecules that require the presence of calcium for the interaction.
2001-08-06 GO:0016338 calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell-adhesion molecules Added DEFINITION The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules that do not require the presence of calcium for the interaction.
2001-08-06 GO:0007161 calcium-independent cell-matrix adhesion Added DEFINITION The binding of a cell to the extracellular matrix via adhesion molecules that do not require the presence of calcium for the interaction.
2001-08-06 GO:0005388 calcium-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. This enzyme family comprises three types of calcium ion-transporting enzymes that are found in the plasma membrane, the sarcoplasmic reticulum and in yeast. The first and third transport one ion per ATP hydrolysed, whereas the second transports two ions.
2001-08-06 GO:0005694 chromosome Added DEFINITION A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g. histones) that carries hereditary information.
2001-08-06 GO:0000068 chromosome condensation Added DEFINITION The progressive compaction of dispersed interphase chromatin into threadlike chromosomes prior to mitotic or meiotic nuclear division in eukaryotic cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0007059 chromosome segregation Added DEFINITION The separation of chromosomes into daughter cells during cell division.
2001-08-06 GO:0001539 cilium or flagellum-dependent cell motility Added DEFINITION locomotion due to movement of cilia or flagella
2001-08-06 GO:0005929 cilium Added DEFINITION A specialized eukaryotic locomotor organelle that consists of a filiform extrusion of the cell surface. Each cilium is bounded by an extrusion of the cytoplsmic membrane, and contains a regular longitudinal array of microtubules, anchored basally in a centriole.
2001-08-06 GO:0009800 cinnamic acid biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION the biosynthesis of trans-cinammic acids, formed by the deamination of L-phenylalanine by phenylalanine ammonia lyase or hydroxycinammic acid from L-tyrosine demaination by tyrosine ammonia lyase.
2001-08-06 GO:0009802 cinnamic acid ester biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION biosynthesis of ester derivatives of cinnamic acid.
2001-08-06 GO:0009801 cinnamic acid ester metabolic process Added DEFINITION metabolism of ester derivatives of cinnamic acids.
2001-08-06 GO:0009803 cinnamic acid metabolic process Added DEFINITION the metabolism of cinnamic acids, a class of compounds derived from deamination, hydroxylation and methylation of L-tyrosine or L-phenylalanine
2001-08-06 GO:0016190 clathrin coat Added DEFINITION The coat of coated vesicles, coated pits and synaptic vesicles, a polyhedral lattice of subunits; each subunit, or clathrin triskelion, consists of three clathrin heavy chains and three clathrin light chains.
2001-08-06 GO:0006923 cleavage of cytoskeletal proteins involved in execution phase of apoptosis Added DEFINITION Cleavage of any of the various filamentous elements that make up the cytoskeleton that is characteristic of apoptosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0006922 cleavage of lamin involved in execution phase of apoptosis Added DEFINITION Cleavage of the intermediate filament proteins, lamins A, B and C, which form the fibrous matrix on the inner surface of the nuclear envelope, that is characteristic of apoptosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0015937 coenzyme A biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of coenzyme A: 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine; an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester.
2001-08-06 GO:0000088 mitotic prophase Added DEFINITION The initial stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes are condensed but are not yet attached to a mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007052 mitotic spindle organization Added DEFINITION The formation and maintenance of the mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0000022 mitotic spindle elongation Added DEFINITION Lengthening of the distance between poles of the mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0003674 molecular_function Added DEFINITION The action characteristic of a gene product.
2001-08-06 GO:0015412 molybdate transmembrane-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of molybdate anions by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0006777 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The synthesis of the molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e.g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum coordinated by the dithiolene moiety of a family of tricyclic pyrano-pterins containing a cis-dithiolene group in their pyran ring. Enzymes containing a pyranopterin cofactor and either Mo or W are found in all phyla and some of these catalyze important transformations in the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycle. These reactions generally involve redox chemistry at the active site with the metal cycling between the +IV and +VI oxidation states. Biosynthesis of the Mo/W-cofactor is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and genes involved in Moco biosynthesis have been identified in eubacteria, archaea and eukaryotes.
2001-08-06 GO:0015407 monosaccharide-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of ribose, xylose, arabinose, galactose and methylgalactoside by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0016098 monoterpenoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of monoterpenoid compounds, i.e. terpenoids with 10 isoprenoid units.
2001-08-06 GO:0006381 mRNA editing Added DEFINITION The insertion, deletion or substitution of nucleotides within nascent RNA transcripts to produce RNA molecules with sequences that differ from those coded genetically.
2001-08-06 GO:0006406 mRNA export from nucleus Added DEFINITION The export of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0016448 mu DNA polymerase activity Added DEFINITION A DNA-directed DNA polymerase that may be specific to lymphoid cells and play a role in the somatic hypermutation of antibody genes.
2001-08-06 GO:0030063 murein sacculus Added DEFINITION A structure formed of the cross-linked polymer peptidoglycan (also called murein) that forms a covalently closed net around a bacterial cell, and imparts structural stability to the bacterial cell wall.
2001-08-06 GO:0008558 guanine-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of guanine and tryptophan by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of a single ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0005825 half bridge of spindle pole body Added DEFINITION Structure adjacent to the plaques of the spindle pole body.
2001-08-06 GO:0003773 heat shock protein activity Added DEFINITION Any of a group of specific proteins that are synthesized by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells after they have been exposed to a temperature that is higher than normal. Other stresses, e.g. free radical damage, have a similar effect. Many members of the hsp family are not induced but are present in all cells. They are characterized by their role as molecular chaperones.
2001-08-06 GO:0005505 heavy metal binding Added DEFINITION The binding, by a gene product, of a heavy metal, i.e. a metal that can form a coordination bond with a protein, as opposed to an alkali or alkaline-earth metal that can only form an ionic bond; this definition includes the following biologically relevant heavy metals: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, W, Zn
2001-08-06 GO:0030006 heavy cellular metal ion homeostasis Added DEFINITION Regulation of the levels, transport, and metabolism of ions of a heavy metal, i.e. a metal that can form a coordination bond with a protein, as opposed to an alkali or alkaline-earth metal that can only form an ionic bond; this definition includes the following biologically relevant heavy metals: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, W, Zn
2001-08-06 GO:0006823 heavy metal ion transport Added DEFINITION The transport of ions of a heavy metal, i.e. a metal that can form a coordination bond with a protein, as opposed to an alkali or alkaline-earth metal that can only form an ionic bond; this definition includes the following biologically relevant heavy metals: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, W, Zn
2001-08-06 GO:0015002 heme-copper terminal oxidase activity Added DEFINITION A multisubunit transmembrane protein catalyzing the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water, coupled to generation of a proton electrochemical gradient across the membranes in which it is embedded.
2001-08-06 GO:0015439 heme-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The export of heme from Gram-negative bacteria by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0030056 hemidesmosome Added DEFINITION Point of contact between the basal surface of epithelial cells and the basal lamina. Morphologically resembles desmosomes; attached to intermediate filaments.
2001-08-06 GO:0007157 heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules Added DEFINITION The attachment of an adhesion molecule in one cell to a non-identical adhesion molecule in an adjacent cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0005834 heterotrimeric G-protein complex Added DEFINITION Any of a family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding and hydrolising proteins; they belong to a superfamily of GTPases that includes monomeric proteins such as EF-Tu and Ras. Heterotrimeric G-proteins consist of three subunits; the alpha subunit contains the guanine nucleotide binding site and possesses GTPase activity; the beta and gamma subunits are tightly associated and function as a beta-gamma heterodimer.
2001-08-06 GO:0003927 heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase activity Added DEFINITION GTP-hydrolysing enzymes, where GTP and GDP alternate in binding. Includes stimulatory and imhibitory G-proteins such as Gs, Gi, Go and Golf, targetting adenylate cyclase and/or potassium ion and calcium ion channels; Gq stimulating phospholipase C; transducin activating cGMP phosphodiesterase; gustducin activating cAMP phosphodiesterase.
2001-08-06 GO:0000263 heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase, alpha-subunit Added DEFINITION Subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase that contains the guanine nucleotide binding site and possesses GTPase activity.
2001-08-06 GO:0000264 heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase, beta-subunit Added DEFINITION Subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase; associates tightly with the gamma subunit.
2001-08-06 GO:0000265 heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase, gamma-subunit Added DEFINITION Smallest subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase; associates tightly with the beta subunit.
2001-08-06 GO:0009679 hexose:proton symporter activity Added DEFINITION Transporter that catalyzes the transport of hexoses and hydrogen in the same direction across a membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0009675 high-affinity sulfate:proton symporter activity Added DEFINITION Transporter with a high affinity for phosphate, that mediates the active uptake of sulfate from areas of low sulfate concentration to high sulfate concentration.
2001-08-06 GO:0007559 histolysis Added DEFINITION The breakdown of tissues; usually, if not always, accompanied by cell death.
2001-08-06 GO:0016232 HNK-1 sulfotransferase activity Added DEFINITION A sulfotransferase that catalyses the synthesis of the HKK-1 carbohydrate epitope; adds a sulfate group to a precursor, GlcAbeta1-->3Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->R, forming sulfo-->3GlcAbeta1-->3Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->R.
2001-08-06 GO:0015176 holin Added DEFINITION Primary function of holins appears to be transport of murein hydrolases across the cytoplasmic membrane to the cell wall of bacteria, where these enzymes hydrolyze the cell wall polymer as a prelude to cell lysis. When chromosomally encoded, these enzymes are therefore autolysins. Holins may also facilitate leakage of electrolytes and nutrients from the cell cytoplasm, thereby promoting cell death. Some catalyze export of nucleases.
2001-08-06 GO:0007156 homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules Added DEFINITION The attachment of an adhesion molecule in one cell to an identical molecule in an adjacent cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0006959 humoral immune response Added DEFINITION An immune response mediated through a body fluid.
2001-08-06 GO:0016064 immunoglobulin mediated immune response Added DEFINITION The specific immune response mediated by antibodies.
2001-08-06 GO:0008553 hydrogen-exporting ATPase activity, phosphorylative mechanism Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. This enzyme occurs in protozoa, fungi and plants, and generates an electrochemical potential gradient of protons across the plasma membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0009678 hydrogen-translocating pyrophosphatase activity Added DEFINITION Transporter that pumps hydrogen, generating a proton motive force upon hydrolysis of pyrophosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0005754 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, catalytic core Added DEFINITION The hexamer that possesses the catalytic activity of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase.
2001-08-06 GO:0005756 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, central stalk Added DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the membrane-associated F0 proteins; rotates within the catalytic core during catalysis.
2001-08-06 GO:0000274 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, stator stalk Added DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the membrane-associated F0 proteins; is thought to prevent futile rotation of the catalytic core.
2001-08-06 GO:0016313 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate phosphatase Added DEFINITION The removal of one of the phosphate groups from an inositol triphosphate to produce an inositol bisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0016316 phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate 4-phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-4 position of D-myo-inositol 3,4-bisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0030049 muscle filament sliding Added DEFINITION The sliding of actin thin filaments and myosin thick filaments past each other in muscle contraction.
2001-08-06 GO:0005863 striated muscle myosin thick filament Added DEFINITION Filaments formed of polymers of a muscle-specific myosin II isoform, found in the middle of sarcomeres in myofibrils.
2001-08-06 GO:0005865 striated muscle thin filament Added DEFINITION Filaments formed of actin and associated proteins; attached to Z discs at either end of sarcomeres in myofibrils.
2001-08-06 GO:0005862 muscle thin filament tropomyosin Added DEFINITION An isoform of tropomyosin found associated with actin and the troponin complex in muscle thin filaments.
2001-08-06 GO:0006021 inositol biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of myo-inositol: 1,2,3,4,5/4,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
2001-08-06 GO:0000091 mitotic anaphase A Added DEFINITION Part of mitotic anaphase in which the kinetochore microtubules shorten as chromosomes move toward the spindle poles.
2001-08-06 GO:0000092 mitotic anaphase B Added DEFINITION Part of mitotic anaphase in which the polar microtubules elongate and the two poles of the spindle move farther apart.
2001-08-06 GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle Added DEFINITION The most common eukaryotic cell cycle, in which a cell is duplicated without changing ploidy; comprises four successive phases called G1, S, G2, and M.
2001-08-06 GO:0007076 mitotic chromosome condensation Added DEFINITION Compaction of chromatin structure prior to mitosis in eukaryotic cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0008570 myosin ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of ATP by myosin that provides the energy for actomyosin contraction.
2001-08-06 GO:0016460 myosin II complex Added DEFINITION Classical myosin, including the major muscle myosin of vertebrate and invertebrate muscle; consists of two myosin heavy chains, two myosin essential light chains and two myosin regulatory light chains.
2001-08-06 GO:0001517 N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase activity Added DEFINITION One of several enzymes that transfer sulfur to the 6-position of N-acetylglucosamine using 3'-phosphoadenyl sulfate as a donor.
2001-08-06 GO:0000225 N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol deacetylase activity Added DEFINITION The second step enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), used to anchor various eukaryotic proteins to the cell-surface membrane. Catalyzes the de-N-acetylation of GlcNAc-PI to GlcN-PI.
2001-08-06 GO:0016258 N-glycan diversification Added DEFINITION The generation, in the Golgi apparatus, of side chain diversity from high mannose Man<sub>5</sub>GlcNAc<sub>2</sub>-Asn N-glycans by specific glycosyltransferases and glycosidases.
2001-08-06 GO:0006491 N-glycan processing Added DEFINITION The removal of three glucose residues from a protein-linked oligosaccharide precursor by glucosidases; calnexin acts as the chaperone to ensure the proper folding of the N-glycan in the ER.
2001-08-06 GO:0016256 N-glycan processing to lysosome Added DEFINITION The modification of high-mannose N-glycans by UDP-N- acetylglucosamine--lysosomal-enzyme N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase and the subsequent removal of of the N-acetylglucosamine residues yielding mannose-6-P that occurs in the ER/Golgi apparatus to N-glycans destined for the lysosome.
2001-08-06 GO:0016257 N-glycan processing to secreted and cell-surface N-glycans Added DEFINITION The modification of high-mannose (Man<sub>9</sub-Asn) N-glycans by mannosyl-oligosaccharide 1,2-alpha-mannosidase. This may result in Man<sub>8</sub>GlcNAc<sub>2</sub>-Asn N-glycans (which in yeast may be subsequently modified by the addition of further mannose residues) or Man<sub>5</sub>GlcNAc<sub>2</sub>-Asn N-glycans that are substrates for further diversification in the Golgi apparatus.
2001-08-06 GO:0006487 protein N-linked glycosylation Added DEFINITION The addition of oligosaccharides to nascent polypeptide chains via asparagine residues in the context of Asn-X-Ser (or Thr), forming N-glycans. The oligosaccharide is preassembled as a dolichol oligosaccharide precursor that is transferred en bloc to the polypeptide chain. Occurs in the ER.
2001-08-06 GO:0005861 troponin complex Added DEFINITION A complex of accessory proteins (typically troponin T, troponin I and troponin C) found associated with actin in muscle thin filaments; involved in calcium regulation of muscle contraction.
2001-08-06 GO:0000162 tryptophan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of tryptophan: the chiral amino acid beta-3-indolylalanine.
2001-08-06 GO:0006569 tryptophan catabolic process Added DEFINITION Catabolism of tryptophan: the chiral amino acid beta-3-indolylalanine.
2001-08-06 GO:0006568 tryptophan metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of tryptophan: the chiral amino acid beta-3-indolylalanine.
2001-08-06 GO:0009534 chloroplast thylakoid Added DEFINITION Saclike membranous structures (cisternae) in a chloroplast combined into stacks (grana) and present singly in the stroma (stroma thylakoids or frets) as interconnections between grana.
2001-08-06 GO:0009543 chloroplast thylakoid lumen Added DEFINITION A cavity enclosed within the plant thylakoid membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0009535 chloroplast thylakoid membrane Added DEFINITION A pigmented membrane component of a plant thylakoid.
2001-08-06 GO:0005923 tight junction Added DEFINITION A belt-like region of very close contact between the plasma membranes of adjacent cells so that the intercellular space is completely occluded. They occur in epithelia and brain endothelia.
2001-08-06 GO:0009404 toxin metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of a toxin, i.e. a poisonous compound (typically a protein) that is produced by cells or organisms and that can cause disease when introduced into the body or tissues of an organism.
2001-08-06 GO:0008483 transaminase activity Added DEFINITION Any enzyme of sub-class EC 2.6.1 that catalyses the reversible transfer of a nitrogenous group, usually an amino agroup, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxo acid. Pyridoxal phosphate is a coenzyme.
2001-08-06 GO:0003713 transcription coactivator activity Added DEFINITION The function of a transcription co-factor that activates transcription from a RNA polymerase II promoter; does not bind DNA itself.
2001-08-06 GO:0003712 transcription cofactor activity Added DEFINITION The function of a protein that links a sequence-specific transcription factor to the core RNA polymerase II complex; does not bind DNA itself.
2001-08-06 GO:0003714 transcription corepressor activity Added DEFINITION The function of a transcription co-factor that represses transcription from a RNA polymerase II promoter; does not bind DNA itself.
2001-08-06 GO:0003700 sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Added DEFINITION Any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription; includes both gene regulatory proteins as well as the general transcription factors.
2001-08-06 GO:0000126 transcription factor TFIIIB complex Added DEFINITION A transcription factor for eukaryotic RNA polymerase III promoters that is an RNA polymerase binding protein.
2001-08-06 GO:0000127 transcription factor TFIIIC complex Added DEFINITION A heterotrimeric transcription factor for eukaryotic RNA polymerase III promoters.
2001-08-06 GO:0003746 translation elongation factor activity Added DEFINITION any member of a group of soluble proteins required for chain elongation during polypeptide synthesis at the ribosome.
2001-08-06 GO:0003743 translation initiation factor activity Added DEFINITION any of a group of soluble proteins functioning in the initiation of ribosome-mediated translation of mRNA into a polypeptide.
2001-08-06 GO:0003747 translation release factor activity Added DEFINITION A protein that participates in the release of a nascent polypeptide chain from a ribosome.
2001-08-06 GO:0016150 translation release factor activity, codon nonspecific Added DEFINITION A translation release factor that is not specific to particular codons; binds to guanine nucleotides.
2001-08-06 GO:0016149 translation release factor activity, codon specific Added DEFINITION A translation release factor that is specific for one or more particular termination codons; acts at the ribosomal-A site and require polypeptidyl-tRNA at the P-site.
2001-08-06 GO:0008079 translation termination factor activity Added DEFINITION A protein that participates in the termination of translation.
2001-08-06 GO:0005784 Sec61 translocon complex Added DEFINITION A translocation complex that constitutes the specific site of protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum; involves the signal recognition particle receptor. Composed of of a heterotetramer of &agr; &bgr; &ggr; and &dgr; subunits (translocon-associated proteins (aka TRAP).
2001-08-06 GO:0006810 transport Added DEFINITION Directed movement of substances (such as macromolecules, small molecules, ions) into, out of, or within a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0030008 TRAPP complex Added DEFINITION a large complex present on the cis-Golgi that acts prior to SNARE complex assembly to mediate vesicle docking and fusion
2001-08-06 GO:0009670 triose-phosphate:phosphate antiporter activity Added DEFINITION Transporter that mediates exchange of an organic three carbon compound phosphate ester for inorganic phosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0006722 triterpenoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of triterpenoid compounds, i.e. terpenoids with 30 isoprenoid units.
2001-08-06 GO:0000215 tRNA 2'-phosphotransferase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that transfers the splice junction 2-phosphate from ligated tRNA to NAD to produce ADP-ribose 1"-2" cyclic phosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity Added DEFINITION any enzyme of the subclasss EC 6.6.1 catalyzing the formation of aminoacyl-tRNA from ATP, amino acid, and tRNA with the release of pyrophosphate and AMP.
2001-08-06 GO:0006400 tRNA modification Added DEFINITION The enzymatic modification of the chemical structure of specific sites in tRNA.
2001-08-06 GO:0016227 tRNA sulfurtransferase activity Added DEFINITION A group of enzymes transferring sulfur to various nucleotides in tRNA chain, producing residues such as 4-thiouridylate; with some enzymes mercaptopyruvate can act as sulfur donor.
2001-08-06 GO:0000214 tRNA-intron endonuclease complex Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pre-tRNA, producing 5'-hydroxyl and 2',3'-cyclic phosphate termini, and specifically removing the intron.
2001-08-06 GO:0000213 tRNA-intron endonuclease activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pre-tRNA, producing 5'-hydroxyl and 2',3'-cyclic phosphate termini, and specifically removing the intron.
2001-08-06 GO:0006409 tRNA export from nucleus Added DEFINITION The export of tRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0016520 growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor activity Added DEFINITION An integral membrane protein receptor for growth hormone-releasing hormone; a G-protein coupled receptor linked to G-proteins that activate adenylate cyclase.
2001-08-06 GO:0003924 GTPase activity Added DEFINITION Any enzymic activity that hydrolyzes GTP to GDP and orthophosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0008150 biological_process Added DEFINITION A phenomenon marked by changes that lead to a particular result, mediated by one or more gene products.
2001-08-06 GO:0009058 biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The energy-requiring part of metabolism in which simpler substances are transformed into more complex ones, as in growth and other biosynthetic processes.
2001-08-06 GO:0000282 cellular bud site selection Added DEFINITION The specification of the site where a daughter cell will form, in organisms that reproduce by budding.
2001-08-06 GO:0000251 C-14 sterol reductase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that reduces the C14=C15 double bond of 4,4-dimethyl-cholesta-8,14,24-trienol to produce 4,4-dimethyl-cholesta-8,24-dienol.
2001-08-06 GO:0000249 C-22 sterol desaturase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme required to form the C-22(23) double bond in the sterol side chain.
2001-08-06 GO:0000252 C-3 sterol dehydrogenase (C-4 sterol decarboxylase) activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the 3-alpha hydrogen from the 3-ketocarboxylic acid sterol intermediate, resulting in the decarboxylation of the 3-ketocarboxylic acid: acts in the removal of the two C-4 methyl groups of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol in ergosterol biosynthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0000254 C-4 methylsterol oxidase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the 4-alpha methyl group of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol, the first step in the removal of the two C-4 methyl groups of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol in ergosterol biosynthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0000248 C-5 sterol desaturase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the introduction of a C-5 double bond in the B ring of ergosterol.
2001-08-06 GO:0000247 C-8 sterol isomerase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the reaction which results in unsaturation at C-7 in the B ring of sterols.
2001-08-06 GO:0001538 cadherin Added DEFINITION a calcium-dependent cell adhesion protein (type I membrane protein) that interacts in a homophilic manner in cell-cell interactions.
2001-08-06 GO:0008551 cadmium-exporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. This enzyme occurs in protozoa, fungi and plants and exports cadmium ions from cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0015434 cadmium-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION An ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that exports some heavy metals, especially cadmium, from the cytosol into the vacuole; does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0015030 Cajal body Added DEFINITION A class of nuclear body, first seen after silver staining by Cajal in 1903, enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, and certain general RNA polymerase II transcription factors; ultrastructurally, they appear as a tangle of coiled, electron-dense threads roughly 0.5 ?m in diameter; involved in aspects of snRNP biogenesis; the protein coilin serves as a marker for Cajal bodies. Gall argues that Cajal bodies are the sites for preassembly of transcriptosomes, unitary particles involved in transcription and processing of RNA.
2001-08-06 GO:0005955 calcineurin complex Added DEFINITION A heterodimeric calcium ion/calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase composed of catalytic and regulatory subunits; the regulatory subunit is very similar in sequence to calmodulin.
2001-08-06 GO:0016339 calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules Added DEFINITION The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules that require the presence of calcium for the interaction.
2001-08-06 GO:0016027 inaD signaling complex Added DEFINITION A complex of proteins that are involved in phototransduction and attached to the TRP channel. The protein connections are mediated through inaD.
2001-08-06 GO:0016234 inclusion body Added DEFINITION Intracellular foci at which aggregated proteins have been sequestered.
2001-08-06 GO:0009684 indoleacetic acid biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid ; a compound which functions as a growth regulator in plants.
2001-08-06 GO:0009683 indoleacetic acid metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid; a compound which functions as a growth regulator in plants.
2001-08-06 GO:0005432 calcium:sodium antiporter activity Added DEFINITION Rapid transport of calcium ions during excitation-contraction coupling; calcium ions are extruded from the cell during relaxation, so as to prevent overloading of intracellular calcium stores.
2001-08-06 GO:0015436 capsular-polysaccharide-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The export of capsular polysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0016119 carotene metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of carotenes, i.e. hydrocarbon carotenoids.
2001-08-06 GO:0016116 carotenoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of carotenoids, i.e. tetraterpenoid compounds in which two units of 4 isoprenoid residues joined head-to-tail are themselves joined tail-to-tail.
2001-08-06 GO:0004199 caspase activity Added DEFINITION A cytosolic endopeptidase function with specificity for the hydrolysis of aspartyl bonds (C14 family of clan CD). The 'c' reflects the cysteine protease mechansism, the 'aspase' the ability to cleave after aspartic acid.
2001-08-06 GO:0006919 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Activation of the proteolytic activity of members of the caspase family of enzymes.
2001-08-06 GO:0004201 caspase-1 activity Added DEFINITION The release of interleukin 1-beta by specific cleavage of 116-Asp-|-Ala-117 and 27-Asp-|-Gly-28 bonds in precursor. Enzymes with this function can also hydrolyse the small-molecule substrate, Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-|-NHMe and are members of the peptidase family C14.
2001-08-06 GO:0004208 caspase-3 activity Added DEFINITION The cleavage of substrates at the motif: Asp-Xaa-Xaa-Asp-|-Xaa. Enzymes with this function are members of the peptidase family C14 and they appear to function in the inactivation of proteins involved in cellular repair and homeostasis during the effector stage of apoptosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0009056 catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any metabolic process involving the breakdown of complex substances into smaller products, including the breakdown of carbon compounds with the liberation of energy for use by the cell or organism.
2001-08-06 GO:0016342 catenin complex Added DEFINITION Complex of peripheral cytoplasmic proteins (&agr;-, &bgr;- and &ggr;- catenin) that interact with the cytoplasmic region of uvomorulin/E-cadherin to connect it to the actin cytoskeleton.
2001-08-06 GO:0016602 CCAAT-binding factor complex Added DEFINITION A heteromeric transcription factor complex that binds to the CCAAT-box upstream of promoters; in Saccharomyces it activates the transcription ofe genes in response to growth in a nonfermentable carbon source; consists of four known subunits: HAP2, HAP3, HAP4 and HAP5.
2001-08-06 GO:0030014 CCR4-NOT complex Added DEFINITION A large multimeric transcription factor complex that can regulate transcrption positively or negatively; consists of a core complex plus additional proteins; may interact with other proteins to control initiation of transcription. In Saccharomyces the core complex comprises Ccr4p, Caf1p, Not1p, Not2p, Not3p, Not4p, and Not5p; Caf4p, Caf16p, and several less well characterized proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0000236 mitotic prometaphase Added DEFINITION The stage in mitosis (in higher eukaryotes), following prophase, during which the nuclear envelope is disrupted and breaks into membrane vesicles, and the spindle microtubules enter the nuclear region. Kinetochores mature on each centromere and attach to some of the spindle microtubules. Kinetochore microtubules begin the process of aligning chromosomes in one plane halfway between the poles.
2001-08-06 GO:0004444 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 1-phosphatase Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-1 position of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0004445 inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-5 position of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Can also be the removal of the carbon-5 position phosphate group of 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0008104 protein localization Added DEFINITION The process that leads to the specific localization of proteins to regions of cells, excluding that due to targeting to membrane bound subcellular organelles.
2001-08-06 GO:0004721 phosphoprotein phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION Any enzyme that hydrolyzes phosphate groups from proteins. Together with protein kinases, these enzymes control the state of phosphorylation of cell proteins and thereby provide an important mechanism for regulating cellular activity.
2001-08-06 GO:0000164 protein phosphatase type 1 complex Added DEFINITION An ATP, Mg2+-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase (AMD phosphatase) that consists of a catalytic subunit of 38 kDa and a modulator subunit of 23 kDa, which is subject to phosphorylation, thus activating the phosphatase.
2001-08-06 GO:0000163 protein phosphatase type 1 activity Added DEFINITION An ATP, Mg2+-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase (AMD phosphatase) that consists of a catalytic subunit of 38 kDa and a modulator subunit of 23 kDa, which is subject to phosphorylation, thus activating the phosphatase.
2001-08-06 GO:0000159 protein phosphatase type 2A complex Added DEFINITION A protein serine/threonine phosphatase that is polycation-stimulated (PCS), being directly stimulated by protamine, polylysine, or histone H1; it constitutes a subclass of several enzymes activated by different histones and polylysine.
2001-08-06 GO:0000158 protein phosphatase type 2A activity Added DEFINITION A protein serine/threonine phosphatase that is polycation-stimulated (PCS), being directly stimulated by protamine, polylysine, or histone H1; it constitutes a subclass of several enzymes activated by different histones and polylysine.
2001-08-06 GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation Added DEFINITION The process of introducing a phosphoric group onto a protein.
2001-08-06 GO:0016539 intein-mediated protein splicing Added DEFINITION The removal of an internal amino acid sequence (an intein) from a protein during protein maturation; the excision of inteins is precise and the N- and C-terminal exteins are joined by a normal peptide bond. Protein splicing involves 4 nucleophilic displacements by the 3 conserved splice junction residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0016925 protein sumoylation Added DEFINITION Post-translational modification of a protein by a member of the SUMO protein family; SUMO proteins (small ubuquitin-related modifiers, aka sentrin) are present in all eukaryotic kingdoms and are highly conserved from yeast to humans. They seem to play a role in the nuclear import of protein and eventually serve as address tags for transport to PML bodies.
2001-08-06 GO:0006605 protein targeting Added DEFINITION The process of targeting specific proteins to particular membrane-bound subcellular organelles. Usually requires an organelle specific protein sequence motif.
2001-08-06 GO:0008564 protein-exporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The secretion of proteins by a non-phosphorylated, non-ABC (ATP-binding cassette) ATPase.
2001-08-06 GO:0008547 protein-synthesizing GTPase activity Added DEFINITION A GTPase involved in protein synthesis. In the initiation factor complex, it is IF-2b (98 kDa) that binds GTP and subsequently hydrolyses it in prokaryotes. In eukaryotes, it is eIF-2 (150 kDa) that binds GTP. In the elongation phase, the GTP-hydrolysing proteins are the EF-Tu polypeptide of the prokaryotic transfer factor (43 kDa), the eukaryotic elongation factor EF-1a (53 kDa), the prokaryotic EF-G (77 kDa), the eukaryotic EF-2 (70-110 kDa) and the signal recognition particle that play a role in endoplasmic reticulum protein synthesis (325 kDa). EF-Tu and EF1a catalyse binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosomal A-site, while EF-G and EF-2 catalyse the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site. GTPase activity is also involved in polypeptide release from the ribosome with the aid of the pRFs and eRFs.
2001-08-06 GO:0001526 proteoglycan sulfate transfer Added DEFINITION Transfer of sulfate to a proteoglycan (a glycoprotein whose carbohydrate units are glycosaminoglycans) using 3'-phosphoadenyl sulfate
2001-08-06 GO:0005753 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex Added DEFINITION The enzyme that is responsible for the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in mitochondria, during oxidative phosphorylation; it catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and orthophosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0000275 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) Added DEFINITION The catalytic sector of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase; it comprises the catalytic core and central stalk, and is peripherally associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane when the entire ATP synthase is assembled.
2001-08-06 GO:0000276 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, coupling factor F(o) Added DEFINITION All non-F1 subunits of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase, including integral and peripheral mitochondrial innner membrane proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0001522 pseudouridine synthesis Added DEFINITION Rotation of the C1'-N-1 glycosidic bond of uridine in RNA to a C1'-C5. This post-transcriptional base modification occurs in tRNA, rRNA, and snRNAs.
2001-08-06 GO:0015418 quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of betaine and glycine by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0001534 radial spoke Added DEFINITION electron dense granules scattered around centrosomes.
2001-08-06 GO:0001536 radial spoke stalk Added DEFINITION globular portion of the radial spoke that projects towards the central pair of microtubles.
2001-08-06 GO:0001535 radial spokehead Added DEFINITION protein complex forming part of eukaryotic flagellar apparatus.
2001-08-06 GO:0017016 Ras GTPase binding Added DEFINITION Interaction with RAS protein, maybe interfering with RAS function; competes with RAF in yeast; effector or regulator of RAS.
2001-08-06 GO:0015477 receptor porin activity Added DEFINITION A porin that of the bacterial outer membrane that forms transmembrane pores and transports relatively large molecules from the external milieu to the periplasm in an energized process. Energization of transport across the outer membrane requires a heterotrimeric complex of proteins, the TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex, or in some cases, the TolA-TolQ-TolR complex. Energization requires the proton motive force (pmf) across the cytoplasmic membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0008359 regulation of bicoid mRNA localization Added DEFINITION The process by which bicoid mRNA is transported to, and maintained in, its correct position in the oocyte.
2001-08-06 GO:0001558 regulation of cell growth Added DEFINITION the process or processes that control the size of a cell
2001-08-06 GO:0030071 regulation of mitotic metaphase/anaphase transition Added DEFINITION Regulation of the onset of anaphase (chromosome movement) in the mitotic cell cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007317 regulation of pole plasm oskar mRNA localization Added DEFINITION The process by which oskar mRNA is transported to, and maintained in, its correct position in the oocyte.
2001-08-06 GO:0016299 regulator of G-protein signaling activity Added DEFINITION Inhibits signal transduction the GTPase activity of G-protein alpha subunits, thereby driving them into their inactibe GDB-bound form.
2001-08-06 GO:0005657 replication fork Added DEFINITION The Y-shaped region of a replicating DNA molecule, resulting from the separation of the DNA strands and in which the synthesis of new strands takes place.
2001-08-06 GO:0008634 negative regulation of survival gene product expression Added DEFINITION The repression, by transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation, of genes that inhibit apoptosis (prosurvival genes).
2001-08-06 GO:0030034 microvillar actin bundle assembly Added DEFINITION Assembly of the parallel bundle of actin filaments at the core of a microvillus.
2001-08-06 GO:0005902 microvillus Added DEFINITION Thin cylindrical membrane-covered projections on the surface of an animal cell containing a core bundle of actin filaments. Present in especially large numbers on the absorptive surface of intestinal cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0030033 microvillus assembly Added DEFINITION Formation of a microvillus, i.e. a thin cylindrical membrane-covered projection on the surface of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0009519 middle lamella Added DEFINITION Layer of intercellular material, chiefly pectic substances, cementing together the primary walls of contiguous cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0008569 minus-end-directed microtubule motor activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of ATP (and GTP) that drives the microtubular motor towards the minus-end of microtubules.
2001-08-06 GO:0000262 mitochondrial chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the mitochondrion of a eukaryotic cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0030061 mitochondrial crista Added DEFINITION Any of the inward folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Their number, extent, and shape differ in mitochondria from different tissues and organisms. They appear to be devices for increasing the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the enzymes of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation are found. Their shape can vary with the respiratory state of the mitochondria.
2001-08-06 GO:0016007 mitochondrial derivative Added DEFINITION The major and minor mitochondrial derivatives are the mitochondria of the sperm tail and derive by the unfolding of the Nebenkern during flagellum elongation.
2001-08-06 GO:0005746 mitochondrial respiratory chain Added DEFINITION The protein complexes that form the mitochondrial electron transport system (the respiratory chain). Complexes I, III and IV can, if embedded in an orientated environment (e.g. an intact mitochondrial inner membrane) transport protons.
2001-08-06 GO:0000266 mitochondrial fission Added DEFINITION Splitting of a mitochondrion within a cell to form two or more separate mitochondrial compartments.
2001-08-06 GO:0008053 mitochondrial fusion Added DEFINITION Merging of two or more mitochondria within a cell to form a single compartment.
2001-08-06 GO:0005744 mitochondrial inner membrane presequence translocase complex Added DEFINITION The protein transport machinery of the inner mitochondrial membrane that contains three essential Tim proteins: Tim17 and Tim23 are thought to build a preprotein translocation channel while Tim44 interacts transiently with the matrix heat-shock protein Hsp70 to form an ATP-driven import motor.
2001-08-06 GO:0008566 mitochondrial protein-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The transport of proteins by a non-phosphorylated, non-ABC (ATP-binding cassette) ATPase, into the mitochondrion via the mitochondrial inner membrane translocase complex (GO:0005744).
2001-08-06 GO:0007067 mitotic nuclear division Added DEFINITION The division of the eukaryotic cell nucleus to produce two daughter nuclei that, usually, contain the identical chromosome complement to their mother.
2001-08-06 GO:0000090 mitotic anaphase Added DEFINITION The stage of mitosis during which the two sets of chromosomes separate and move away from each other.
2001-08-06 GO:0007049 cell cycle Added DEFINITION The sequence of events by which a cell and divides in two; comprises, at a minimum, replication and segregation of DNA; during the course of a cell cycle the cell usually also doubles its mass and duplicates all cytoplasmic organelles.
2001-08-06 GO:0000075 cell cycle checkpoint Added DEFINITION A point in the eukaryotic cell cycle where progress through the cycle can be halted until conditions are suitable for the cell to proceed to the next stage.
2001-08-06 GO:0030037 actin filament reorganization involved in cell cycle Added DEFINITION Rearrangement of the spatial distribution of actin filaments and associated proteins that accompanies progression of the cell cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0000267 cell fraction Added DEFINITION A generic term for parts of cells prepared by disruptive biochemical techniques.
2001-08-06 GO:0000070 mitotic sister chromatid segregation Added DEFINITION The separation of replicated chromosomes into daughter cells during mitotic nuclear division.
2001-08-06 GO:0000089 mitotic metaphase Added DEFINITION The stage of mitosis at which chromosomes are firmly attached to the mitotic spindle at its equator but have not yet segregated to opposite poles.
2001-08-06 GO:0007080 mitotic metaphase plate congression Added DEFINITION The alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate, a plane halfway between the poles of the mitotic spindle, during mitosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0007091 metaphase/anaphase transition of mitotic cell cycle Added DEFINITION The onset of anaphase in mitosis, triggered by the destruction of mitotic cyclins.
2001-08-06 GO:0009627 systemic acquired resistance Added DEFINITION The salicylic acid mediated response to a pathogen which confers broad spectrum resistance.
2001-08-06 GO:0015411 taurine-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of taurine by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0030062 mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme complex Added DEFINITION Any of the heteromeric enzymes that act in the TCA cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0015438 teichoic-acid-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The export of teichoic-acid from Gram-negative bacteria by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0009266 response to temperature stimulus Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, changes in gene expression etc) as a result of the perception of heat.
2001-08-06 GO:0006721 terpenoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of terpenes, i.e. compounds that are multiples of isoprenoid units which may be acyclic, cyclic, multicyclic; saturated or unsaturated and with substitution by various functional groups.
2001-08-06 GO:0016108 tetraterpenoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of tetraterpenoid compounds, i.e. terpenoids with 40 isoprenoid units.
2001-08-06 GO:0000008 thioredoxin Added DEFINITION A small disulfide-containing redox protein that serves as a general protein disulfide oxidoreductase. Interacts with a broad range of proteins by a redox mechanism, based on the reversible oxidation of 2 cysteine thiol groups to a disulfide, accompanied by the transfer of 2 electrons and 2 protons. The net result is the covalent interconversion of a disulfide and a dithiol.
2001-08-06 GO:0004791 thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity Added DEFINITION A flavoprotein catalyzing the reaction: NADPH + oxidised thoredoxin = NADP(+) + reduced thioredoxin.
2001-08-06 GO:0016337 single organismal cell-cell adhesion Added DEFINITION The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules.
2001-08-06 GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling Added DEFINITION Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another.
2001-08-06 GO:0007160 cell-matrix adhesion Added DEFINITION The binding of a cell to the extracellular matrix via adhesion molecules.
2001-08-06 GO:0030055 cell-substrate junction Added DEFINITION A specialized region of connection between a cell and the extracellular matrix.
2001-08-06 GO:0005924 cell-substrate adherens junction Added DEFINITION An adherens junction which connects a cell to the extracellular matrix.
2001-08-06 GO:0005575 cellular_component Added DEFINITION The part of a cell of which a gene product is a component; for purpose of GO includes the extracellular environment of cells; a gene product may be a component of one or more parts of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0005823 central plaque of spindle pole body Added DEFINITION One of three laminate structures that form the spindle pole body; the central plaque is embedded in the nucelar envelope.
2001-08-06 GO:0005814 centriole Added DEFINITION A cellular organelle, found close to the nucleus in many eukaryotic cells, consisting of a small cylinder with microtubular walls, 300-500 nm long and 150-250 nm in diameter. It contains nine short, parallel, peripheral microtubular fibrils, each fibril consisting of one complete microtubule fused to two incomplete microtubules. Cells usually have two centrioles, lying at right angles to each other. At division, each pair of centrioles generates another pair and the twin pairs form the pole of the mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007099 centriole replication Added DEFINITION Formation of a daughter centriole perpendicular to an existing centriole. An immature centriole contains a ninefold symmetric array of single microtubules; each microtubules presumably acts as a template for the assembly of the triplet microtubule of mature centrioles.
2001-08-06 GO:0005813 centrosome Added DEFINITION A structure occurring close to the nucleus during interphase in many eukaryotic cells. It comprises a pair of centrioles, satellite bodies, and a cytoplasmic zone from which the mitotic spindle is organized. The structure of the centrosome in animal cells changes continually during the cell-division cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007098 centrosome cycle Added DEFINITION The process of centrosome duplication and separation. The centrosome cycle can operate with a considerable degree of independence from other processes of the cell cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007100 mitotic centrosome separation Added DEFINITION Separation of duplicated centrosome components at the beginning of mitosis. The centriole pair within each centrosome becomes part of a separate microtubule organizing center that nucleates a radial array of microtubules called an aster. The two asters move to opposite sides of the nucleus to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0006672 ceramide metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of ceramide: an N-acylated sphingoid.
2001-08-06 GO:0016057 regulation of membrane potential in photoreceptor cell Added DEFINITION Hyperpolarization (vertebrates) or depolarization (invertebrates) of the photoreceptor cell membrane via closing/opening of cation specific channels as a result of signals generated by rhodopsin activation by a photon.
2001-08-06 GO:0016249 channel localizer activity Added DEFINITION A protein whose function is to locate the position of ion channels in the cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0005260 channel-conductance-controlling ATPase activity Added DEFINITION .
2001-08-06 GO:0001527 microfibril Added DEFINITION Extracellular matrix components occuring independently or along with elastin. Thought to have force-bearing functions in tendon. In addition to fibrillins, microfibrils may contain other associated proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0030028 microspike Added DEFINITION A thin sheetlike process extended by the leading edge of a crawling fibroblast; contains a dense meshwork of actin filaments.
2001-08-06 GO:0030035 microspike assembly Added DEFINITION Formation of a microspike, i.e. a thin, stiff projection extended from the surface of a migrating cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0005874 microtubule Added DEFINITION Any of the long, generally straight, hollow tubes of internal diameter 12-15 nm and external diameter 24 nm found in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells; each consists (usually) of 13 protofilaments of polymeric tubulin, staggered in such a manner that the tubilin monomers are arranged in a helical pattern on the microtubular surface, and with the &agr;/&bgr; axes of the tubulin subunits parallel to the long axis of the tubule; exist in equilibrium with pool of tubulin monomers and can be rapidly assembled or disassembled in response to physiological stimuli; concerned with force generation, e.g. in the spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0000226 microtubule cytoskeleton organization Added DEFINITION The establishment, maintenance, and regulation of cytoskeletal structures comprising microtubules and their associated proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0007019 microtubule depolymerization Added DEFINITION Removal of tubulin heterodimers from one or both ends of a microtubule.
2001-08-06 GO:0007020 microtubule nucleation Added DEFINITION The de novo formation of a microtubule, in which tubulin heterodimers form metastable oligomeric aggregates, some of which go on to support formation of a complete microtubule. Microtubule nucleation usually occurs frm a specific site within a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0005815 microtubule organizing center Added DEFINITION A region in a eukaryotic cell, such as a centrosome or basal body, from which microtubules grow.
2001-08-06 GO:0007026 negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization Added DEFINITION Prevention of depolymerization of a microtubule; can result from binding by 'capping' at the plus end (e.g. by interaction with another cellular protein of structure) or by exposing microtubules to a stabilizing drug such as taxol.
2001-08-06 GO:0007018 microtubule-based movement Added DEFINITION Movement of organelles and other particles along microtubules, mediated by motor proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0007017 microtubule-based process Added DEFINITION Any cellular process that depends upon or alters the microtubule cytoskeleton (that part of the cytoskeleton comprising microtubules and their associated proteins).
2001-08-06 GO:0008568 microtubule-severing ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The splitting of microtubules into tubulin dimers in the centrosome by an AAA-ATPase.
2001-08-06 GO:0008546 microtubule/chromatin interaction Added DEFINITION Physical interaction between microtubules and chromatin via DNA binding proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0008608 attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochore Added DEFINITION Physical interaction between microtubules and chromatin via proteins making up the kinetochore complex.
2001-08-06 GO:0016469 proton-transporting two-sector ATPase complex Added DEFINITION A multisubunit non-phosphorylated ATPase that is involved in the transport of ions. Large enzymes of mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria with a membrane sector (Fo, Vo, Ao) and a cytoplasmic-compartment sector (F1, V1, A1). The F-type enzymes of the inner mitochondrial and thylakoid membranes act as ATP synthases. All of the enzymes included here operate in a rotational mode, where the extramembrane sector (containing 3 a- and 3 b-subunits) is connected via the d-subunit to the membrane sector by several smaller subunits. Within this complex, the g- and e-subunits, as well as the 9-12 c subunits rotate by consecutive 120? angles and perform parts of ATP synthesis. This movement is driven by the hydrogen ion electrochemical potential gradient. The V-type (in vacuoles and clathrin-coated vesicles) and A-type (archebacterial) enzymes have a similar structure but, under physiological conditions, they pump hydrogen ion rather than synthesize ATP.
2001-08-06 GO:0008900 hydrogen:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. Catalyses the efflux of one hydrogen ion and the influx of one potassium ion per ATP hydrolysed.
2001-08-06 GO:0004420 hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of hydroxymethyglutaryl-CoA to mevalonate, using NADP+ as a cofactor.
2001-08-06 GO:0004421 hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the formation of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) from acteyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA.
2001-08-06 GO:0009626 plant-type hypersensitive response Added DEFINITION The rapid death of plant cells in response to invasion by a pathogen.
2001-08-06 GO:0008612 peptidyl-lysine modification to peptidyl-hypusine Added DEFINITION The biosynthesis of hypusine (N-epsilon[4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl]lysine], by post-translational modification of a lysine residue of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A.
2001-08-06 GO:0008385 IkappaB kinase complex Added DEFINITION A protein serine/threonine kinase that phosphoryates IkB, thereby targeting this for proteasomal degradation and allowing the nuclear translocation of kB. Composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits, the latter not having kinase activity but presumed to play a regulatory role.
2001-08-06 GO:0008384 IkappaB kinase activity Added DEFINITION A protein serine/threonine kinase that phosphoryates IkB, thereby targeting this for proteasomal degradation and allowing the nuclear translocation of kB. Composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits, the latter not having kinase activity but presumed to play a regulatory role.
2001-08-06 GO:0016068 type I hypersensitivity Added DEFINITION An exaggerated immune response mediated by antibodies occurring within minutes after exposing a sensitized individual to the approximate antigen.
2001-08-06 GO:0006955 immune response Added DEFINITION A defense response triggered by the presence of a foreign body.
2001-08-06 GO:0016489 immunoglobulin receptor activity Added DEFINITION A transmembrane receptor that binds polymeric IgA and IgM at the basolateral surface of epithelial cells; the complex is then transported across the cell to be secreted at the apical surface; during this process the extracellular domain (secretory component) is cleaved from the transmembrane domain.
2001-08-06 GO:0000188 inactivation of MAPK activity Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity.
2001-08-06 GO:0000200 inactivation of MAPK activity involved in cell wall organization or biogenesis Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity in the context of regulating cell wall integrity.
2001-08-06 GO:0000174 inactivation of MAPK (mating sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity in the context of transduction of mating pheromone signal, as described for Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0000173 inactivation of MAPK activity involved in osmosensory signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity in the context of osmolarity sensing.
2001-08-06 GO:0000194 inactivation of MAPK (pseudohyphal growth) Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity in the context of regulating pseudohyphal or invasive growth.
2001-08-06 GO:0000206 inactivation of MAPK during sporulation (sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity in the context of sporulation, as described for Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0005876 spindle microtubule Added DEFINITION Any microtubule that is part of a mitotic or meiotic spindle; anchored at one spindle pole.
2001-08-06 GO:0005816 spindle pole body Added DEFINITION The microtubule organizing center in fungi; functionally homologous to the animal cell centrosome.
2001-08-06 GO:0007102 spindle pole body and microtubule cycle (sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION The dynamics of the spindle pole body and microtubule cytoskeleton during the cell cycle, as described in Saccharomyces. Includes spindle pole body duplication and separation and formation and elongation of the mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007103 spindle pole body duplication associated with nuclear envelope Added DEFINITION Construction of a new spindle pole body adjacent to the existing spindle pole body in the nucelar envelope; usually occurs about the time of bud emergence; as described in Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0009682 induced systemic resistance Added DEFINITION A response to non-pathogenic bacteria that confers broad spectrum sytemic resistance to disease that does not depend upon salicylic acid signalling.
2001-08-06 GO:0006917 induction of apoptosis Added DEFINITION A process which directly activates any of the steps required for cell death by apoptosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0008624 induction of apoptosis by extracellular signals Added DEFINITION The process of interpretation of signals originating from outside of the cell which result in activation of the apoptotic program.
2001-08-06 GO:0008629 induction of apoptosis by intracellular signals Added DEFINITION The process of interpretation of signals originating from inside the cell which result in activation of the apoptotic program.
2001-08-06 GO:0008633 activation of pro-apoptotic gene products Added DEFINITION The transcriptional or post-transcriptional activation of genes that promote apoptosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0006954 inflammatory response Added DEFINITION The immediate defensive reaction (by vertebrate tissue) to infection or injury caused by chemical or physical agents. The process is characterised by local vasodilation, extravasation of plasma into intercellular spaces and accumulation of white blood cells and macrophages.
2001-08-06 GO:0001544 initiation of primordial ovarian follicle growth Added DEFINITION increase in size of primordial follicles including proliferation and shape changes of granulosa and/or theca cells until oocyte is surrounded by one layer of cuboidal shaped granulosa cells (primary follicle)
2001-08-06 GO:0005632 inner layer of spore wall Added DEFINITION Either of the two innermost layers of the spore wall, as described in Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0005822 inner plaque of spindle pole body Added DEFINITION One of three laminate structures that form the spindle pole body; the inner plaque is in the nucleus.
2001-08-06 GO:0016312 inositol bisphosphate phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of one of the two phosphate groups of an inositol bisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0016315 inositol-1,3,-bisphosphate 3-phosphatase Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-3 position of D-myo-inositol 1,3-bisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0004446 inositol-hexakisphosphate phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-3 position of D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0004441 inositol-1,4-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-1 position of D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate. Can also be the removal of the phosphate group from the carbon-1 position of inositol 1,3,4-triphosphate to produce inositol 3,4-bisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0009669 sucrose:monovalent cation symporter activity Added DEFINITION Transporter that is responsible for sucrose transport across the plasma membrane in an energy-dependent manner.
2001-08-06 GO:0015419 sulfate transmembrane-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of sulfate and thiosulfate anions by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0016532 superoxide dismutase copper chaperone activity Added DEFINITION A copper chaperone specifically delivering copper to the Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (GO:0004785).
2001-08-06 GO:0015293 symporter activity Added DEFINITION Catalyze the transport of two or more molecular species across a membrane, transport being in the same direction.
2001-08-06 GO:0008021 synaptic vesicle Added DEFINITION Secretory organelles, some 50nm in diameter, of presynaptic nerve terminals; accumulate high concentrations of neurotransmitters and secrete these into the synaptic cleft by fusion with the "active zone" of the presynaptic plasma membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0016013 syntrophin complex Added DEFINITION Includes alpha-, beta1-, beta2- syntrophins and syntrophin-like proteins; the syntrophin complex binds to the second half of the carboxyl-terminal domain of dystrophin; also associates with neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
2001-08-06 GO:0009812 flavonoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION metabolism of a group of phenolic derivatives containing a flavan skeleton including flavones, flavonols and flavanoids, and anthocyanins.
2001-08-06 GO:0016600 flotillin complex Added DEFINITION A heteromeric complex of flotillin 1, flotillin 2, caveolin 1 and caveolin 2 within the caveolar membrane (GO:0016599).
2001-08-06 GO:0005925 focal adhesion Added DEFINITION Small region on the surface of a cell that anchors the cell to the extracellular matrix and that are points of termination of actin filaments.
2001-08-06 GO:0016914 follicle-stimulating hormone complex Added DEFINITION A gonadotrophic glycoprotein hormone secreted, in mammals, by the anterior pituitary gland; consists of alpha and beta subunits, the latter of which confers hormonal specificity.
2001-08-06 GO:0030031 cell projection assembly Added DEFINITION Formation of an extension of the surface of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0000080 mitotic G1 phase Added DEFINITION One of two "gap" phases in the standard eukaryotic mitotic cell cycle; the interval between the completion of mitosis and the beginning of DNA synthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0000082 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Added DEFINITION Progression from G1 phase to S phase of the standard mitotic cell cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0000085 mitotic G2 phase Added DEFINITION One of two "gap" phases in the standard eukaryotic mitotic cell cycle; the interval between the completion of DNA synthesis andthe beginning of mitosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle Added DEFINITION Progression from G2 phase to M phase of the standard mitotic cell cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0003895 gamma DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity Added DEFINITION The DNA-directed DNA polymerase responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA.
2001-08-06 GO:0006689 ganglioside catabolic process Added DEFINITION Catabolism of ganglioside: a ceramide oligosaccharide carrying, in addition to other sugar residues, one or more sialic residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0005921 gap junction Added DEFINITION ny specialised areas of the plasma membranes of adjacent cells where the membranes are 2-4nm apart and penetrated by a connexon.
2001-08-06 GO:0016519 gastric inhibitory peptide receptor activity Added DEFINITION An integral membrane protein receptor for gastric inhibitory peptide; a G-protein coupled receptor linked to G-proteins that activate adenylate cyclase.
2001-08-06 GO:0016251 general RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity Added DEFINITION A protein that is required to support basal (unregulated) transcription of genes by core RNA polymerase II. Five general transcription factors are necessary and sufficient for such basal transcription in yeast: TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIH and TATA-binding protein (TBF).
2001-08-06 GO:0016445 somatic diversification of immunoglobulins Added DEFINITION The mechanisms by means of which sequence diversity of antibodies is generated.
2001-08-06 GO:0004337 geranyltranstransferase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that joins a molecule of geranyl diphosphate with a molecule of isopentenyl diphosphate to form trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0009686 gibberellin biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of gibberellic acid. Gibberellins are a class of highly modified terpenes that function as plant growth regulators.
2001-08-06 GO:0009685 gibberellin metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of gibberellic acid. Gibberellins are a class of highly modified terpenes that function as plant growth regulators
2001-08-06 GO:0006073 cellular glucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of glycans, i.e. polysaccharides consisting only of glucose residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0009487 glutaredoxin Added DEFINITION A small disulfide-containing redox protein that serves as a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase.
2001-08-06 GO:0000121 glycerol-1-phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol 1-phosphate to yield glycerol and orthophosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0015430 glycerol-3-phosphate-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of phosphorylated glycerol by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0006664 glycolipid metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of glycolipid: a compound containing (usually) 1-4 linked monosaccharide residues joined by a glycosyl linkage to a lipid.
2001-08-06 GO:0016263 glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta-galactosyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION The enzyme that catalyses the addition of a galactosyl residue to a non-reducing O-serine-linked N-acetylgalactosamine residue in an O-glycan.
2001-08-06 GO:0006024 glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan: a glycan containing a substantial proportion of aminomonosaccharide residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0006027 glycosaminoglycan catabolic process Added DEFINITION Catabolism of glycosaminoglycan: a glycan containing a substantial proportion of aminomonosaccharide residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0016137 glycoside metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of glycosides, i.e. compounds in which a glycosyl group is substituted into a hydroxyl, thiol or selenol group in another compound.
2001-08-06 GO:0020015 glycosome Added DEFINITION Organelle found in organisms from the order Kinetoplastida that houses the enzymes of glycolysis
2001-08-06 GO:0006687 glycosphingolipid metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of glycosphingolipid: a compound with residues of sphingoid and at least one monosaccharide.
2001-08-06 GO:0006097 glyoxylate cycle Added DEFINITION A modified tricarboxylic acid cycle in some plants and microorganisms in which isocitrate, instead of being dehyrogenated, is cleaved by isocitrate lyase to glycoxylate and succinate. This serves to generate glycoxylate from the acetyl moiety of acetyl-CoA. The glyoxylate can then react with another molecule of acetyl-CoA to form malate (catalyzed by malate synthase). These two reactions taken together allow a four-carbon molecule, malate, and hence carbohydrate, to be formed from acetyl-CoA, which, in turn, may be formed from fatty acids. In some plants the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle are present in glyoxisomes.
2001-08-06 GO:0009514 glyoxysome Added DEFINITION A microbody that contains the enzymes of the glyoxylate pathway.
2001-08-06 GO:0017119 Golgi transport complex Added DEFINITION A complex of proteins that, in vitro, stimulates intra-Golgi transport; a 13S complex, about 800kD in size and consists of at least five polypeptides.
2001-08-06 GO:0006505 GPI anchor metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of glycophospholipid anchors (GPI anchors) that attach extracellular proteins to the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. The GPI anchor consists of ethanolamine-PO<sub>4</sub>6Manalpha1-2Manalpha1- 6Manalpha1-4GlcNalpha1-6myo-Ino-1-PO<sub>4</sub>-lipid attached to the carboxyl group of the C-terminal amino acid of the (mature) anchored protein by an amide linkage to the amino group of the phosphoethanolamine.
2001-08-06 GO:0008225 Gram-negative antibacterial peptide activity Added DEFINITION A protein or peptide which inhibits the growth of, or directly kills, gram-negative bacterial cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0008224 Gram-positive antibacterial peptide activity Added DEFINITION A protein or peptide which inhibits the growth of, or directly kills, gram-positive bacterial cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0009515 granal stacked thylakoid Added DEFINITION Appressed thylakoid membranes that are part of a granum (stacked regions). A characteristic of these appressed regions is the preferential localization of photosystem II.
2001-08-06 GO:0009542 granum Added DEFINITION Distinct stack of lamellae seen within chloroplasts. Grana contain the pigments, electron transfer compounds, and enzymes essential to the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0030015 CCR4-NOT core complex Added DEFINITION The core of the CCR4-NOT transcription factor complex. In Saccharomyces the CCR4-NOT core complex comprises Ccr4p, Caf1p, Not1p, Not2p, Not3p, Not4p, and Not5p.
2001-08-06 GO:0007155 cell adhesion Added DEFINITION The attachment of a cell, either to another cell or to the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules.
2001-08-06 GO:0007154 cell communication Added DEFINITION Any process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.
2001-08-06 GO:0005938 cell cortex Added DEFINITION The region of a cell that lies just beneath the plasma membrane and often contains a network of actin filaments and associated proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0003798 male-specific antibacterial peptide activity Added DEFINITION A protein or peptide which inhibits the growth of, or directly kills, bacterial cells, but which is only expressed in males.
2001-08-06 GO:0004470 malic enzyme activity Added DEFINITION The catalysis of the oxidative decarboxylation of malate with the concomitant production of pyruvate.
2001-08-06 GO:0015423 maltose-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of maltose and maltose oligosaccharides by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0030026 cellular manganese ion homeostasis Added DEFINITION Regulation of the levels, transport, and metabolism of manganese ions.
2001-08-06 GO:0016049 cell growth Added DEFINITION any process by which a cell increases its mass (size) that is not due to inorganic physical constraints such as hydrostatic pressure, etc.
2001-08-06 GO:0008151 cell growth and/or maintenance Added DEFINITION Any process required for the survival and growth of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0030054 cell junction Added DEFINITION A specialized region of connection between two cells or between a cell and the extracellular matrix.
2001-08-06 GO:0016043 cellular component organization Added DEFINITION Any cellular process involved in the formation and organization of structures within a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0009504 cell plate Added DEFINITION The nascent cell membrane and cell wall structure that forms between two daughter nuclei near the center of a dividing plant cell. It develops at the equitorial region of the phragmoplast. It grows outwards to join with the lateral walls and form two daughter cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0008283 cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of a cell population.
2001-08-06 GO:0007148 regulation of cell shape and cell size Added DEFINITION Regulation of the mass, volume, and shape of a cell.

Definition/synonyms

Timestamp GO ID GO Term Name Action Category Detail
2001-08-06 GO:0009116 nucleoside metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of a nucleoside, i.e. a a nucleobase linked to either beta-D-ribofuranose (ribonucleoside) or 2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranose, (a deoxyribonucleotide). e.g. adenosine, guanosine, inosine, cytidine, uridine and deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine (= deoxythymidine).
2001-08-06 GO:0005718 nucleosome Added DEFINITION A particle that forms the primary packing unit of DNA in chromatin. Each consists of a segment of duplex DNA, 160-240 base pairs long, with associated histone proteins; about 146 base pairs of the DNA comprise a core particle and the remainder form the linker DNA. The core particle is a disklike structure, 11 nm in diameter and 5.7 nm thick, consisting of two molecules each of histories H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 with approximately two superhelical turns of double-stranded DNA wound round it. In many species, an average of one molecule of histone H1 (or a variant) is on the exterior of each core particle and appears to mediate the packing together of adjacent nucleosomes in condensed chromatin.
2001-08-06 GO:0005679 nucleosome remodeling complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that is required for the induced transcription of many genes; alters chromatin structure so as to allow the binding of specific RNA polymerase II transcription factors.
2001-08-06 GO:0000166 nucleotide binding Added DEFINITION Physical interaction with a nucleotide: any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with [ortho]phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety.
2001-08-06 GO:0009117 nucleotide metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of a nucleotide, i.e. a nucleoside that is esterified with [ortho]phosphate or an oligophosphate at any hydroxyl group on the glycose moiety; may be mono-, di- or tri-phosphate; this definition includes cyclic-nucleotides (i.e. nucleoside cyclic phosphates).
2001-08-06 GO:0005634 nucleus Added DEFINITION An organelle of eukaryotic cells that contains the chromosomes. Except for the mitochondria it is the sole site of DNA replication and RNA synthesis in the cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0006493 protein O-linked glycosylation Added DEFINITION The addition of a N-acetylgalactosamine residue, from UDP-N-acetyl- galactosamine, to nascent polypeptide chains via an alpha-link to the hydroxyl group of serine or threonine residues to form O-glycans; catalysed by polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases.
2001-08-06 GO:0009520 oleosome Added DEFINITION An organelle specialized for lipid storage.
2001-08-06 GO:0015421 oligopeptide-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of di- and oligopeptides by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0015422 oligosaccharide-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of lactose, melibiose and raffinose by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0008250 oligosaccharyltransferase complex Added DEFINITION A multisubunit protein complex in the ER membrane of eukaryotes that transfers lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor to asparagine residues on nascent proteins; includes at least nine different subunits, at least in yeast.
2001-08-06 GO:0016318 ommatidial rotation Added DEFINITION The process by which photoreceptors are arranged in ommatidia in the dorsal and ventral fields to be mirror images. The polarity is establised in the imaginal discs concurrently with cell fate specification.
2001-08-06 GO:0000152 nuclear ubiquitin ligase complex Added DEFINITION A ubiquitin ligase complex found in the nucleus.
2001-08-06 GO:0030018 Z disc Added DEFINITION Platelike region of a muscle sarcomere to which the plus ends of actin filaments are attached.
2001-08-06 GO:0016035 zeta DNA polymerase complex Added DEFINITION A low fidelity DNA-directed DNA polymerase that functions during replication, to promote the extension of forks whose progression is stopped for any reason; a non-processive enzyme with no 3'-5' exonuclease activity; possesses deoxycytidyl transferase activity, incorporating deoxycytidyl opposite abasic sites. Functions during DNA repair and mutagenesis. Composed of two subunits.
2001-08-06 GO:0003894 zeta DNA polymerase activity Added DEFINITION A DNA-directed DNA polymerase that functions during replication, to promote the extension of forks whose progression is stopped for any reason; a non-processive enzyme with no 3'-5' exonuclease activity; possesses deoxycytidyl transferase activity, incorporating deoxycytidyl opposite abasic sites. Functions during DNA repair and mutagenesis. Composed of two subunits.
2001-08-06 GO:0000243 commitment complex Added DEFINITION The first portion of the spliceosome to assemble in mRNA splicing; in commitment complex formation the 5' and 3' splice sites are recognized by the U1 snRNP and the U2 snRNP auxiliary factor, respectively.
2001-08-06 GO:0030009 complement factor H activity Added DEFINITION A cofactor for the serine protease complement factor I.
2001-08-06 GO:0005676 condensin complex Added DEFINITION Condensins are the most abundant structural components of mitotic chromosomes and play a role in driving chromosome condensation.
2001-08-06 GO:0005922 connexon complex Added DEFINITION An assembly of six molecules of connexin, made in the Golgi apparatus and subsequently transported to the plasma membrane, where docking of two connexons on apposed plasma membranes across the extracellular space forms a gap junction.
2001-08-06 GO:0030038 contractile actin filament bundle assembly Added DEFINITION Assembly of actin filament bundles in which the filaments are loosely packed (approx. 30-60 nm apart) and arranged with opposing polarities; the loose packing allows myosin (usually myosin-II) to enter the bundle.
2001-08-06 GO:0005826 actomyosin contractile ring Added DEFINITION A cytoskeletal structure composed of actin filaments and myosin that forms beneath the plasma membrane of many cells, including animal cells and yeast cells, in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the spindle; as the ring contracts it pulls the mebrane inwards to divide the contents of the cytoplasm in cytokinesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0016531 copper chaperone activity Added DEFINITION A carrier that delivers copper to specific proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0004008 copper-exporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. This bacterial and mammalian enzyme exports copper ions from cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0016513 core-binding factor complex Added DEFINITION A heterodimer with &agr;- and &bgr;-subunits that binds the core site 5'-PYGPYGGT-3' of several enhancers and promoters; the &bgr;-subunit enhances the DNA binding of the &agr;-subunit.
2001-08-06 GO:0001533 cornified envelope Added DEFINITION an insoluble protein structure formed under the plasma membrane of cornifying epithelial cells
2001-08-06 GO:0009805 coumarin biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION the biosynthesis of coumarins, a class of compounds derived from the phenylacrylic skeleton of cinnamic acids.
2001-08-06 GO:0009804 coumarin metabolic process Added DEFINITION metabolism of coumarins which are compounds derived from the phenylacrylic skeleton of cinnamic acids.
2001-08-06 GO:0016533 cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 holoenzyme complex Added DEFINITION Activates cyclin-dependent kinase 5; composed of regulatory and catalytic subunits.
2001-08-06 GO:0004600 cyclophilin Added DEFINITION A protein to which cyclosporin A (an immunosupressant) binds. Possesses peptidylprolyl isomerase activity.
2001-08-06 GO:0004122 cystathionine beta-synthase activity Added DEFINITION Catalyses the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, the conversion of homocysteine to cystathione.
2001-08-06 GO:0009458 cytochrome Added DEFINITION A hemeprotein whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. This redox change involves a single electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom.
2001-08-06 GO:0009459 cytochrome a Added DEFINITION A cytochrome containing heme a.
2001-08-06 GO:0009460 cytochrome b Added DEFINITION A cytochrome containing non-covalently bound protoheme (iron protoporphyrin IX; heme b).
2001-08-06 GO:0009463 cytochrome b/b6 Added DEFINITION Diheme cytochrome b's; cytochrome b has has the hemes b[562] and b[566] and is a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III. cytochrome b6 is a component of bc complex acting between photosystems II and I of photosynthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0004128 cytochrome-b5 reductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H Added DEFINITION A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the reaction: NADH + 2 ferricytochrome b[5] = NAD[+] + 2 ferrocytochrome b[5].
2001-08-06 GO:0009512 cytochrome b6f complex Added DEFINITION Complex that transfers electrons from reduced plastiquinone to oxidized plastocyanin and translocates protons from the stroma to the lumen.
2001-08-06 GO:0009461 cytochrome c Added DEFINITION A cytochrome containing heme bound to the protein by one or, more (commonly two) thioether bonds involving sulfhydryl groups of cysteine residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0009477 cytochrome c1 Added DEFINITION A cytochrome c that is an integral component of the mitochondrial respiratory complex III. Functions as an electon donor to cytochrome c.
2001-08-06 GO:0009462 cytochrome d Added DEFINITION A cytochrome in which the prosthetic group is a tetrapyrollic chelate of iron in which the degree of conjugation of double bonds is less than in porphyrin. [This definition would appear to include siroheme proteins (e.g. nitrite and sulfite reductases); but these are not cytochromes. Kirill Degtyarenko:Sep 28 13:08:07 2000.]
2001-08-06 GO:0009479 cytochrome f Added DEFINITION A cytochrome c that is characteristic of green plants and transfers electrons to plastocyanin.
2001-08-06 GO:0015034 cytochrome P450 activity Added DEFINITION A cytochrome b-like protein that has a sulfur atom ligated to the iron of the prosthetic group (heme-thiolate); enzymes:typically monooxygenases acting on, typically, lipophilic substrates. The characteristic mode of action of these enzymes is not electron transfer (some P-450-enzymes probably do not even involve the reversible Fe(II)/Fe(III) equilibrium), but rather oxygen atom transfer.
2001-08-06 GO:0004129 cytochrome-c oxidase activity Added DEFINITION A heme/copper terminal oxidase which uses cytochrome c as electron donor. The number of subunits varies from three in some bacteria to 13 in the mammalian mitochondrion.
2001-08-06 GO:0005125 cytokine activity Added DEFINITION Secreted regulatory proteins that control the survival, growth, differentiation and effector function of tissues and cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0016288 cytokinesis Added DEFINITION The division of a cell into two daughter cells following mitosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0009691 cytokinin biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of cytokinin; cytokinins are a class of adenine-derived compounds that can function in plants as growth regulators.
2001-08-06 GO:0009690 cytokinin metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of cytokinin; cytokinins are a class of adenine-derived compounds that can function in plants as growth regulators.
2001-08-06 GO:0005737 cytoplasm Added DEFINITION All of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.
2001-08-06 GO:0000229 cytoplasmic chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0006347 chromatin silencing at HML and HMR (sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Repression of transcription at silent mating type loci by the formation of heterochromatin.
2001-08-06 GO:0000183 chromatin silencing at rDNA Added DEFINITION Repression of transcription of ribosomal DNA by the formation of heterochromatin.
2001-08-06 GO:0006348 chromatin silencing at telomere Added DEFINITION Repression of transcription of telomeric DNA by the formation of heterochromatin.
2001-08-06 GO:0009509 chromoplast Added DEFINITION A plastid containing pigments other than chlorophyll, usually yellow and orange carotenoid pigments.
2001-08-06 GO:0000177 cytoplasmic exosome (RNase complex) Added DEFINITION Complex of 3'-5' exoribonucleases found in the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0000233 cytoplasmic interphase chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the cytoplasm during interphase.
2001-08-06 GO:0005881 cytoplasmic microtubule Added DEFINITION Any microtubule in the cytoplasm of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0000231 cytoplasmic mitotic chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the cytoplasm during mitosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0016031 tRNA import into mitochondrion Added DEFINITION The import of cytoplasmic tRNA by the mitochondrion.
2001-08-06 GO:0000153 cytoplasmic ubiquitin ligase complex Added DEFINITION A ubiquitin ligase complex found in the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0016343 cytoskeletal anchoring activity Added DEFINITION The direct or indirect linkage of cytoskeletal filaments to the plasma membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0007016 cytoskeletal anchoring at plasma membrane Added DEFINITION Process by which cytoskeletal filaments are directly or indirectly linked to the plasma membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0004518 nuclease activity Added DEFINITION Any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester linkages within nucleic acids.
2001-08-06 GO:0009112 nucleobase metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of a nucleobase, i.e. a nitrogenous base that is a constituent of a nucleic acid, e.g. the purines: adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine and the pyrimidines:cytosine, uracil, thymine
2001-08-06 GO:0009295 nucleoid Added DEFINITION The nucleoprotein complex of a bacterium which contains the genome.
2001-08-06 GO:0005654 nucleoplasm Added DEFINITION That part of the nuclear content other than the chromosomes or the nucleolus.
2001-08-06 GO:0008572 nucleoplasmin ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of ATP required for the ATP-dependent assembly of nucleosome cores, in decondensation of sperm chromatin and in other histone-involving processes.
2001-08-06 GO:0015938 coenzyme A catabolic process Added DEFINITION Catabolism of coenzyme A: 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine; an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester.
2001-08-06 GO:0015936 coenzyme A metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of coenzyme A: 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine; an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester.
2001-08-06 GO:0008278 cohesin complex Added DEFINITION Cohesins are the most abundant structural components of mitotic chromosomes and play a role in driving chromosome condensation.
2001-08-06 GO:0015468 colicin Added DEFINITION Plasmid-encoded bacteriocins which are produced by enteric bacteria. Exert a lethal effect on other bacteria including E. coli strains that lack the Col plasmid. Bind to a cell surface receptor and are transported into the periplasm via an energy-dependent process involving a TonB- or TolA-dependent heterooligomeric protein complex. Some colicins kill their target cell by inserting into the cytoplasmic membrane where they form voltage-sensitive (trans-negative) channels that depolarize and deenergize the cell, and thereby kill it.
2001-08-06 GO:0005581 collagen trimer Added DEFINITION A group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals. Collagen is highly enriched in glycine (up to one-third of its amino-acid residues) and somewhat less so in proline plus 3- and 4-hydroxyproline (about 21%).
2001-08-06 GO:0016947 N5,N10-methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION An hydrogenase that catalyses the reversible reduction of N5,N10-methenyltetrahydomethanopterin with H2 to N5,N10-methylenetetrahydromethanopterin and H+; known from Archaea.
2001-08-06 GO:0000210 NAD+ diphosphatase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of NAD<sup>+</sup> to yield AMP plud NMN.
2001-08-06 GO:0015039 NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase activity Added DEFINITION An animal flavoenzyme that transfers electrons from NADPH to oxidised adrenodoxin, first enzymatic step in the mitochondrial P450 monooxygenase system.
2001-08-06 GO:0016006 Nebenkern Added DEFINITION A product of the fusion of the mitochondria during spermatogenesis. After the completion of meiosis the mitochondria of the spermatid collect along side the nucleus and fuse into two masses; these wrap around each other to produce the spherical Nebenkern. During flagellum elongation the Nebenkern unfolds and the two derivatives (major and minor mitochondrial derivatives) elongate down the axoneme.
2001-08-06 GO:0008220 necrosis Added DEFINITION The death of tissues.
2001-08-06 GO:0016322 neuron remodeling Added DEFINITION The developmentally regulated remodeling of neuronal projections such as pruning to eliminate the extra dendrites and axons projections set up in early stages of nervous system develpment.
2001-08-06 GO:0016492 G-protein coupled neurotensin receptor activity Added DEFINITION G-protein coupled receptor for the tridecapeptide neurotensin. Associated with G-protein signaling, coupled to IP3 second messenger (phospholipase C activating).
2001-08-06 GO:0007269 neurotransmitter secretion Added DEFINITION The release of neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft.
2001-08-06 GO:0001506 neurotransmitter biosynthetic process and storage Added DEFINITION The biosynthesis and storage of neurotransmitters in the presynaptic neuron.
2001-08-06 GO:0001504 neurotransmitter uptake Added DEFINITION The uptake of neurotransmitters by pre-synaptic neurons or glial cells. This process leads to inactivation and recycling of neurotransmitters. It does not occur during cholinergic synaptic transmission. Instead, acetylcholine is enzymatically degraded in the synaptic cleft.
2001-08-06 GO:0006638 neutral lipid metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of neutral lipid: a lipid only soluble in solvents of very low polarity.
2001-08-06 GO:0015413 nickel-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of nickel ions by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0016950 nickel-iron hydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION Nickel-(iron-sulfur)-containing hydrogenases [( NiFe] hydrogenases) possess two (4Fe-4S) centers and one (3Fe-xS) cluster in addition to nickel. The redox active nickel is ligated by at least two cysteinyl thiolate residues and the [NiFe] hydrogenases are particularly resistant to inhibitors such as CO and NO2-.
2001-08-06 GO:0016951 nickel-iron-selenium hydrogenase activity Added DEFINITION The nickel-(iron-sulfur)-selenium-containing hydrogenases [(NiFe-Se] hydrogenases) which contain nickel and selenium in equimolecular amounts plus (4Fe-4S) centers.
2001-08-06 GO:0009671 nitrate:proton symporter activity Added DEFINITION Transporter that takes up nitrate in a proton-dependent manner.
2001-08-06 GO:0015414 nitrate transmembrane-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of nitrate, nitrite and cyanate anions by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0000257 nitrilase activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that acts on a wide range of aromatic nitriles including (indole-3-yl)-acetonitrile and some aliphatic nitriles, and on the corresponding acid amides (from the EC).
2001-08-06 GO:0008571 non-chaperonin molecular chaperone ATPase activity Added DEFINITION .
2001-08-06 GO:0016252 nonspecific RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity Added DEFINITION .
2001-08-06 GO:0015425 nonpolar-amino acid-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of leucine, isoleucine and valine by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0000184 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay Added DEFINITION The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway degrades mRNAs transcribed from genes in which an amino-acid codon has changed to a nonsense codon; this prevents the translation of such mRNAs into truncated, and potentially harmful, proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0016451 nu DNA polymerase activity Added DEFINITION A low fidelity DNA-directed DNA polymerase involved in translesion DNA synthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0016604 nuclear body Added DEFINITION Extra-nucleolar nuclear domains usually visualised by confocal microscopy and fluoresent antibodies to specific proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0000228 nuclear chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0000176 nuclear exosome (RNase complex) Added DEFINITION Complex of 3'-5' exoribonucleases found in the nucleus.
2001-08-06 GO:0005637 nuclear inner membrane Added DEFINITION The inner lipid bilayer of the nuclear envelope.
2001-08-06 GO:0000232 nuclear interphase chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the nucleus during interphase.
2001-08-06 GO:0016363 nuclear matrix Added DEFINITION The dense fibrillar network lying on the inner side of the nuclear membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0005635 nuclear envelope Added DEFINITION The envelope that surrounds the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is a double membrane composed of two lipid bilayers separated by a gap of width 20-40 nm (the perinuclear space).
2001-08-06 GO:0005880 nuclear microtubule Added DEFINITION Any microtubule in the nucleus of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0000230 nuclear mitotic chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the nucleus during mitosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0005640 nuclear outer membrane Added DEFINITION The outer lipid bilayer of the nuclear envelope; continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell and sometimes studded with ribosomes.
2001-08-06 GO:0005643 nuclear pore Added DEFINITION Any of the numerous similar discrete openings in the nuclear envelope of a eukaryotic cell, where the inner and outer nuclear membranes are joined.
2001-08-06 GO:0005644 nuclear pore membrane protein Added DEFINITION A protein of the nuclear pore complex. The nuclear pore complex constitutes a diffusion channel about 9 nm wide in which proteins enter and leave the nucleus. Small proteins freely diffuse, but larger proteins are actively transported.
2001-08-06 GO:0006405 RNA export from nucleus Added DEFINITION The export of RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0016607 nuclear speck Added DEFINITION Discrete extra-nucleolar subnuclear domains, 20-50 in number, in which splicing factors are seen to be localised by immunofluorescense microscopy.
2001-08-06 GO:0000189 MAPK import into nucleus Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase from the cytoplasm to the nucleus upon activation.
2001-08-06 GO:0000201 MAPK import into nucleus involved in cell wall organization or biogenesis Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase to the nucleus in the context of regulating cell wall integrity.
2001-08-06 GO:0007248 nuclear translocation of MAPK (mating sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase to the nucleus in the context of transduction of mating pheromone signal, as described for Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0000208 MAPK import into nucleus involved in osmosensory signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase to the nucleus in the context of osmolarity sensing.
2001-08-06 GO:0000195 nuclear translocation of MAPK (pseudohyphal growth) Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase to the nucleus in the context of regulating pseudohyphal or invasive growth.
2001-08-06 GO:0000207 nuclear translocation of MAPK during sporulation (sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Movement of a MAP kinase to the nucleus in the context of sporulation, as described for Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0006020 inositol metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of myo-inositol: 1,2,3,4,5/4,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
2001-08-06 GO:0008934 inositol monophosphate 1-phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from myo-inositol 1-monophosphate or from myo-inositol 4-phosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0030016 myofibril Added DEFINITION The contractile element of skeletal and cardiac muscle; a long, highly organized bundle of actin, myosin, and other proteins that contracts by a sliding filament mechanism.
2001-08-06 GO:0016459 myosin complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that functions as a molecular motor; uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move actin filaments or to move vesicles or other cargo on fixed actin filaments; has magnesium-ATPase activity and binds actin.
2001-08-06 GO:0016463 zinc-exporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. This bacterial and animal enzyme exports zinc ions and also cadmiun and lead ions.
2001-08-06 GO:0005915 zonula adherens Added DEFINITION Cell-cell adherens junction which forms a continuous belt near the apex of epithelial cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0000218 zygote formation (sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Formation of a diploid cell by fusion of two haploid cells of opposite mating types, as described in Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0000238 zygotene Added DEFINITION The second stage of prophase I in meiosis, in which each chromosome pairs with its homologue; the two become aligned and the synaptonemal complex forms between them.
2001-08-06 GO:0000277 [cytochrome c]-lysine N-methyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a methyl group to the N6 atom of a lysine residue in cytochrome c.
2001-08-06 GO:0007021 tubulin complex assembly Added DEFINITION Folding of the microtubule constituent proteins alpha- and beta-tubulin into the native alpha-beta heterodimer.
2001-08-06 GO:0008550 tubulin GTPase activity Added DEFINITION An intrinsic activity of alpha-tubulin involved in tubulin folding, division plane formation in prokaryotic cells and others.
2001-08-06 GO:0000160 phosphorelay signal transduction system Added DEFINITION A conserved signal transduction system found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; involves autophosphorylation of a histidine kinase that then acts as a phospho-donor to response regulator proteins; also known as histidyl-aspartyl phosphorelay.
2001-08-06 GO:0017005 3'-tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of covalent intermediates (in DNA backbone breakage) between DNA topoisomerase I (GO:0003917) and DNA.
2001-08-06 GO:0008121 ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol by two molecules ferricytochrome c to form ubiquinone and two molecules of ferrocytochrome c; contains cytochrome b/b6 and cytochrome c1.
2001-08-06 GO:0015008 ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase complex (sensu Eukaryota) Added DEFINITION An enzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol by two molecules ferricytochrome c to form ubiquinone and two molecules of ferrocytochrome c; contains cytochrome b/b6 and cytochrome c1.
2001-08-06 GO:0004839 ubiquitin activating enzyme activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that attaches itself to ubiquitin in an ATP-dependent reaction to form a high-energy thiolester bond.
2001-08-06 GO:0004840 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that receives ubiquitin from E1 (ubiquitin activating enzyme) in a transthiolation reaction; may function alone or in conjunction with E3 (ubiquitin--protein ligase) to link ubiquitin to lysine residues on a target protein.
2001-08-06 GO:0008581 ubiquitin-specific protease 5 activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that hydolyzes the Gly76-Lys48 isopeptide bond of polyubiquitin. Member of the C19 family of cysteine peptidases.
2001-08-06 GO:0000151 ubiquitin ligase complex Added DEFINITION A protein complex that includes a ubiquitin--protein ligase (E3) and other proteins that may confer substrate specificity on the complex.
2001-08-06 GO:0004221 ubiquitin thiolesterase activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that acts on esters formed between thiols and the C-terminal glycine residue of the polypeptide ubiquitin. Also acts on AMP-ubiquitin.
2001-08-06 GO:0004842 ubiquitin-protein transferase activity Added DEFINITION An enzyme that mediates substrate recognition in ubiquitin-mediate protein degradation; binds directly to the substrate and its cognate E2 (ubiquitin conjugating enzyme). Many E3s are single proteins but there is evidence that suggests multiprotein E3 complexes are prevalent.
2001-08-06 GO:0004843 ubiquitin-specific protease activity Added DEFINITION Enzymes belonging to the C19 family of cysteine peptidases. Involved in the processing of various forms of polymeric ubiquitin and/or ubiquitin-like sequences. Will remove ubiquitin from larger leaving groups.
2001-08-06 GO:0008577 ubiquitinyl hydrolase 1 Added DEFINITION An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an ester or amide bond involving the C-terminal Gly-76 of ubiquitin. Strong preference for small leaving groups of less than 60 amino acids. Family C12 of the cysteine peptidases.
2001-08-06 GO:0016461 unconventional myosin complex Added DEFINITION A portmanteau term for myosins other than myosin II.
2001-08-06 GO:0015292 uniporter activity Added DEFINITION Catalyze the transport of a single molecular species across a membrane; transport is independent of the movement of any other molecular species.
2001-08-06 GO:0000050 urea cycle Added DEFINITION A cyclic metabolic pathway that converts waste nitrogen, in the form of ammonium to urea.
2001-08-06 GO:0015065 uridine nucleotide receptor activity Added DEFINITION G-protein coupled receptor for UTP and UDP; may mediate its action via the activation of a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
2001-08-06 GO:0017131 uridine-rich cytoplasmic polyadenylylation element binding Added DEFINITION Binding a U-rich sequence in the 3'-end of mRNAs; required for cytoplasmic polyadenylation.
2001-08-06 GO:0009411 response to UV Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, changes in gene expression etc) as a result of the perception of a photon of UV light.
2001-08-06 GO:0015064 UV-sensitive opsin Added DEFINITION See: opsin; Pigments with maximal absorption below 400nm.
2001-08-06 GO:0030050 vesicle transport along actin filament Added DEFINITION Movement of a vesicle along an actin filament, mediated by motor proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0008576 vesicle-fusing ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of ATP by an AAA-ATPase, involved in the heterotypic fusion of membrane vesicles with target membranes and the homotypic fusion of various membrane compartments.
2001-08-06 GO:0016032 viral process Added DEFINITION A set of processes by which a virus reproduces. Usually, this is by infection of a host cell, replication of the viral genome, and assembly of progeny virus particles. In some cases the viral genetic material may integrate into the host's genome and only subsequently, under particular circumstances, "complete" its life cycle; see lytic viral life cycle (GO:0030068) and lysogeny (GO:0030069).
2001-08-06 GO:0007601 visual perception Added DEFINITION The processing of signals, which result from perception of light, into the form of an image.
2001-08-06 GO:0015420 cobalamin-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of cobalamin derivatives by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0001518 voltage-gated sodium channel complex Added DEFINITION A sodium channel in a cell membrane whose opening is goverened by the membrane potential
2001-08-06 GO:0016122 xanthophyll metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of xanthophylls, i.e. oxygen-containing carotenoids.
2001-08-06 GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of a xenobiotic compound, i.e. a compound foreign to living organisms. Used of chemical compounds, e.g. a xenobiotic chemical, such as a pesticide.
2001-08-06 GO:0008559 xenobiotic-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The export of drugs from cells by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process. Show unusual specificity, covering various groups of unrelated substances, while ignoring some that are closely related structurally. Several distinct enzymes may be present in a single eukaryotic cell. Many of them transport glutathione conjugates with drugs. Some also show some 'flippase' (magnesium-ATPase, GO:0004012) activity.
2001-08-06 GO:0005999 xylulose biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of xylulose: the ketopentose, threo-2-pentulose.
2001-08-06 GO:0005998 xylulose catabolic process Added DEFINITION Catabolism of xylulose: the ketopentose, threo-2-pentulose.
2001-08-06 GO:0005997 xylulose metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of xylulose: the ketopentose, threo-2-pentulose.
2001-08-06 GO:0003754 chaperone activity Added DEFINITION Any of a functional class of unrelated families of proteins that assist the correct non-covalent assembly of other polypeptide-containing structures in vivo, but are not components of these assembled structures when they a performing their normal biological function.
2001-08-06 GO:0003763 chaperonin ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of ATP involved in maintaining an unfolded polypeptide structure before folding or to entry into mitochondria and chloroplasts.
2001-08-06 GO:0016465 chaperonin ATPase complex Added DEFINITION Multisubunit protein complex with 2x7 (Type I, in most cells) or 2x8 (Type II, in Archaea) ATP-binding sites involved in maintaining an unfolded polypeptide structure before folding or to entry into mitochondria and chloroplasts.
2001-08-06 GO:0007022 chaperonin-mediated tubulin folding Added DEFINITION Partial folding of alpha- or beta-tubulin into a non-native folding intermediate, mediated by cytosolic chaperonin CCT.
2001-08-06 GO:0008009 chemokine activity Added DEFINITION The function of a family of pro-inflammatory activation-inducible cytokines (GO:0005125) that are mainly chemotactic for different cell types; have molecular masses of 8-10 kDa; share common tertiary structures; all chemokines possess a number of conserved cysteine residues involved in intramolecular disulfide bond formation.
2001-08-06 GO:0005631 chitosan layer of spore wall Added DEFINITION The second outermost layer of the spore wall, as described in Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0008555 chloride-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. An animal and plant enzyme involved in the import of chloride anions.
2001-08-06 GO:0030065 chlorite dismutase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the reaction ClO2(-) --> Cl(-) + O2.
2001-08-06 GO:0009507 chloroplast Added DEFINITION A chlorophyll-containing plastid with thylakoids organized into grana and frets, or stroma thylakoids, and embedded in a stroma.
2001-08-06 GO:0009544 chloroplast ATP synthase complex Added DEFINITION The enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in chloroplasts.
2001-08-06 GO:0016464 chloroplast protein-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The transport of proteins by a non-phosphorylated, non-ABC (ATP-binding cassette) ATPase, into the chloroplast stroma.
2001-08-06 GO:0009570 chloroplast stroma Added DEFINITION The space enclosed by the double membrane of a chloroplast but excluding the thylakoid space. It contains DNA, ribosomes and some temporary products of photosynthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0009533 chloroplast stromal thylakoid Added DEFINITION Unstacked thylakoids that connect the grana stacks through the stroma.
2001-08-06 GO:0006342 chromatin silencing Added DEFINITION Repression of transcription by conversion of large regions of DNA into an inaccessible state often called heterochromatin.
2001-08-06 GO:0016340 calcium-dependent cell-matrix adhesion Added DEFINITION The binding of a cell to the extracellular matrix via adhesion molecules that require the presence of calcium for the interaction.
2001-08-06 GO:0016338 calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell-adhesion molecules Added DEFINITION The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules that do not require the presence of calcium for the interaction.
2001-08-06 GO:0007161 calcium-independent cell-matrix adhesion Added DEFINITION The binding of a cell to the extracellular matrix via adhesion molecules that do not require the presence of calcium for the interaction.
2001-08-06 GO:0005388 calcium-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. This enzyme family comprises three types of calcium ion-transporting enzymes that are found in the plasma membrane, the sarcoplasmic reticulum and in yeast. The first and third transport one ion per ATP hydrolysed, whereas the second transports two ions.
2001-08-06 GO:0005694 chromosome Added DEFINITION A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g. histones) that carries hereditary information.
2001-08-06 GO:0000068 chromosome condensation Added DEFINITION The progressive compaction of dispersed interphase chromatin into threadlike chromosomes prior to mitotic or meiotic nuclear division in eukaryotic cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0007059 chromosome segregation Added DEFINITION The separation of chromosomes into daughter cells during cell division.
2001-08-06 GO:0001539 cilium or flagellum-dependent cell motility Added DEFINITION locomotion due to movement of cilia or flagella
2001-08-06 GO:0005929 cilium Added DEFINITION A specialized eukaryotic locomotor organelle that consists of a filiform extrusion of the cell surface. Each cilium is bounded by an extrusion of the cytoplsmic membrane, and contains a regular longitudinal array of microtubules, anchored basally in a centriole.
2001-08-06 GO:0009800 cinnamic acid biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION the biosynthesis of trans-cinammic acids, formed by the deamination of L-phenylalanine by phenylalanine ammonia lyase or hydroxycinammic acid from L-tyrosine demaination by tyrosine ammonia lyase.
2001-08-06 GO:0009802 cinnamic acid ester biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION biosynthesis of ester derivatives of cinnamic acid.
2001-08-06 GO:0009801 cinnamic acid ester metabolic process Added DEFINITION metabolism of ester derivatives of cinnamic acids.
2001-08-06 GO:0009803 cinnamic acid metabolic process Added DEFINITION the metabolism of cinnamic acids, a class of compounds derived from deamination, hydroxylation and methylation of L-tyrosine or L-phenylalanine
2001-08-06 GO:0016190 clathrin coat Added DEFINITION The coat of coated vesicles, coated pits and synaptic vesicles, a polyhedral lattice of subunits; each subunit, or clathrin triskelion, consists of three clathrin heavy chains and three clathrin light chains.
2001-08-06 GO:0006923 cleavage of cytoskeletal proteins involved in execution phase of apoptosis Added DEFINITION Cleavage of any of the various filamentous elements that make up the cytoskeleton that is characteristic of apoptosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0006922 cleavage of lamin involved in execution phase of apoptosis Added DEFINITION Cleavage of the intermediate filament proteins, lamins A, B and C, which form the fibrous matrix on the inner surface of the nuclear envelope, that is characteristic of apoptosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0015937 coenzyme A biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of coenzyme A: 3'-phosphoadenosine-(5')diphospho(4')pantatheine; an acyl carrier in many acylation and acyl-transfer reactions in which the intermediate is a thiol ester.
2001-08-06 GO:0000088 mitotic prophase Added DEFINITION The initial stage of mitosis in which the chromosomes are condensed but are not yet attached to a mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007052 mitotic spindle organization Added DEFINITION The formation and maintenance of the mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0000022 mitotic spindle elongation Added DEFINITION Lengthening of the distance between poles of the mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0003674 molecular_function Added DEFINITION The action characteristic of a gene product.
2001-08-06 GO:0015412 molybdate transmembrane-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of molybdate anions by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0006777 Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The synthesis of the molybdopterin cofactor (Moco), essential for the catalytic activity of some enzymes, e.g. sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase. The cofactor consists of a mononuclear molybdenum coordinated by the dithiolene moiety of a family of tricyclic pyrano-pterins containing a cis-dithiolene group in their pyran ring. Enzymes containing a pyranopterin cofactor and either Mo or W are found in all phyla and some of these catalyze important transformations in the global carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycle. These reactions generally involve redox chemistry at the active site with the metal cycling between the +IV and +VI oxidation states. Biosynthesis of the Mo/W-cofactor is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and genes involved in Moco biosynthesis have been identified in eubacteria, archaea and eukaryotes.
2001-08-06 GO:0015407 monosaccharide-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of ribose, xylose, arabinose, galactose and methylgalactoside by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0016098 monoterpenoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of monoterpenoid compounds, i.e. terpenoids with 10 isoprenoid units.
2001-08-06 GO:0006381 mRNA editing Added DEFINITION The insertion, deletion or substitution of nucleotides within nascent RNA transcripts to produce RNA molecules with sequences that differ from those coded genetically.
2001-08-06 GO:0006406 mRNA export from nucleus Added DEFINITION The export of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0016448 mu DNA polymerase activity Added DEFINITION A DNA-directed DNA polymerase that may be specific to lymphoid cells and play a role in the somatic hypermutation of antibody genes.
2001-08-06 GO:0030063 murein sacculus Added DEFINITION A structure formed of the cross-linked polymer peptidoglycan (also called murein) that forms a covalently closed net around a bacterial cell, and imparts structural stability to the bacterial cell wall.
2001-08-06 GO:0008558 guanine-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of guanine and tryptophan by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of a single ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0005825 half bridge of spindle pole body Added DEFINITION Structure adjacent to the plaques of the spindle pole body.
2001-08-06 GO:0003773 heat shock protein activity Added DEFINITION Any of a group of specific proteins that are synthesized by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells after they have been exposed to a temperature that is higher than normal. Other stresses, e.g. free radical damage, have a similar effect. Many members of the hsp family are not induced but are present in all cells. They are characterized by their role as molecular chaperones.
2001-08-06 GO:0005505 heavy metal binding Added DEFINITION The binding, by a gene product, of a heavy metal, i.e. a metal that can form a coordination bond with a protein, as opposed to an alkali or alkaline-earth metal that can only form an ionic bond; this definition includes the following biologically relevant heavy metals: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, W, Zn
2001-08-06 GO:0030006 heavy cellular metal ion homeostasis Added DEFINITION Regulation of the levels, transport, and metabolism of ions of a heavy metal, i.e. a metal that can form a coordination bond with a protein, as opposed to an alkali or alkaline-earth metal that can only form an ionic bond; this definition includes the following biologically relevant heavy metals: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, W, Zn
2001-08-06 GO:0006823 heavy metal ion transport Added DEFINITION The transport of ions of a heavy metal, i.e. a metal that can form a coordination bond with a protein, as opposed to an alkali or alkaline-earth metal that can only form an ionic bond; this definition includes the following biologically relevant heavy metals: Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, V, W, Zn
2001-08-06 GO:0015002 heme-copper terminal oxidase activity Added DEFINITION A multisubunit transmembrane protein catalyzing the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water, coupled to generation of a proton electrochemical gradient across the membranes in which it is embedded.
2001-08-06 GO:0015439 heme-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The export of heme from Gram-negative bacteria by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0030056 hemidesmosome Added DEFINITION Point of contact between the basal surface of epithelial cells and the basal lamina. Morphologically resembles desmosomes; attached to intermediate filaments.
2001-08-06 GO:0007157 heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules Added DEFINITION The attachment of an adhesion molecule in one cell to a non-identical adhesion molecule in an adjacent cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0005834 heterotrimeric G-protein complex Added DEFINITION Any of a family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding and hydrolising proteins; they belong to a superfamily of GTPases that includes monomeric proteins such as EF-Tu and Ras. Heterotrimeric G-proteins consist of three subunits; the alpha subunit contains the guanine nucleotide binding site and possesses GTPase activity; the beta and gamma subunits are tightly associated and function as a beta-gamma heterodimer.
2001-08-06 GO:0003927 heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase activity Added DEFINITION GTP-hydrolysing enzymes, where GTP and GDP alternate in binding. Includes stimulatory and imhibitory G-proteins such as Gs, Gi, Go and Golf, targetting adenylate cyclase and/or potassium ion and calcium ion channels; Gq stimulating phospholipase C; transducin activating cGMP phosphodiesterase; gustducin activating cAMP phosphodiesterase.
2001-08-06 GO:0000263 heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase, alpha-subunit Added DEFINITION Subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase that contains the guanine nucleotide binding site and possesses GTPase activity.
2001-08-06 GO:0000264 heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase, beta-subunit Added DEFINITION Subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase; associates tightly with the gamma subunit.
2001-08-06 GO:0000265 heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase, gamma-subunit Added DEFINITION Smallest subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein GTPase; associates tightly with the beta subunit.
2001-08-06 GO:0009679 hexose:proton symporter activity Added DEFINITION Transporter that catalyzes the transport of hexoses and hydrogen in the same direction across a membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0009675 high-affinity sulfate:proton symporter activity Added DEFINITION Transporter with a high affinity for phosphate, that mediates the active uptake of sulfate from areas of low sulfate concentration to high sulfate concentration.
2001-08-06 GO:0007559 histolysis Added DEFINITION The breakdown of tissues; usually, if not always, accompanied by cell death.
2001-08-06 GO:0016232 HNK-1 sulfotransferase activity Added DEFINITION A sulfotransferase that catalyses the synthesis of the HKK-1 carbohydrate epitope; adds a sulfate group to a precursor, GlcAbeta1-->3Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->R, forming sulfo-->3GlcAbeta1-->3Galbeta1-->4GlcNAcbeta1-->R.
2001-08-06 GO:0015176 holin Added DEFINITION Primary function of holins appears to be transport of murein hydrolases across the cytoplasmic membrane to the cell wall of bacteria, where these enzymes hydrolyze the cell wall polymer as a prelude to cell lysis. When chromosomally encoded, these enzymes are therefore autolysins. Holins may also facilitate leakage of electrolytes and nutrients from the cell cytoplasm, thereby promoting cell death. Some catalyze export of nucleases.
2001-08-06 GO:0007156 homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules Added DEFINITION The attachment of an adhesion molecule in one cell to an identical molecule in an adjacent cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0006959 humoral immune response Added DEFINITION An immune response mediated through a body fluid.
2001-08-06 GO:0016064 immunoglobulin mediated immune response Added DEFINITION The specific immune response mediated by antibodies.
2001-08-06 GO:0008553 hydrogen-exporting ATPase activity, phosphorylative mechanism Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. This enzyme occurs in protozoa, fungi and plants, and generates an electrochemical potential gradient of protons across the plasma membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0009678 hydrogen-translocating pyrophosphatase activity Added DEFINITION Transporter that pumps hydrogen, generating a proton motive force upon hydrolysis of pyrophosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0005754 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, catalytic core Added DEFINITION The hexamer that possesses the catalytic activity of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase.
2001-08-06 GO:0005756 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, central stalk Added DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the membrane-associated F0 proteins; rotates within the catalytic core during catalysis.
2001-08-06 GO:0000274 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase, stator stalk Added DEFINITION One of two stalks that connect the catalytic core of the hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase to the membrane-associated F0 proteins; is thought to prevent futile rotation of the catalytic core.
2001-08-06 GO:0016313 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate phosphatase Added DEFINITION The removal of one of the phosphate groups from an inositol triphosphate to produce an inositol bisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0016316 phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate 4-phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-4 position of D-myo-inositol 3,4-bisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0030049 muscle filament sliding Added DEFINITION The sliding of actin thin filaments and myosin thick filaments past each other in muscle contraction.
2001-08-06 GO:0005863 striated muscle myosin thick filament Added DEFINITION Filaments formed of polymers of a muscle-specific myosin II isoform, found in the middle of sarcomeres in myofibrils.
2001-08-06 GO:0005865 striated muscle thin filament Added DEFINITION Filaments formed of actin and associated proteins; attached to Z discs at either end of sarcomeres in myofibrils.
2001-08-06 GO:0005862 muscle thin filament tropomyosin Added DEFINITION An isoform of tropomyosin found associated with actin and the troponin complex in muscle thin filaments.
2001-08-06 GO:0006021 inositol biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of myo-inositol: 1,2,3,4,5/4,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
2001-08-06 GO:0000091 mitotic anaphase A Added DEFINITION Part of mitotic anaphase in which the kinetochore microtubules shorten as chromosomes move toward the spindle poles.
2001-08-06 GO:0000092 mitotic anaphase B Added DEFINITION Part of mitotic anaphase in which the polar microtubules elongate and the two poles of the spindle move farther apart.
2001-08-06 GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle Added DEFINITION The most common eukaryotic cell cycle, in which a cell is duplicated without changing ploidy; comprises four successive phases called G1, S, G2, and M.
2001-08-06 GO:0007076 mitotic chromosome condensation Added DEFINITION Compaction of chromatin structure prior to mitosis in eukaryotic cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0008570 myosin ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of ATP by myosin that provides the energy for actomyosin contraction.
2001-08-06 GO:0016460 myosin II complex Added DEFINITION Classical myosin, including the major muscle myosin of vertebrate and invertebrate muscle; consists of two myosin heavy chains, two myosin essential light chains and two myosin regulatory light chains.
2001-08-06 GO:0001517 N-acetylglucosamine 6-O-sulfotransferase activity Added DEFINITION One of several enzymes that transfer sulfur to the 6-position of N-acetylglucosamine using 3'-phosphoadenyl sulfate as a donor.
2001-08-06 GO:0000225 N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol deacetylase activity Added DEFINITION The second step enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), used to anchor various eukaryotic proteins to the cell-surface membrane. Catalyzes the de-N-acetylation of GlcNAc-PI to GlcN-PI.
2001-08-06 GO:0016258 N-glycan diversification Added DEFINITION The generation, in the Golgi apparatus, of side chain diversity from high mannose Man<sub>5</sub>GlcNAc<sub>2</sub>-Asn N-glycans by specific glycosyltransferases and glycosidases.
2001-08-06 GO:0006491 N-glycan processing Added DEFINITION The removal of three glucose residues from a protein-linked oligosaccharide precursor by glucosidases; calnexin acts as the chaperone to ensure the proper folding of the N-glycan in the ER.
2001-08-06 GO:0016256 N-glycan processing to lysosome Added DEFINITION The modification of high-mannose N-glycans by UDP-N- acetylglucosamine--lysosomal-enzyme N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase and the subsequent removal of of the N-acetylglucosamine residues yielding mannose-6-P that occurs in the ER/Golgi apparatus to N-glycans destined for the lysosome.
2001-08-06 GO:0016257 N-glycan processing to secreted and cell-surface N-glycans Added DEFINITION The modification of high-mannose (Man<sub>9</sub-Asn) N-glycans by mannosyl-oligosaccharide 1,2-alpha-mannosidase. This may result in Man<sub>8</sub>GlcNAc<sub>2</sub>-Asn N-glycans (which in yeast may be subsequently modified by the addition of further mannose residues) or Man<sub>5</sub>GlcNAc<sub>2</sub>-Asn N-glycans that are substrates for further diversification in the Golgi apparatus.
2001-08-06 GO:0006487 protein N-linked glycosylation Added DEFINITION The addition of oligosaccharides to nascent polypeptide chains via asparagine residues in the context of Asn-X-Ser (or Thr), forming N-glycans. The oligosaccharide is preassembled as a dolichol oligosaccharide precursor that is transferred en bloc to the polypeptide chain. Occurs in the ER.
2001-08-06 GO:0005861 troponin complex Added DEFINITION A complex of accessory proteins (typically troponin T, troponin I and troponin C) found associated with actin in muscle thin filaments; involved in calcium regulation of muscle contraction.
2001-08-06 GO:0000162 tryptophan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of tryptophan: the chiral amino acid beta-3-indolylalanine.
2001-08-06 GO:0006569 tryptophan catabolic process Added DEFINITION Catabolism of tryptophan: the chiral amino acid beta-3-indolylalanine.
2001-08-06 GO:0006568 tryptophan metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of tryptophan: the chiral amino acid beta-3-indolylalanine.
2001-08-06 GO:0009534 chloroplast thylakoid Added DEFINITION Saclike membranous structures (cisternae) in a chloroplast combined into stacks (grana) and present singly in the stroma (stroma thylakoids or frets) as interconnections between grana.
2001-08-06 GO:0009543 chloroplast thylakoid lumen Added DEFINITION A cavity enclosed within the plant thylakoid membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0009535 chloroplast thylakoid membrane Added DEFINITION A pigmented membrane component of a plant thylakoid.
2001-08-06 GO:0005923 tight junction Added DEFINITION A belt-like region of very close contact between the plasma membranes of adjacent cells so that the intercellular space is completely occluded. They occur in epithelia and brain endothelia.
2001-08-06 GO:0009404 toxin metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of a toxin, i.e. a poisonous compound (typically a protein) that is produced by cells or organisms and that can cause disease when introduced into the body or tissues of an organism.
2001-08-06 GO:0008483 transaminase activity Added DEFINITION Any enzyme of sub-class EC 2.6.1 that catalyses the reversible transfer of a nitrogenous group, usually an amino agroup, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxo acid. Pyridoxal phosphate is a coenzyme.
2001-08-06 GO:0003713 transcription coactivator activity Added DEFINITION The function of a transcription co-factor that activates transcription from a RNA polymerase II promoter; does not bind DNA itself.
2001-08-06 GO:0003712 transcription cofactor activity Added DEFINITION The function of a protein that links a sequence-specific transcription factor to the core RNA polymerase II complex; does not bind DNA itself.
2001-08-06 GO:0003714 transcription corepressor activity Added DEFINITION The function of a transcription co-factor that represses transcription from a RNA polymerase II promoter; does not bind DNA itself.
2001-08-06 GO:0003700 sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity Added DEFINITION Any protein required to initiate or regulate transcription; includes both gene regulatory proteins as well as the general transcription factors.
2001-08-06 GO:0000126 transcription factor TFIIIB complex Added DEFINITION A transcription factor for eukaryotic RNA polymerase III promoters that is an RNA polymerase binding protein.
2001-08-06 GO:0000127 transcription factor TFIIIC complex Added DEFINITION A heterotrimeric transcription factor for eukaryotic RNA polymerase III promoters.
2001-08-06 GO:0003746 translation elongation factor activity Added DEFINITION any member of a group of soluble proteins required for chain elongation during polypeptide synthesis at the ribosome.
2001-08-06 GO:0003743 translation initiation factor activity Added DEFINITION any of a group of soluble proteins functioning in the initiation of ribosome-mediated translation of mRNA into a polypeptide.
2001-08-06 GO:0003747 translation release factor activity Added DEFINITION A protein that participates in the release of a nascent polypeptide chain from a ribosome.
2001-08-06 GO:0016150 translation release factor activity, codon nonspecific Added DEFINITION A translation release factor that is not specific to particular codons; binds to guanine nucleotides.
2001-08-06 GO:0016149 translation release factor activity, codon specific Added DEFINITION A translation release factor that is specific for one or more particular termination codons; acts at the ribosomal-A site and require polypeptidyl-tRNA at the P-site.
2001-08-06 GO:0008079 translation termination factor activity Added DEFINITION A protein that participates in the termination of translation.
2001-08-06 GO:0005784 Sec61 translocon complex Added DEFINITION A translocation complex that constitutes the specific site of protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum; involves the signal recognition particle receptor. Composed of of a heterotetramer of &agr; &bgr; &ggr; and &dgr; subunits (translocon-associated proteins (aka TRAP).
2001-08-06 GO:0006810 transport Added DEFINITION Directed movement of substances (such as macromolecules, small molecules, ions) into, out of, or within a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0030008 TRAPP complex Added DEFINITION a large complex present on the cis-Golgi that acts prior to SNARE complex assembly to mediate vesicle docking and fusion
2001-08-06 GO:0009670 triose-phosphate:phosphate antiporter activity Added DEFINITION Transporter that mediates exchange of an organic three carbon compound phosphate ester for inorganic phosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0006722 triterpenoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of triterpenoid compounds, i.e. terpenoids with 30 isoprenoid units.
2001-08-06 GO:0000215 tRNA 2'-phosphotransferase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that transfers the splice junction 2-phosphate from ligated tRNA to NAD to produce ADP-ribose 1"-2" cyclic phosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity Added DEFINITION any enzyme of the subclasss EC 6.6.1 catalyzing the formation of aminoacyl-tRNA from ATP, amino acid, and tRNA with the release of pyrophosphate and AMP.
2001-08-06 GO:0006400 tRNA modification Added DEFINITION The enzymatic modification of the chemical structure of specific sites in tRNA.
2001-08-06 GO:0016227 tRNA sulfurtransferase activity Added DEFINITION A group of enzymes transferring sulfur to various nucleotides in tRNA chain, producing residues such as 4-thiouridylate; with some enzymes mercaptopyruvate can act as sulfur donor.
2001-08-06 GO:0000214 tRNA-intron endonuclease complex Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pre-tRNA, producing 5'-hydroxyl and 2',3'-cyclic phosphate termini, and specifically removing the intron.
2001-08-06 GO:0000213 tRNA-intron endonuclease activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pre-tRNA, producing 5'-hydroxyl and 2',3'-cyclic phosphate termini, and specifically removing the intron.
2001-08-06 GO:0006409 tRNA export from nucleus Added DEFINITION The export of tRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
2001-08-06 GO:0016520 growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor activity Added DEFINITION An integral membrane protein receptor for growth hormone-releasing hormone; a G-protein coupled receptor linked to G-proteins that activate adenylate cyclase.
2001-08-06 GO:0003924 GTPase activity Added DEFINITION Any enzymic activity that hydrolyzes GTP to GDP and orthophosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0008150 biological_process Added DEFINITION A phenomenon marked by changes that lead to a particular result, mediated by one or more gene products.
2001-08-06 GO:0009058 biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION The energy-requiring part of metabolism in which simpler substances are transformed into more complex ones, as in growth and other biosynthetic processes.
2001-08-06 GO:0000282 cellular bud site selection Added DEFINITION The specification of the site where a daughter cell will form, in organisms that reproduce by budding.
2001-08-06 GO:0000251 C-14 sterol reductase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that reduces the C14=C15 double bond of 4,4-dimethyl-cholesta-8,14,24-trienol to produce 4,4-dimethyl-cholesta-8,24-dienol.
2001-08-06 GO:0000249 C-22 sterol desaturase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme required to form the C-22(23) double bond in the sterol side chain.
2001-08-06 GO:0000252 C-3 sterol dehydrogenase (C-4 sterol decarboxylase) activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the 3-alpha hydrogen from the 3-ketocarboxylic acid sterol intermediate, resulting in the decarboxylation of the 3-ketocarboxylic acid: acts in the removal of the two C-4 methyl groups of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol in ergosterol biosynthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0000254 C-4 methylsterol oxidase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the 4-alpha methyl group of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol, the first step in the removal of the two C-4 methyl groups of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol in ergosterol biosynthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0000248 C-5 sterol desaturase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the introduction of a C-5 double bond in the B ring of ergosterol.
2001-08-06 GO:0000247 C-8 sterol isomerase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the reaction which results in unsaturation at C-7 in the B ring of sterols.
2001-08-06 GO:0001538 cadherin Added DEFINITION a calcium-dependent cell adhesion protein (type I membrane protein) that interacts in a homophilic manner in cell-cell interactions.
2001-08-06 GO:0008551 cadmium-exporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. This enzyme occurs in protozoa, fungi and plants and exports cadmium ions from cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0015434 cadmium-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION An ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that exports some heavy metals, especially cadmium, from the cytosol into the vacuole; does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0015030 Cajal body Added DEFINITION A class of nuclear body, first seen after silver staining by Cajal in 1903, enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, and certain general RNA polymerase II transcription factors; ultrastructurally, they appear as a tangle of coiled, electron-dense threads roughly 0.5 ?m in diameter; involved in aspects of snRNP biogenesis; the protein coilin serves as a marker for Cajal bodies. Gall argues that Cajal bodies are the sites for preassembly of transcriptosomes, unitary particles involved in transcription and processing of RNA.
2001-08-06 GO:0005955 calcineurin complex Added DEFINITION A heterodimeric calcium ion/calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase composed of catalytic and regulatory subunits; the regulatory subunit is very similar in sequence to calmodulin.
2001-08-06 GO:0016339 calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules Added DEFINITION The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules that require the presence of calcium for the interaction.
2001-08-06 GO:0016027 inaD signaling complex Added DEFINITION A complex of proteins that are involved in phototransduction and attached to the TRP channel. The protein connections are mediated through inaD.
2001-08-06 GO:0016234 inclusion body Added DEFINITION Intracellular foci at which aggregated proteins have been sequestered.
2001-08-06 GO:0009684 indoleacetic acid biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid ; a compound which functions as a growth regulator in plants.
2001-08-06 GO:0009683 indoleacetic acid metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid; a compound which functions as a growth regulator in plants.
2001-08-06 GO:0005432 calcium:sodium antiporter activity Added DEFINITION Rapid transport of calcium ions during excitation-contraction coupling; calcium ions are extruded from the cell during relaxation, so as to prevent overloading of intracellular calcium stores.
2001-08-06 GO:0015436 capsular-polysaccharide-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The export of capsular polysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0016119 carotene metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of carotenes, i.e. hydrocarbon carotenoids.
2001-08-06 GO:0016116 carotenoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of carotenoids, i.e. tetraterpenoid compounds in which two units of 4 isoprenoid residues joined head-to-tail are themselves joined tail-to-tail.
2001-08-06 GO:0004199 caspase activity Added DEFINITION A cytosolic endopeptidase function with specificity for the hydrolysis of aspartyl bonds (C14 family of clan CD). The 'c' reflects the cysteine protease mechansism, the 'aspase' the ability to cleave after aspartic acid.
2001-08-06 GO:0006919 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process Added DEFINITION Activation of the proteolytic activity of members of the caspase family of enzymes.
2001-08-06 GO:0004201 caspase-1 activity Added DEFINITION The release of interleukin 1-beta by specific cleavage of 116-Asp-|-Ala-117 and 27-Asp-|-Gly-28 bonds in precursor. Enzymes with this function can also hydrolyse the small-molecule substrate, Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-|-NHMe and are members of the peptidase family C14.
2001-08-06 GO:0004208 caspase-3 activity Added DEFINITION The cleavage of substrates at the motif: Asp-Xaa-Xaa-Asp-|-Xaa. Enzymes with this function are members of the peptidase family C14 and they appear to function in the inactivation of proteins involved in cellular repair and homeostasis during the effector stage of apoptosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0009056 catabolic process Added DEFINITION Any metabolic process involving the breakdown of complex substances into smaller products, including the breakdown of carbon compounds with the liberation of energy for use by the cell or organism.
2001-08-06 GO:0016342 catenin complex Added DEFINITION Complex of peripheral cytoplasmic proteins (&agr;-, &bgr;- and &ggr;- catenin) that interact with the cytoplasmic region of uvomorulin/E-cadherin to connect it to the actin cytoskeleton.
2001-08-06 GO:0016602 CCAAT-binding factor complex Added DEFINITION A heteromeric transcription factor complex that binds to the CCAAT-box upstream of promoters; in Saccharomyces it activates the transcription ofe genes in response to growth in a nonfermentable carbon source; consists of four known subunits: HAP2, HAP3, HAP4 and HAP5.
2001-08-06 GO:0030014 CCR4-NOT complex Added DEFINITION A large multimeric transcription factor complex that can regulate transcrption positively or negatively; consists of a core complex plus additional proteins; may interact with other proteins to control initiation of transcription. In Saccharomyces the core complex comprises Ccr4p, Caf1p, Not1p, Not2p, Not3p, Not4p, and Not5p; Caf4p, Caf16p, and several less well characterized proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0000236 mitotic prometaphase Added DEFINITION The stage in mitosis (in higher eukaryotes), following prophase, during which the nuclear envelope is disrupted and breaks into membrane vesicles, and the spindle microtubules enter the nuclear region. Kinetochores mature on each centromere and attach to some of the spindle microtubules. Kinetochore microtubules begin the process of aligning chromosomes in one plane halfway between the poles.
2001-08-06 GO:0004444 inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 1-phosphatase Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-1 position of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0004445 inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-5 position of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Can also be the removal of the carbon-5 position phosphate group of 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0008104 protein localization Added DEFINITION The process that leads to the specific localization of proteins to regions of cells, excluding that due to targeting to membrane bound subcellular organelles.
2001-08-06 GO:0004721 phosphoprotein phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION Any enzyme that hydrolyzes phosphate groups from proteins. Together with protein kinases, these enzymes control the state of phosphorylation of cell proteins and thereby provide an important mechanism for regulating cellular activity.
2001-08-06 GO:0000164 protein phosphatase type 1 complex Added DEFINITION An ATP, Mg2+-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase (AMD phosphatase) that consists of a catalytic subunit of 38 kDa and a modulator subunit of 23 kDa, which is subject to phosphorylation, thus activating the phosphatase.
2001-08-06 GO:0000163 protein phosphatase type 1 activity Added DEFINITION An ATP, Mg2+-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase (AMD phosphatase) that consists of a catalytic subunit of 38 kDa and a modulator subunit of 23 kDa, which is subject to phosphorylation, thus activating the phosphatase.
2001-08-06 GO:0000159 protein phosphatase type 2A complex Added DEFINITION A protein serine/threonine phosphatase that is polycation-stimulated (PCS), being directly stimulated by protamine, polylysine, or histone H1; it constitutes a subclass of several enzymes activated by different histones and polylysine.
2001-08-06 GO:0000158 protein phosphatase type 2A activity Added DEFINITION A protein serine/threonine phosphatase that is polycation-stimulated (PCS), being directly stimulated by protamine, polylysine, or histone H1; it constitutes a subclass of several enzymes activated by different histones and polylysine.
2001-08-06 GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation Added DEFINITION The process of introducing a phosphoric group onto a protein.
2001-08-06 GO:0016539 intein-mediated protein splicing Added DEFINITION The removal of an internal amino acid sequence (an intein) from a protein during protein maturation; the excision of inteins is precise and the N- and C-terminal exteins are joined by a normal peptide bond. Protein splicing involves 4 nucleophilic displacements by the 3 conserved splice junction residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0016925 protein sumoylation Added DEFINITION Post-translational modification of a protein by a member of the SUMO protein family; SUMO proteins (small ubuquitin-related modifiers, aka sentrin) are present in all eukaryotic kingdoms and are highly conserved from yeast to humans. They seem to play a role in the nuclear import of protein and eventually serve as address tags for transport to PML bodies.
2001-08-06 GO:0006605 protein targeting Added DEFINITION The process of targeting specific proteins to particular membrane-bound subcellular organelles. Usually requires an organelle specific protein sequence motif.
2001-08-06 GO:0008564 protein-exporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The secretion of proteins by a non-phosphorylated, non-ABC (ATP-binding cassette) ATPase.
2001-08-06 GO:0008547 protein-synthesizing GTPase activity Added DEFINITION A GTPase involved in protein synthesis. In the initiation factor complex, it is IF-2b (98 kDa) that binds GTP and subsequently hydrolyses it in prokaryotes. In eukaryotes, it is eIF-2 (150 kDa) that binds GTP. In the elongation phase, the GTP-hydrolysing proteins are the EF-Tu polypeptide of the prokaryotic transfer factor (43 kDa), the eukaryotic elongation factor EF-1a (53 kDa), the prokaryotic EF-G (77 kDa), the eukaryotic EF-2 (70-110 kDa) and the signal recognition particle that play a role in endoplasmic reticulum protein synthesis (325 kDa). EF-Tu and EF1a catalyse binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosomal A-site, while EF-G and EF-2 catalyse the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site. GTPase activity is also involved in polypeptide release from the ribosome with the aid of the pRFs and eRFs.
2001-08-06 GO:0001526 proteoglycan sulfate transfer Added DEFINITION Transfer of sulfate to a proteoglycan (a glycoprotein whose carbohydrate units are glycosaminoglycans) using 3'-phosphoadenyl sulfate
2001-08-06 GO:0005753 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex Added DEFINITION The enzyme that is responsible for the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in mitochondria, during oxidative phosphorylation; it catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and orthophosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0000275 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) Added DEFINITION The catalytic sector of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase; it comprises the catalytic core and central stalk, and is peripherally associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane when the entire ATP synthase is assembled.
2001-08-06 GO:0000276 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, coupling factor F(o) Added DEFINITION All non-F1 subunits of the mitochondrial hydrogen-transporting ATP synthase, including integral and peripheral mitochondrial innner membrane proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0001522 pseudouridine synthesis Added DEFINITION Rotation of the C1'-N-1 glycosidic bond of uridine in RNA to a C1'-C5. This post-transcriptional base modification occurs in tRNA, rRNA, and snRNAs.
2001-08-06 GO:0015418 quaternary-ammonium-compound-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of betaine and glycine by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0001534 radial spoke Added DEFINITION electron dense granules scattered around centrosomes.
2001-08-06 GO:0001536 radial spoke stalk Added DEFINITION globular portion of the radial spoke that projects towards the central pair of microtubles.
2001-08-06 GO:0001535 radial spokehead Added DEFINITION protein complex forming part of eukaryotic flagellar apparatus.
2001-08-06 GO:0017016 Ras GTPase binding Added DEFINITION Interaction with RAS protein, maybe interfering with RAS function; competes with RAF in yeast; effector or regulator of RAS.
2001-08-06 GO:0015477 receptor porin activity Added DEFINITION A porin that of the bacterial outer membrane that forms transmembrane pores and transports relatively large molecules from the external milieu to the periplasm in an energized process. Energization of transport across the outer membrane requires a heterotrimeric complex of proteins, the TonB-ExbB-ExbD complex, or in some cases, the TolA-TolQ-TolR complex. Energization requires the proton motive force (pmf) across the cytoplasmic membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0008359 regulation of bicoid mRNA localization Added DEFINITION The process by which bicoid mRNA is transported to, and maintained in, its correct position in the oocyte.
2001-08-06 GO:0001558 regulation of cell growth Added DEFINITION the process or processes that control the size of a cell
2001-08-06 GO:0030071 regulation of mitotic metaphase/anaphase transition Added DEFINITION Regulation of the onset of anaphase (chromosome movement) in the mitotic cell cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007317 regulation of pole plasm oskar mRNA localization Added DEFINITION The process by which oskar mRNA is transported to, and maintained in, its correct position in the oocyte.
2001-08-06 GO:0016299 regulator of G-protein signaling activity Added DEFINITION Inhibits signal transduction the GTPase activity of G-protein alpha subunits, thereby driving them into their inactibe GDB-bound form.
2001-08-06 GO:0005657 replication fork Added DEFINITION The Y-shaped region of a replicating DNA molecule, resulting from the separation of the DNA strands and in which the synthesis of new strands takes place.
2001-08-06 GO:0008634 negative regulation of survival gene product expression Added DEFINITION The repression, by transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation, of genes that inhibit apoptosis (prosurvival genes).
2001-08-06 GO:0030034 microvillar actin bundle assembly Added DEFINITION Assembly of the parallel bundle of actin filaments at the core of a microvillus.
2001-08-06 GO:0005902 microvillus Added DEFINITION Thin cylindrical membrane-covered projections on the surface of an animal cell containing a core bundle of actin filaments. Present in especially large numbers on the absorptive surface of intestinal cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0030033 microvillus assembly Added DEFINITION Formation of a microvillus, i.e. a thin cylindrical membrane-covered projection on the surface of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0009519 middle lamella Added DEFINITION Layer of intercellular material, chiefly pectic substances, cementing together the primary walls of contiguous cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0008569 minus-end-directed microtubule motor activity Added DEFINITION The hydrolysis of ATP (and GTP) that drives the microtubular motor towards the minus-end of microtubules.
2001-08-06 GO:0000262 mitochondrial chromosome Added DEFINITION A chromosome found in the mitochondrion of a eukaryotic cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0030061 mitochondrial crista Added DEFINITION Any of the inward folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Their number, extent, and shape differ in mitochondria from different tissues and organisms. They appear to be devices for increasing the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the enzymes of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation are found. Their shape can vary with the respiratory state of the mitochondria.
2001-08-06 GO:0016007 mitochondrial derivative Added DEFINITION The major and minor mitochondrial derivatives are the mitochondria of the sperm tail and derive by the unfolding of the Nebenkern during flagellum elongation.
2001-08-06 GO:0005746 mitochondrial respiratory chain Added DEFINITION The protein complexes that form the mitochondrial electron transport system (the respiratory chain). Complexes I, III and IV can, if embedded in an orientated environment (e.g. an intact mitochondrial inner membrane) transport protons.
2001-08-06 GO:0000266 mitochondrial fission Added DEFINITION Splitting of a mitochondrion within a cell to form two or more separate mitochondrial compartments.
2001-08-06 GO:0008053 mitochondrial fusion Added DEFINITION Merging of two or more mitochondria within a cell to form a single compartment.
2001-08-06 GO:0005744 mitochondrial inner membrane presequence translocase complex Added DEFINITION The protein transport machinery of the inner mitochondrial membrane that contains three essential Tim proteins: Tim17 and Tim23 are thought to build a preprotein translocation channel while Tim44 interacts transiently with the matrix heat-shock protein Hsp70 to form an ATP-driven import motor.
2001-08-06 GO:0008566 mitochondrial protein-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The transport of proteins by a non-phosphorylated, non-ABC (ATP-binding cassette) ATPase, into the mitochondrion via the mitochondrial inner membrane translocase complex (GO:0005744).
2001-08-06 GO:0007067 mitotic nuclear division Added DEFINITION The division of the eukaryotic cell nucleus to produce two daughter nuclei that, usually, contain the identical chromosome complement to their mother.
2001-08-06 GO:0000090 mitotic anaphase Added DEFINITION The stage of mitosis during which the two sets of chromosomes separate and move away from each other.
2001-08-06 GO:0007049 cell cycle Added DEFINITION The sequence of events by which a cell and divides in two; comprises, at a minimum, replication and segregation of DNA; during the course of a cell cycle the cell usually also doubles its mass and duplicates all cytoplasmic organelles.
2001-08-06 GO:0000075 cell cycle checkpoint Added DEFINITION A point in the eukaryotic cell cycle where progress through the cycle can be halted until conditions are suitable for the cell to proceed to the next stage.
2001-08-06 GO:0030037 actin filament reorganization involved in cell cycle Added DEFINITION Rearrangement of the spatial distribution of actin filaments and associated proteins that accompanies progression of the cell cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0000267 cell fraction Added DEFINITION A generic term for parts of cells prepared by disruptive biochemical techniques.
2001-08-06 GO:0000070 mitotic sister chromatid segregation Added DEFINITION The separation of replicated chromosomes into daughter cells during mitotic nuclear division.
2001-08-06 GO:0000089 mitotic metaphase Added DEFINITION The stage of mitosis at which chromosomes are firmly attached to the mitotic spindle at its equator but have not yet segregated to opposite poles.
2001-08-06 GO:0007080 mitotic metaphase plate congression Added DEFINITION The alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate, a plane halfway between the poles of the mitotic spindle, during mitosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0007091 metaphase/anaphase transition of mitotic cell cycle Added DEFINITION The onset of anaphase in mitosis, triggered by the destruction of mitotic cyclins.
2001-08-06 GO:0009627 systemic acquired resistance Added DEFINITION The salicylic acid mediated response to a pathogen which confers broad spectrum resistance.
2001-08-06 GO:0015411 taurine-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of taurine by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0030062 mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme complex Added DEFINITION Any of the heteromeric enzymes that act in the TCA cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0015438 teichoic-acid-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The export of teichoic-acid from Gram-negative bacteria by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0009266 response to temperature stimulus Added DEFINITION A change in state or activity of an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, changes in gene expression etc) as a result of the perception of heat.
2001-08-06 GO:0006721 terpenoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of terpenes, i.e. compounds that are multiples of isoprenoid units which may be acyclic, cyclic, multicyclic; saturated or unsaturated and with substitution by various functional groups.
2001-08-06 GO:0016108 tetraterpenoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of tetraterpenoid compounds, i.e. terpenoids with 40 isoprenoid units.
2001-08-06 GO:0000008 thioredoxin Added DEFINITION A small disulfide-containing redox protein that serves as a general protein disulfide oxidoreductase. Interacts with a broad range of proteins by a redox mechanism, based on the reversible oxidation of 2 cysteine thiol groups to a disulfide, accompanied by the transfer of 2 electrons and 2 protons. The net result is the covalent interconversion of a disulfide and a dithiol.
2001-08-06 GO:0004791 thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity Added DEFINITION A flavoprotein catalyzing the reaction: NADPH + oxidised thoredoxin = NADP(+) + reduced thioredoxin.
2001-08-06 GO:0016337 single organismal cell-cell adhesion Added DEFINITION The attachment of one cell to another cell via adhesion molecules.
2001-08-06 GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling Added DEFINITION Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another.
2001-08-06 GO:0007160 cell-matrix adhesion Added DEFINITION The binding of a cell to the extracellular matrix via adhesion molecules.
2001-08-06 GO:0030055 cell-substrate junction Added DEFINITION A specialized region of connection between a cell and the extracellular matrix.
2001-08-06 GO:0005924 cell-substrate adherens junction Added DEFINITION An adherens junction which connects a cell to the extracellular matrix.
2001-08-06 GO:0005575 cellular_component Added DEFINITION The part of a cell of which a gene product is a component; for purpose of GO includes the extracellular environment of cells; a gene product may be a component of one or more parts of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0005823 central plaque of spindle pole body Added DEFINITION One of three laminate structures that form the spindle pole body; the central plaque is embedded in the nucelar envelope.
2001-08-06 GO:0005814 centriole Added DEFINITION A cellular organelle, found close to the nucleus in many eukaryotic cells, consisting of a small cylinder with microtubular walls, 300-500 nm long and 150-250 nm in diameter. It contains nine short, parallel, peripheral microtubular fibrils, each fibril consisting of one complete microtubule fused to two incomplete microtubules. Cells usually have two centrioles, lying at right angles to each other. At division, each pair of centrioles generates another pair and the twin pairs form the pole of the mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007099 centriole replication Added DEFINITION Formation of a daughter centriole perpendicular to an existing centriole. An immature centriole contains a ninefold symmetric array of single microtubules; each microtubules presumably acts as a template for the assembly of the triplet microtubule of mature centrioles.
2001-08-06 GO:0005813 centrosome Added DEFINITION A structure occurring close to the nucleus during interphase in many eukaryotic cells. It comprises a pair of centrioles, satellite bodies, and a cytoplasmic zone from which the mitotic spindle is organized. The structure of the centrosome in animal cells changes continually during the cell-division cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007098 centrosome cycle Added DEFINITION The process of centrosome duplication and separation. The centrosome cycle can operate with a considerable degree of independence from other processes of the cell cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007100 mitotic centrosome separation Added DEFINITION Separation of duplicated centrosome components at the beginning of mitosis. The centriole pair within each centrosome becomes part of a separate microtubule organizing center that nucleates a radial array of microtubules called an aster. The two asters move to opposite sides of the nucleus to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0006672 ceramide metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of ceramide: an N-acylated sphingoid.
2001-08-06 GO:0016057 regulation of membrane potential in photoreceptor cell Added DEFINITION Hyperpolarization (vertebrates) or depolarization (invertebrates) of the photoreceptor cell membrane via closing/opening of cation specific channels as a result of signals generated by rhodopsin activation by a photon.
2001-08-06 GO:0016249 channel localizer activity Added DEFINITION A protein whose function is to locate the position of ion channels in the cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0005260 channel-conductance-controlling ATPase activity Added DEFINITION .
2001-08-06 GO:0001527 microfibril Added DEFINITION Extracellular matrix components occuring independently or along with elastin. Thought to have force-bearing functions in tendon. In addition to fibrillins, microfibrils may contain other associated proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0030028 microspike Added DEFINITION A thin sheetlike process extended by the leading edge of a crawling fibroblast; contains a dense meshwork of actin filaments.
2001-08-06 GO:0030035 microspike assembly Added DEFINITION Formation of a microspike, i.e. a thin, stiff projection extended from the surface of a migrating cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0005874 microtubule Added DEFINITION Any of the long, generally straight, hollow tubes of internal diameter 12-15 nm and external diameter 24 nm found in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells; each consists (usually) of 13 protofilaments of polymeric tubulin, staggered in such a manner that the tubilin monomers are arranged in a helical pattern on the microtubular surface, and with the &agr;/&bgr; axes of the tubulin subunits parallel to the long axis of the tubule; exist in equilibrium with pool of tubulin monomers and can be rapidly assembled or disassembled in response to physiological stimuli; concerned with force generation, e.g. in the spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0000226 microtubule cytoskeleton organization Added DEFINITION The establishment, maintenance, and regulation of cytoskeletal structures comprising microtubules and their associated proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0007019 microtubule depolymerization Added DEFINITION Removal of tubulin heterodimers from one or both ends of a microtubule.
2001-08-06 GO:0007020 microtubule nucleation Added DEFINITION The de novo formation of a microtubule, in which tubulin heterodimers form metastable oligomeric aggregates, some of which go on to support formation of a complete microtubule. Microtubule nucleation usually occurs frm a specific site within a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0005815 microtubule organizing center Added DEFINITION A region in a eukaryotic cell, such as a centrosome or basal body, from which microtubules grow.
2001-08-06 GO:0007026 negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization Added DEFINITION Prevention of depolymerization of a microtubule; can result from binding by 'capping' at the plus end (e.g. by interaction with another cellular protein of structure) or by exposing microtubules to a stabilizing drug such as taxol.
2001-08-06 GO:0007018 microtubule-based movement Added DEFINITION Movement of organelles and other particles along microtubules, mediated by motor proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0007017 microtubule-based process Added DEFINITION Any cellular process that depends upon or alters the microtubule cytoskeleton (that part of the cytoskeleton comprising microtubules and their associated proteins).
2001-08-06 GO:0008568 microtubule-severing ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The splitting of microtubules into tubulin dimers in the centrosome by an AAA-ATPase.
2001-08-06 GO:0008546 microtubule/chromatin interaction Added DEFINITION Physical interaction between microtubules and chromatin via DNA binding proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0008608 attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochore Added DEFINITION Physical interaction between microtubules and chromatin via proteins making up the kinetochore complex.
2001-08-06 GO:0016469 proton-transporting two-sector ATPase complex Added DEFINITION A multisubunit non-phosphorylated ATPase that is involved in the transport of ions. Large enzymes of mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacteria with a membrane sector (Fo, Vo, Ao) and a cytoplasmic-compartment sector (F1, V1, A1). The F-type enzymes of the inner mitochondrial and thylakoid membranes act as ATP synthases. All of the enzymes included here operate in a rotational mode, where the extramembrane sector (containing 3 a- and 3 b-subunits) is connected via the d-subunit to the membrane sector by several smaller subunits. Within this complex, the g- and e-subunits, as well as the 9-12 c subunits rotate by consecutive 120? angles and perform parts of ATP synthesis. This movement is driven by the hydrogen ion electrochemical potential gradient. The V-type (in vacuoles and clathrin-coated vesicles) and A-type (archebacterial) enzymes have a similar structure but, under physiological conditions, they pump hydrogen ion rather than synthesize ATP.
2001-08-06 GO:0008900 hydrogen:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity Added DEFINITION A P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. Catalyses the efflux of one hydrogen ion and the influx of one potassium ion per ATP hydrolysed.
2001-08-06 GO:0004420 hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of hydroxymethyglutaryl-CoA to mevalonate, using NADP+ as a cofactor.
2001-08-06 GO:0004421 hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the formation of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) from acteyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA.
2001-08-06 GO:0009626 plant-type hypersensitive response Added DEFINITION The rapid death of plant cells in response to invasion by a pathogen.
2001-08-06 GO:0008612 peptidyl-lysine modification to peptidyl-hypusine Added DEFINITION The biosynthesis of hypusine (N-epsilon[4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl]lysine], by post-translational modification of a lysine residue of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A.
2001-08-06 GO:0008385 IkappaB kinase complex Added DEFINITION A protein serine/threonine kinase that phosphoryates IkB, thereby targeting this for proteasomal degradation and allowing the nuclear translocation of kB. Composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits, the latter not having kinase activity but presumed to play a regulatory role.
2001-08-06 GO:0008384 IkappaB kinase activity Added DEFINITION A protein serine/threonine kinase that phosphoryates IkB, thereby targeting this for proteasomal degradation and allowing the nuclear translocation of kB. Composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits, the latter not having kinase activity but presumed to play a regulatory role.
2001-08-06 GO:0016068 type I hypersensitivity Added DEFINITION An exaggerated immune response mediated by antibodies occurring within minutes after exposing a sensitized individual to the approximate antigen.
2001-08-06 GO:0006955 immune response Added DEFINITION A defense response triggered by the presence of a foreign body.
2001-08-06 GO:0016489 immunoglobulin receptor activity Added DEFINITION A transmembrane receptor that binds polymeric IgA and IgM at the basolateral surface of epithelial cells; the complex is then transported across the cell to be secreted at the apical surface; during this process the extracellular domain (secretory component) is cleaved from the transmembrane domain.
2001-08-06 GO:0000188 inactivation of MAPK activity Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity.
2001-08-06 GO:0000200 inactivation of MAPK activity involved in cell wall organization or biogenesis Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity in the context of regulating cell wall integrity.
2001-08-06 GO:0000174 inactivation of MAPK (mating sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity in the context of transduction of mating pheromone signal, as described for Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0000173 inactivation of MAPK activity involved in osmosensory signaling pathway Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity in the context of osmolarity sensing.
2001-08-06 GO:0000194 inactivation of MAPK (pseudohyphal growth) Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity in the context of regulating pseudohyphal or invasive growth.
2001-08-06 GO:0000206 inactivation of MAPK during sporulation (sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION Downregulation of MAP kinase activity in the context of sporulation, as described for Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0005876 spindle microtubule Added DEFINITION Any microtubule that is part of a mitotic or meiotic spindle; anchored at one spindle pole.
2001-08-06 GO:0005816 spindle pole body Added DEFINITION The microtubule organizing center in fungi; functionally homologous to the animal cell centrosome.
2001-08-06 GO:0007102 spindle pole body and microtubule cycle (sensu Saccharomyces) Added DEFINITION The dynamics of the spindle pole body and microtubule cytoskeleton during the cell cycle, as described in Saccharomyces. Includes spindle pole body duplication and separation and formation and elongation of the mitotic spindle.
2001-08-06 GO:0007103 spindle pole body duplication associated with nuclear envelope Added DEFINITION Construction of a new spindle pole body adjacent to the existing spindle pole body in the nucelar envelope; usually occurs about the time of bud emergence; as described in Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0009682 induced systemic resistance Added DEFINITION A response to non-pathogenic bacteria that confers broad spectrum sytemic resistance to disease that does not depend upon salicylic acid signalling.
2001-08-06 GO:0006917 induction of apoptosis Added DEFINITION A process which directly activates any of the steps required for cell death by apoptosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0008624 induction of apoptosis by extracellular signals Added DEFINITION The process of interpretation of signals originating from outside of the cell which result in activation of the apoptotic program.
2001-08-06 GO:0008629 induction of apoptosis by intracellular signals Added DEFINITION The process of interpretation of signals originating from inside the cell which result in activation of the apoptotic program.
2001-08-06 GO:0008633 activation of pro-apoptotic gene products Added DEFINITION The transcriptional or post-transcriptional activation of genes that promote apoptosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0006954 inflammatory response Added DEFINITION The immediate defensive reaction (by vertebrate tissue) to infection or injury caused by chemical or physical agents. The process is characterised by local vasodilation, extravasation of plasma into intercellular spaces and accumulation of white blood cells and macrophages.
2001-08-06 GO:0001544 initiation of primordial ovarian follicle growth Added DEFINITION increase in size of primordial follicles including proliferation and shape changes of granulosa and/or theca cells until oocyte is surrounded by one layer of cuboidal shaped granulosa cells (primary follicle)
2001-08-06 GO:0005632 inner layer of spore wall Added DEFINITION Either of the two innermost layers of the spore wall, as described in Saccharomyces.
2001-08-06 GO:0005822 inner plaque of spindle pole body Added DEFINITION One of three laminate structures that form the spindle pole body; the inner plaque is in the nucleus.
2001-08-06 GO:0016312 inositol bisphosphate phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of one of the two phosphate groups of an inositol bisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0016315 inositol-1,3,-bisphosphate 3-phosphatase Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-3 position of D-myo-inositol 1,3-bisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0004446 inositol-hexakisphosphate phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-3 position of D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0004441 inositol-1,4-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION The removal of a phosphate group from the carbon-1 position of D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate. Can also be the removal of the phosphate group from the carbon-1 position of inositol 1,3,4-triphosphate to produce inositol 3,4-bisphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0009669 sucrose:monovalent cation symporter activity Added DEFINITION Transporter that is responsible for sucrose transport across the plasma membrane in an energy-dependent manner.
2001-08-06 GO:0015419 sulfate transmembrane-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of sulfate and thiosulfate anions by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0016532 superoxide dismutase copper chaperone activity Added DEFINITION A copper chaperone specifically delivering copper to the Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (GO:0004785).
2001-08-06 GO:0015293 symporter activity Added DEFINITION Catalyze the transport of two or more molecular species across a membrane, transport being in the same direction.
2001-08-06 GO:0008021 synaptic vesicle Added DEFINITION Secretory organelles, some 50nm in diameter, of presynaptic nerve terminals; accumulate high concentrations of neurotransmitters and secrete these into the synaptic cleft by fusion with the "active zone" of the presynaptic plasma membrane.
2001-08-06 GO:0016013 syntrophin complex Added DEFINITION Includes alpha-, beta1-, beta2- syntrophins and syntrophin-like proteins; the syntrophin complex binds to the second half of the carboxyl-terminal domain of dystrophin; also associates with neuronal nitric oxide synthase.
2001-08-06 GO:0009812 flavonoid metabolic process Added DEFINITION metabolism of a group of phenolic derivatives containing a flavan skeleton including flavones, flavonols and flavanoids, and anthocyanins.
2001-08-06 GO:0016600 flotillin complex Added DEFINITION A heteromeric complex of flotillin 1, flotillin 2, caveolin 1 and caveolin 2 within the caveolar membrane (GO:0016599).
2001-08-06 GO:0005925 focal adhesion Added DEFINITION Small region on the surface of a cell that anchors the cell to the extracellular matrix and that are points of termination of actin filaments.
2001-08-06 GO:0016914 follicle-stimulating hormone complex Added DEFINITION A gonadotrophic glycoprotein hormone secreted, in mammals, by the anterior pituitary gland; consists of alpha and beta subunits, the latter of which confers hormonal specificity.
2001-08-06 GO:0030031 cell projection assembly Added DEFINITION Formation of an extension of the surface of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0000080 mitotic G1 phase Added DEFINITION One of two "gap" phases in the standard eukaryotic mitotic cell cycle; the interval between the completion of mitosis and the beginning of DNA synthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0000082 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Added DEFINITION Progression from G1 phase to S phase of the standard mitotic cell cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0000085 mitotic G2 phase Added DEFINITION One of two "gap" phases in the standard eukaryotic mitotic cell cycle; the interval between the completion of DNA synthesis andthe beginning of mitosis.
2001-08-06 GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle Added DEFINITION Progression from G2 phase to M phase of the standard mitotic cell cycle.
2001-08-06 GO:0003895 gamma DNA-directed DNA polymerase activity Added DEFINITION The DNA-directed DNA polymerase responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA.
2001-08-06 GO:0006689 ganglioside catabolic process Added DEFINITION Catabolism of ganglioside: a ceramide oligosaccharide carrying, in addition to other sugar residues, one or more sialic residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0005921 gap junction Added DEFINITION ny specialised areas of the plasma membranes of adjacent cells where the membranes are 2-4nm apart and penetrated by a connexon.
2001-08-06 GO:0016519 gastric inhibitory peptide receptor activity Added DEFINITION An integral membrane protein receptor for gastric inhibitory peptide; a G-protein coupled receptor linked to G-proteins that activate adenylate cyclase.
2001-08-06 GO:0016251 general RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity Added DEFINITION A protein that is required to support basal (unregulated) transcription of genes by core RNA polymerase II. Five general transcription factors are necessary and sufficient for such basal transcription in yeast: TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIH and TATA-binding protein (TBF).
2001-08-06 GO:0016445 somatic diversification of immunoglobulins Added DEFINITION The mechanisms by means of which sequence diversity of antibodies is generated.
2001-08-06 GO:0004337 geranyltranstransferase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that joins a molecule of geranyl diphosphate with a molecule of isopentenyl diphosphate to form trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0009686 gibberellin biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of gibberellic acid. Gibberellins are a class of highly modified terpenes that function as plant growth regulators.
2001-08-06 GO:0009685 gibberellin metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of gibberellic acid. Gibberellins are a class of highly modified terpenes that function as plant growth regulators
2001-08-06 GO:0006073 cellular glucan metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of glycans, i.e. polysaccharides consisting only of glucose residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0009487 glutaredoxin Added DEFINITION A small disulfide-containing redox protein that serves as a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase.
2001-08-06 GO:0000121 glycerol-1-phosphatase activity Added DEFINITION Enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol 1-phosphate to yield glycerol and orthophosphate.
2001-08-06 GO:0015430 glycerol-3-phosphate-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of phosphorylated glycerol by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0006664 glycolipid metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of glycolipid: a compound containing (usually) 1-4 linked monosaccharide residues joined by a glycosyl linkage to a lipid.
2001-08-06 GO:0016263 glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta-galactosyltransferase activity Added DEFINITION The enzyme that catalyses the addition of a galactosyl residue to a non-reducing O-serine-linked N-acetylgalactosamine residue in an O-glycan.
2001-08-06 GO:0006024 glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process Added DEFINITION Biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan: a glycan containing a substantial proportion of aminomonosaccharide residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0006027 glycosaminoglycan catabolic process Added DEFINITION Catabolism of glycosaminoglycan: a glycan containing a substantial proportion of aminomonosaccharide residues.
2001-08-06 GO:0016137 glycoside metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of glycosides, i.e. compounds in which a glycosyl group is substituted into a hydroxyl, thiol or selenol group in another compound.
2001-08-06 GO:0020015 glycosome Added DEFINITION Organelle found in organisms from the order Kinetoplastida that houses the enzymes of glycolysis
2001-08-06 GO:0006687 glycosphingolipid metabolic process Added DEFINITION Metabolism of glycosphingolipid: a compound with residues of sphingoid and at least one monosaccharide.
2001-08-06 GO:0006097 glyoxylate cycle Added DEFINITION A modified tricarboxylic acid cycle in some plants and microorganisms in which isocitrate, instead of being dehyrogenated, is cleaved by isocitrate lyase to glycoxylate and succinate. This serves to generate glycoxylate from the acetyl moiety of acetyl-CoA. The glyoxylate can then react with another molecule of acetyl-CoA to form malate (catalyzed by malate synthase). These two reactions taken together allow a four-carbon molecule, malate, and hence carbohydrate, to be formed from acetyl-CoA, which, in turn, may be formed from fatty acids. In some plants the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle are present in glyoxisomes.
2001-08-06 GO:0009514 glyoxysome Added DEFINITION A microbody that contains the enzymes of the glyoxylate pathway.
2001-08-06 GO:0017119 Golgi transport complex Added DEFINITION A complex of proteins that, in vitro, stimulates intra-Golgi transport; a 13S complex, about 800kD in size and consists of at least five polypeptides.
2001-08-06 GO:0006505 GPI anchor metabolic process Added DEFINITION The metabolism of glycophospholipid anchors (GPI anchors) that attach extracellular proteins to the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. The GPI anchor consists of ethanolamine-PO<sub>4</sub>6Manalpha1-2Manalpha1- 6Manalpha1-4GlcNalpha1-6myo-Ino-1-PO<sub>4</sub>-lipid attached to the carboxyl group of the C-terminal amino acid of the (mature) anchored protein by an amide linkage to the amino group of the phosphoethanolamine.
2001-08-06 GO:0008225 Gram-negative antibacterial peptide activity Added DEFINITION A protein or peptide which inhibits the growth of, or directly kills, gram-negative bacterial cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0008224 Gram-positive antibacterial peptide activity Added DEFINITION A protein or peptide which inhibits the growth of, or directly kills, gram-positive bacterial cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0009515 granal stacked thylakoid Added DEFINITION Appressed thylakoid membranes that are part of a granum (stacked regions). A characteristic of these appressed regions is the preferential localization of photosystem II.
2001-08-06 GO:0009542 granum Added DEFINITION Distinct stack of lamellae seen within chloroplasts. Grana contain the pigments, electron transfer compounds, and enzymes essential to the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
2001-08-06 GO:0030015 CCR4-NOT core complex Added DEFINITION The core of the CCR4-NOT transcription factor complex. In Saccharomyces the CCR4-NOT core complex comprises Ccr4p, Caf1p, Not1p, Not2p, Not3p, Not4p, and Not5p.
2001-08-06 GO:0007155 cell adhesion Added DEFINITION The attachment of a cell, either to another cell or to the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules.
2001-08-06 GO:0007154 cell communication Added DEFINITION Any process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.
2001-08-06 GO:0005938 cell cortex Added DEFINITION The region of a cell that lies just beneath the plasma membrane and often contains a network of actin filaments and associated proteins.
2001-08-06 GO:0003798 male-specific antibacterial peptide activity Added DEFINITION A protein or peptide which inhibits the growth of, or directly kills, bacterial cells, but which is only expressed in males.
2001-08-06 GO:0004470 malic enzyme activity Added DEFINITION The catalysis of the oxidative decarboxylation of malate with the concomitant production of pyruvate.
2001-08-06 GO:0015423 maltose-transporting ATPase activity Added DEFINITION The import of maltose and maltose oligosaccharides by an ABC-type (ATP-binding cassette-type) ATPase, characterised by the presence of two similar ATP-binding domains, that does not undergo phosphorylation during the transport process.
2001-08-06 GO:0030026 cellular manganese ion homeostasis Added DEFINITION Regulation of the levels, transport, and metabolism of manganese ions.
2001-08-06 GO:0016049 cell growth Added DEFINITION any process by which a cell increases its mass (size) that is not due to inorganic physical constraints such as hydrostatic pressure, etc.
2001-08-06 GO:0008151 cell growth and/or maintenance Added DEFINITION Any process required for the survival and growth of a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0030054 cell junction Added DEFINITION A specialized region of connection between two cells or between a cell and the extracellular matrix.
2001-08-06 GO:0016043 cellular component organization Added DEFINITION Any cellular process involved in the formation and organization of structures within a cell.
2001-08-06 GO:0009504 cell plate Added DEFINITION The nascent cell membrane and cell wall structure that forms between two daughter nuclei near the center of a dividing plant cell. It develops at the equitorial region of the phragmoplast. It grows outwards to join with the lateral walls and form two daughter cells.
2001-08-06 GO:0008283 cell proliferation Added DEFINITION The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the rapid expansion of a cell population.
2001-08-06 GO:0007148 regulation of cell shape and cell size Added DEFINITION Regulation of the mass, volume, and shape of a cell.
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